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Epistles to a person of this name, B. ii. Ep. 15, B. v. Ep. 4, 14.

[2070] See end of B. ii.

[2071] Also called by Pliny Cornelius Alexander. Suidas states that he
was a native of Ephesus and a disciple of Crates, and during the war of
Sylla in Greece was made prisoner and sold as a slave to C. Lentulus,
who made him the tutor of his children, and afterwards restored him
to freedom. Servius however says that he received the franchise from
L. Cornelius Sylla. He was burnt with his house at Laurentum. Other
writers say that he was a native of Catiæum in Lesser Phrygia. The
surname of “Polyhistor” was given to him for his prodigious learning.
His greatest work seems to have been a historical and geographical
account of the world, in forty-two books. Other works of his are
frequently mentioned by Plutarch, Photius, and other writers.

[2072] The historian of the Peloponnesian war, and the most famous,
perhaps, of all the ancient writers in prose.

[2073] Of Eresus in Lesbos; the favourite disciple of Aristotle, and
designated by him as his successor in the presidency of the Lyceum. He
composed more than 200 works on various subjects, of which only a very
few survive.

[2074] See end of B. ii.

[2075] See end of B. ii.

[2076] He is frequently mentioned by Cicero, and was famous for his
eloquence. Pliny informs us in his 34th book, that from his hatred of
the Romans he was called the “Roman-hater.” It is probable that he was
the writer of a Periegesis, or geographical work, from which Pliny
seems to quote.

[2077] No particulars of this author are known. He probably wrote on

[2078] He is again mentioned by Pliny in B. iv. c. 13, and B. vi. c.
31, and by Solinus, c. xxii. 60. It is supposed that he was the author
of a Periplus or Circumnavigation of the Earth, mentioned by Pliny B.
vii. c. 48; but nothing further is known of him.

[2079] Diodorus Siculus was a native of Agyra or Agyrium, and not of
Syracuse, though he may possibly have resided or studied there. It
cannot be doubted that he is the person here meant, and Pliny refers in
his preface by name to his Βιβλιοθήκη, “Library,” or Universal History.
A great portion of this miscellaneous but valuable work has perished.
We have but few particulars of his life; but he is supposed to have
written his work after B.C. 8.

[2080] Of Syracuse; an historian probably of the time of Philip and
Alexander. He was the author of a Periplus of Asia, and an account of
Sicily and Sardinia. From his stories in the last he obtained the name
of “Thaumatographus” or “writer of wonders.”

[2081] Of Calliphanes the Geographer nothing is known.

[2082] Probably Timagenes, the rhetorician of Alexandria. He was taken
prisoner and brought to Rome, but redeemed from captivity by Faustus,
the son of Sylla. He wrote many works, but it is somewhat doubtful
whether the “Periplus,” in five Books, was written by this Timagenes.
He is also supposed to have written a work on the Antiquities of Gaul.

[2083] Now called Monti della Chimera, or Mountains of Khimara. See p.

[2084] The Ægean Sea, the present Archipelago.

[2085] This country contained, according to Pouqueville, the present
Sangiacs of Janina, Delvino, and Chamouri, with the Vavodilika or
Principality of Arta. This name was originally given to the whole of
the west of Greece, from the Promontory of Acroceraunia to the entrance
of the Corinthian Gulf, in contradistinction to Corcyra and the island
of Cephallenia.

[2086] This district, according to Pouqueville, occupied the present
Cantons of Chimera, Iapouria, Arboria, Paracaloma, and Philates.

[2087] They occupied the site of the present Paramythia, according to

[2088] Antigonia was about a mile distant, Pouqueville says, from the
modern town of Tebelen.

[2089] From Ἀ “not,” and ὄρνις “a bird.” Its site is now unknown. There
were many places of this name. Avernus or Aornos in Campania has been
previously mentioned.

[2090] The remains of Cestria are still to be seen at Palea Venetia,
near the town of Filiates. Pouqueville calls the place Chamouri.

