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[2225] Ægila, according to Leake, occupied the site of the present
Scutari; if so, this gulf was probably the Gulf of Scutari. Psamathus
was near the point of Tænarum.

[2226] Or Gythium, near the mouth of the Eurotas. It was famous for
its cheeses. The ruins are called Paleopoli, a little to the north of

[2227] Now Capo Santo Angelo.

[2228] Now Capo Skillo.

[2229] Or BϾ. Its ruins are to be seen at the head of the Gulf of

[2230] It stood on the site of the place called Palæ-Emvasia, above

[2231] Its site is the modern Porto Kari, according to Ansart.

[2232] Leake places Cyphanta either at Cyparissi, or farther north, at
Lenidhi. Ansart makes it the modern Porto Botte, or Stilo.

[2233] Now the Banitza. The Erasinus is the modern Kephalari.

[2234] So called from its breed of horses. It is now also called Argos;
three leagues from Napoli di Romania.

[2235] Its site is now called Milos. In the marshes in its vicinity
Hercules was said to have killed the Lernæan Hydra.

[2236] Karvata is the name of the place on its site. Its ruins are
numerous, and of great magnificence.

[2237] Its ruins are of the most interesting nature, presenting
enormous masses of stone, of Cyclopian architecture. The spot is at the
present day called Palæ-Nauplia.

[2238] It must not be confounded with the place in Arcadia, where
Epaminondas fell. Its site appears to be unknown.

[2239] Or Apesas, in the territory of Cleonæ, now called Fuka. Artemius
is probably the present Malvouni, or Malcyo.

[2240] A river of the same name rose in this mountain; its identity is

[2241] So called from Niobe, the sister of Pelops and wife of Amphion,
king of Thebes. The spring of Amymone ran into the lake of Lerna.

[2242] Its ruins are to be seen in the vicinity of the modern village
of Castri: they are very extensive.

[2243] The modern Dhamala occupies the site of Trœzen.

[2244] The identity of this Coryphasium seems to be unascertained.
There was a promontory of that name in Messenia; but it cannot be the
place here spoken of.

[2245] It is supposed that Pliny here alludes to Argos Hippium, which
he has previously mentioned; but only in connection with the rivers
Inachus and Erasinus, and not as included in the list of the towns of
Argolis. The origin of the term “Dipsian” is probably unknown. It could
hardly allude to drought, as Argos was abundantly supplied with water.
But see B. vii. c. 57.

[2246] Ansart says that this is the modern Porto Estremo, at the mouth
of the Saronic Gulf.

[2247] Hesychius says that oaks were called σαρωνιδὲς in the language
of ancient Greece. This gulf is now called the Gulf of Egina, or of

[2248] He was worshipped here under the form of a serpent; and his
temple, five miles from Epidaurus, was resorted to by patients from
all parts of Greece for the cure of their diseases. The ruins of this
temple are still to be seen, and those of the theatre at Epidaurus are
very extensive. The village of Pidharvo stands in the midst of the

[2249] The modern Capo Franco.

[2250] Lapie takes Anthedus, or Anthedon, to be the place now called
Porto d’Athene.

[2251] This appears to have been a port of Corinth, on a promontory
of the same name, meaning, probably from its shape, the “Bull’s Head

[2252] Called the ‘Posideium’; in its vicinity the games were
celebrated. The Isthmian Sanctuary was especially famous as a place of

[2253] From δρυμωδὴς, “woody,” it being filled with groves and forests.

[2254] Now called the Khan of Tripotamo.

[2255] Now called Paleopoli. Here Epaminondas fell, fighting against
the Spartans, B.C. 362.

[2256] In the N.E. of Arcadia. Its ruins are supposed to be those seen
near the modern Chionia. It was in the vicinity of the lake of the same
name, the scene of one of the labours of Hercules.

[2257] An important city: the modern Piali marks its site.

[2258] Built upon the ruins of the ancient Mantinea.

[2259] An ancient town mentioned by Homer, N.W. of Mantinea. The modern
Kalpaki stands on its site.

[2260] Or Pheneus, on the N.W. of Arcadia. Phonia stands on its site.

[2261] Near Tegea; said to have been the birth-place of Evander. On the
foundation of Megalopolis, it was nearly deserted, but was restored by
Antoninus Pius. Its ruins are supposed to be those seen near the modern
village of Thana, according to Ansart.

[2262] It being said to have been so called in compliment to Evander, a
native, as above stated, of Palantium.

[2263] Founded by the advice of Epaminondas, after the battle of
Leuctra, B.C. 371, near the frontiers of Messenia. The ruins of its
theatre, once the largest in Greece, are the only remains of it now to
be seen, near the modern village of Sinano.

[2264] It contained a famous temple of Æsculapius. Its ruins are to be
seen near the village of Atzikolo. The exact site of Bucolion, which
was near Megalopolis, is probably unknown, though Ansart says that the
spot is called Troupiais. Of Carnion nothing is known.

[2265] The town of Parrhasia, which is mentioned by Homer, seems to
have given name to the Parrhasian district. Leake thinks it to be the
same as Lycosura.

[2266] On the river Ladon: its ruins are seen near the modern Vanena.

[2267] In the west of Arcadia, on the river Alpheus.

[2268] Or “Juno’s Town.” It was a place of great importance, situate
on the lower Alpheus. Its remains are to be seen on a hill west of the
village of Aianni, or St. John. They are very inconsiderable. Its wine
was highly esteemed, and still maintains its ancient celebrity.

[2269] Of Pylæ, Pallene, Agræ, and Epium, nothing appears to be known.

[2270] Or Cynætha, in the north of Arcadia, upon the Aroanian
mountains, beyond the natural boundaries of Arcadia. The modern village
of Kalavryta occupies its site; but there are scarcely any traces of
its remains.

[2271] Or Lepreum, so called to distinguish it from Lepreum in Elis.

[2272] Nothing seems to be known of this Parthenium. Alea lay between
Orchomenus and Stymphalus. Its ruins have been discovered in the dark
valley of Skotini, a mile to the N.E. of the village of Buyati.

[2273] Its site has the modern name of Palæopyrgos. The sites of
Enispe, mentioned by Homer, and Macistum, are unknown.

[2274] Or Cleitor, a famous town of Arcadia. Its ruins are to be seen
on the plain of Kalzana, or Katzanes. One of the rivulets that ran past
it still retains the name of Clitora.

[2275] Its ruins, few in number, but testifying its importance, are
found near the modern village of Kleves, not far from Kurtesi. The
Nemean games were celebrated in honour of Hercules in the grove of
Nemea, between Cleonæ and Phlius.

[2276] From the village of Bembina there, mentioned by Strabo, and on
which Koutzomati probably now stands.

[2277] Now called Olono. It received its name from the Centaur Pholus,
accidentally slain by one of the poisoned arrows of Hercules.

[2278] The modern Zyria.

[2