[2091] According to Pouqueville, the modern Zagori stands on the site
of Perrhæbia. Pindus is sometimes called Grammos, but is still known by
its ancient name.

[2092] Cassiope or Cassope stood near the sea, and near the present
village of Kamarina. Its extensive ruins are still to be seen.

[2093] Their district, according to Pouqueville, was in the present
Canton of Drynopolis.

[2094] The Selli or Sellæ lived in the vicinity of the temple of
Jupiter at Dodona, in the modern canton of Souli, according to

[2095] The country about Dodona is called Hellopia by Hesiod. By some
the Helli or Hellopes are considered the same as the Selli. Pouqueville
thinks that the Hellopes dwelt in the modern cantons of Janina,
Pogoniani, Sarachovitzas, and Courendas, and that the temple of Jupiter
stood at the spot now called Proskynisis, near Gardiki, the town of
Dodona being near Castritza. Leake is of the same opinion as to the
site of the town; but, as has been a subject of remark, it is the only
place of celebrity in Greece of which the situation is not exactly
known. Leake however thinks that the temple stood on the peninsula now
occupied by the citadel of Joanina.

[2096] Pouqueville thinks that this is the hill to be seen at the
modern village of Gardiki. He is also of opinion that the springs
here mentioned are those at the modern village of Besdounopoulo. His
opinions however on these points have not been implicitly received.

[2097] B. iii. c. 26. The Dardani, Triballi, and Mœsi are mentioned in
c. 29. The localities of the other tribes here mentioned are not known
with any exactness.

[2098] It retains the same name or that of Khimara, and gives its name
to the Acroceraunian range. It was situate at the foot of the chain,
which begins at this spot.

[2099] “Aquæ regiæ.” Pouqueville suggests, without good reason, as
Ansart thinks, that this spring was situate near the modern Drimodez or

[2100] The place called Palæo-Kistes now stands on its site, and some
remains of antiquity are to be seen.

[2101] Now the Calama.

[2102] Its ruins are to be seen near the modern Butrinto. It was said
to have been founded by Helenus, the son of Priam. Pomponius Atticus
had an estate here.

[2103] This corresponds to the present Gulf of Arta, and was especially
famous for being the scene of the battle of Actium. The city of
Ambracia lay to the north of it. The present Arta is generally believed
to occupy its site.

[2104] Pouqueville has shown that Pliny is in error here, and he says
that the Acheron is the modern Mavro Potamos; but according to Leake,
the name of it is Gurla, or the river of Suli. It flows into the Port
Fanari, formerly called Glykys Limen, or Sweet Harbour, from the
freshness of the water there. The Acherusian Lake is probably the great
marsh that lies below Kastri.

[2105] It is now called the Arta, and gives name to the Gulf.

[2106] The site of Anactoria or Anactorium, like that of its neighbour
Actium, has been a subject of much dispute; but it is now pretty
generally agreed that the former stood on the modern Cape Madonna, and
Actium on the headland of La Punta.

[2107] Pouqueville takes the ruins in the vicinity of Turco Palaka,
eight miles from Margariti, to be those of Pandosia.

[2108] This district probably occupied the present cantons of Vonitza
and Xeromeros. It was called Curetis from the Curetes, who are said to
have come from Ætolia and settled in Acarnania after their expulsion by
Ætolus and his followers.

[2109] The modern Vonitza is supposed to stand on its site.

[2110] Leake places its site at Ai Vasili, where some ruins are to be

[2111] “The city of Victory.” Founded by Augustus on the spot where he
had pitched his camp before the battle of Actium.

[2112] Now called Capo Ducato or Capo tis Kiras. It is situate at the
extremity of the island of Leucas, and opposite to Cephallenia. Sappho
is said to have leapt from this rock on finding her love for Phaon
unrequited: the story however is devoid of all historical truth.

[2113] Now the island of Santa Maura. It was originally a peninsula,
and Homer speaks of it as such; but the Corinthians cut a canal through
the isthmus and converted it into an island. After the canal had been
choked up for some time with sand, the Romans reopened it. It is at
present dry in some parts.

[2114] Probably from its town Nericus, mentioned by Homer.

[2115] From the Greek word διορυκτὸς, a “foss” or “trench.”

[2116] It probably had this name from the circumstance of the
inhabitants of Nericus being removed thither by the Corinthians under
Cypselus. The remains of Leucas, which was ravaged by the Romans B.C.
197, are still to be seen.

[2117] Its remains are still to be seen in the valley of Kandili, south
of Vonitza.

[2118] Pouqueville says that very extensive and perfect ruins of this
place are to be seen near the village of Lepenou.

[2119] This famous city was deserted on the foundation of Nicopolis by
Augustus. The place of its site has been a subject of much dispute, but
it is considered most probable that Leake has rightly suggested that
the ruins in the plain of Vlikha, at the village of Neokhori, are those
of this city.

[2120] Now the Aspropotamo.

[2121] One of the group of the Echinades; small islands off the coast
of Acarnania, which are mentioned by Pliny, in C. 19 of the present
Book. It is now quite united to the mainland.

[2122] Pouqueville says that Athamania occupied the localities now
known as Djoumerca and Radovitch. It properly belonged to Epirus, and
Pliny makes a mistake in considering it as a part of Ætolia.

[2123] According to Pouqueville the ruins of Tymphæa are to be seen
near the village of Paliouri, four miles from Janina.

[2124] Ephyre, a town of the Agræi, is also mentioned by Strabo, but
nothing whatever is known of it.

[2125] The main body of the Perrhæbi were a people of Thessaly.

[2126] Dolopia, now called Anovlachia, was properly reckoned part of

[2127] They are probably not the same people as the inhabitants of
Atrax in Thessaly, which will be found mentioned in the 15th Chapter of
this Book.

[2128] The most famous city of Ætolia in its day, and the residence of
Œneus, father of Meleager and Tydeus, and grandfather of Diomedes. The
greater part of its inhabitants were removed by Augustus to his new
city of Nicopolis. Leake supposes its ruins to be those seen by him at
Kurt-Aga, to the east of the river Evenus.

[2129] Now called the Fidaris.

[2130] Pouqueville supposes the site of Macynia to have been that of
the modern Koukio-Castron, and that of Molycria the present Manaloudi.

[2131] Probably the present Varassova; there was a town called Chalcis,
or Hypochalcis, at its foot. The present Kaki-Skala was probably the
mountain of Taphiassus.

[2132] Opposite the Promontory of Rhium, at the entrance of the
Corinthian Gulf. It is now called the Castle of Roumelia, or the Punta
of the Dardanelles of Roum Ili.

[2133] Leake and Dodwell make it a mile and a half.

[2134] Or Rhium. It is now called the Castle of the Morea.

[2135] The modern Enebatché or Lepanto; whence the Corinthian Gulf
takes its modern name.

[2136] Proschium was built at a later period on the site of Pylene. Its
site appears to be unknown. The modern Kyra-tis-Irinis is thought to
occupy the site of Pleuron.

[2137] Leake supposes some ruins between Kurt-aga, the site of
Chalcedon, and the east end of the Lagoon of Missolonghi, to be the
remains of Halicyrna.

[2138] Leake supposes it to be identical with the high mountain now
called Kelberini. Others again identify it with Gribovo.

[2139] Pliny erroneously places this mountain in Acarnania. It was a
range of Ætolia, now called Zygos.

[2140] Perhaps the modern Djourmerca.

[2141] Either the present Plocopari, or perhaps, more probably, Viena.

[2142] A part of Mount Taphiassus. It is mentioned only by Pliny.

[2143] They are supposed to have inhabited the modern districts of
Malandrino and Salone. They were called “Ozolæ” or ‘strong-smelling,’
either from the undressed skins worn by them, or from the quantities of
asphodel that grew in their country; or else from the vapours thrown
off by the mineral springs in those parts.

[2144] Pouqueville imagines its ruins to be those seen about two
leagues from the modern Galaxidi.

[2145] Lapie marks this in his map as the modern port of Ianakhi.

[2146] So called from the ancient town of Crissa, which stood on it. It
is the same as the modern Gulf of Salona.

[2147] Or Eupalium. Leake supposes it to have stood in the plain of
Marathia, opposite the islands of Trazonia, where some ruins still

[2148] Pausanias makes this town to be the same with the Homeric
Crissa, but Strabo distinguishes the two places, and his opinion is now
generally followed; Cirrha being thought to have been built at the head
of the Crissæan gulf, as the port of Crissa. Its ruins are thought to
be those which bear the modern name of Magula.

[2149] Or Chalæum. Pliny erroneously calls it a town of Phocis, it
being on the coast of the Locri Ozolæ. He is wrong also in placing it
seven miles from Delphi, and not improbably confounded it with Cirrha.
Leake suggests that its site was the present Larnaki.

[2150] The modern village of Kastri stands on part of the site of
ancient Delphi. Its ruins have been explored by Chandler, Leake, and

[2151] The two highest summits of the range of Parnassus in the
vicinity of Delphi were Tithorea, now Velitza, to the N.W., and
Lycorea, now Liakura, to the N.E. Its rocks above Delphi were called
the Phædriades or “Resplendent.”

[2152] The famed Castalian spring is now called the Fountain of St.
John, from the chapel of that saint which stands close to its source.

[2153] Now the Mavro-Potamo.

[2154] Its ruins are still to be seen about three leagues from Kastri.

[2155] Or Crisso. It was situate inland to the S.W. of Delphi. Its
ruins are to be seen at a short distance from the modern village of

[2156] It is supposed that the few ruins seen near the modern Aspra
Spitia are those of this place. It was famous for its hellebore, which
was extensively used for the cure of madness. There were two other
places of the same name.

[2157] The people of Bulis, near the Crissæan Gulf. Its ruins are
situate at a short distance from the monastery of Dobé.

[2158] Ansart suggests that this was the present port of Agio-Sideri or

[2159] It occupied the site of the modern Salona; the walls of its
ancient Acropolis are still to be seen. It was the chief town of the
Locri Ozolæ.

[2160] Pouqueville thinks that the ruins seen near Moulki are those of
Tithrone, and that Tritea stood on the site of the present Turcochorion.

[2161] Or Amphrysus, famous for the strength of its fortifications and
its scarlet berries for dyeing. Some remains of it are to be seen at
the modern village of Dhistomo.

[2162] On the frontiers of Doris and Phocis. Leake thinks that its
ruins are those seen midway between Kamares and Glamista. Daulis was
also the name of an ancient town of Phocis, the ruins of which are to
be seen at the modern village of Dhavlia.

[2163] Probably the present Palæo Kastro, at the Port de Dobrena or

[2164] Leake thinks that the Corsian Thebes, a port of Bœotia, is
represented by the modern Khosia.

[2165] Helicon is a range of mountains with several summits, the
loftiest of which is now called Paleovuni. Helicon was a grove of the
Muses, and the fountain of Aganippe was supposed to impart poetic
inspiration to those who drank of it.

[2166] See p. 288.

[2167] From Apis, the son of Phoroneus, or Telchines, according to
Pausanias. After the arrival of Pelops, it took from him its name of
Peloponnesus, or the “Island of Pelops.”

[2168] The Ionian from the north, and the Ægean, or rather, Myrtoan,
Sea from the east.

[2169] That part of Greece proper which lies to the north of the

[2170] Now the Gulfs of Lepanto and Egina.

[2171] Lecheæ was the harbour of Corinth on the Corinthian, and
Cenchreæ on the Saronic Gulf. The name of the latter is still preserved
in the modern appellation Kechries, which is given to its ruins.

[2172] Demetrius Poliorcetes, king of Macedonia, son of Antigonus, king
of Asia.

[2173] Caius Caligula, the Emperor.

[2174] The Emperor Nero actually commenced the work, having opened
the undertaking with great pomp, and cut away a portion of the earth
with his own hands. He had advanced four stadia, when the work was
interrupted by the insurrection of Julius Vindex in Gaul.

[2175] We cannot agree with Hardouin that “exitus” here means “death,”
in allusion to the unfortunate end of all those who had made the
attempt. The opinion of Spanheim seems rather deserving of support
(though censured by Hardouin), that it merely means “the result”
in each case; it being the fact, that in all the instances the
contemplated undertaking was interrupted by some unforeseen event.
Periander and Herodes Atticus also contemplated the formation of this

[2176] It is not known when it exchanged this name for that of Corinth;
being called by both names in Homer. Scarcely any remains of it are now
to be seen. The small town on its site is called Gortho, a corruption
of its ancient name. The water of the famed spring of Pirene is now
only used for washing clothes.

[2177] Now Patras. There are few remains of the ancient city, which
was one of the twelve cities of Achaia. It was made a Roman colony by

[2178] See C. 3 of the present Book, p. 275.

[2179] Originally a district in the south of Thessaly had this name;
but to distinguish it from that in the Peloponnesus, its people were
called the Phthiotian Achæi.

[2180] From the Greek word αἰγιαλὸς, “the sea-shore.”

[2181] Situate on the coast, about five miles from the present Vostitza.

[2182] In the interior. The modern Trikala stands on its site.

[2183] Helice was the place of meeting of the Achæan league; when, in
B.C. 373, together with Bura, it was swallowed up by an earthquake,
and their sites were covered by the sea. Such of the people as escaped
fled to the places mentioned above by Pliny. Pouqueville says that some
remains of these places may still be seen emerging from the sea.

[2184] The modern Basilico or Vasilika stands on its site.

[2185] The places called Palæo-Kastro and Vostitza are supposed
to occupy the sites of Ægira and Ægium. To the east of Vostitza
considerable ruins are still to be seen.

[2186] Supposed to be the present Artotina.

[2187] Towns of Roman Argolis. The ruins of the former are supposed to
be those at a spot still called Klenes, near the village of Curtesi.
The remains of Hysiæ, on the road from Argos to Tegea, stand on a hill
above the plain of Achladokampos.

[2188] Now called Tekieh; fifteen stadia from Rhium.

[2189] Or Pharæ; 150 stadia from Patræ.

[2190] The modern Kato-Achaia.

[2191] Its remains are to be seen near the modern village of
Karavostasi. Pliny is mistaken probably in calling it a colony, as we
know that it was placed under the authority of the colony of Patræ,
which alone was allowed to enjoy the privilege of self-government.

[2192] Pouqueville thinks that it was situate on the river now called
the Verga. Leake supposes that the town of Hyrmine stood on the site of
the present Kastro Tornese on the peninsula of Khlemutzi; but Boblaye
and Curtius place it further north, at the modern harbour of Kunupeli,
where there are some ancient ruins.

[2193] Now Capo Papa.

[2194] The locality of Cyllene is doubtful. Most writers place it at
Glarentza but Pouqueville suggests Andravida or Andravilla, and Mannert
places it near Clarenza. Chelinates or Chelonatas was probably the name
originally of the whole peninsula of Khlemutzi, but the point here
mentioned was most probably the modern Cape Tornese.

[2195] It lay in the interior, south of Sicyonia, and north of Argos.
Pouqueville found its ruins on the banks of the Asopus.

[2196] Strabo says that this was the name of the most ancient town of
Phliasia, and that the inhabitants afterwards deserted it for Phlius.

[2197] Some small ruins of it are to be seen at the foot of the hill of
Kaloskopi, its ancient Acropolis.

[2198] By Olympiads, which were reckoned according to the order of
celebration of the Olympic games: they were established in the year
B.C. 776, and were celebrated every fourth year.

[2199] It was destroyed in the year B.C. 572 by the Eleans, not a
vestige of it being left. The Alpheus retains the name of Alfio.

[2200] Or “the Fish,” from its peculiar shape. It is now called

[2201] Probably situate in the valley between Elis and Messenia, which
was so called. It is not elsewhere mentioned; and its ruins are thought
to be those near the sea, on the right bank of the river Cyparissus.
Leprion is again mentioned in c. x.

[2202] Or Platamodes. Supposed to be the present Aja Kyriaki.

[2203] This city survived through the middle ages, when it was called
Arkadia. In 1525 it was destroyed by the Turks, and when rebuilt
resumed nearly its ancient name as Cyparissia, by which it is now
called. The bay or gulf is called the Gulf of Arkadia.

[2204] Messenian Pylos probably stood on the site of the modern Erana;
Pouqueville says however that it is still called Pilo, and other
writers place it at Zonchio. It stood on the modern Bay of Navarino.

[2205] Its site was at the spot called Palæo Kastro, near the modern
town of Modon. The site of Messenian Helos, so called from its position
in the marshes, τὸ ἕλος, is now unknown.

[2206] Now Capo Gallo.

[2207] It stood on the western side of the Messenian Gulf, which
from it was called the Asinæan Gulf. Grisso, or, according to some,
Iaratcha, occupies its site. Koroni however is most probably the spot
where it stood, the inhabitants of ancient Corone having removed to
it. Petalidhi stands on the site of Corone. A small portion of the
Messenian Gulf was probably called the Coronean.

[2208] Now Cape Matapan.

[2209] Now the Pyrnatza.

[2210] Its ruins, which are extensive, are to be seen in the vicinity
of the modern village of Mavromati. Ithome was the citadel of Messene,
on a mountain of the same name, now called Vourcano.

[2211] It is supposed that in ancient times it occupied the site of the
more modern Samos or Samia in Triphylia. The modern Sareni is thought
to occupy its site.

[2212] Dorion or Dorium, the spot where, according to Homer, the Muses
punished Thamyris with blindness, is supposed to have been situate on
the modern plain of Sulima.

[2213] Nothing seems to be known of this place; but it is not
improbable that it gave its name to the place so called in Sicily,
originally a Messenian colony.

[2214] Or Tænarus, afterwards called Cænopolis. The present town of
Kisternes, or Kimaros, occupies its site.

[2215] Its site is generally placed at Sklavokhori, six miles from
Sparta; but Leake supposes it to have been situate on the hill called
Aghia Kyriaki, between that place and Sparta.

[2216] Or Pharis. The present Chitries occupies its site.

[2217] Or Leuctrum, on the river Pamisus, now called Levtros. It must
not be confounded with the town in Bœotia where the Thebans defeated
the Spartans, B.C. 371.

[2218] Or Lacedæmon. Its site is occupied by the modern villages of
Magula and Psykhiko. The principal modern town in the vicinity is

[2219] Or Therapnæ, on the left bank of the Eurotas. Some ruins of it
are still to be seen.

[2220] Considerable ruins of it are still to be seen to the N.E. of the
modern town of Skarhamula.

[2221] Authors are not agreed as to the site of this town and that of
Anthea or Anthene.

[2222] Memorable for the pitched battle between 300 Argives and 300
Spartans,—Othryades being the sole survivor of the Spartans, and
Alcenor and Chromius of the Argives.

[2223] By Homer called Enope.

[2224] Pente Dactylon, or Pente Dactyli, the “Five Fingers,” is the
present name of the range of Taygetus. Its principal summits are now
St. Elias and Paixamadhi. The river Eurotas is now called Iris and
Niris in its upper and middle course, and Basili-potamo from the
Spartan plain to the sea.

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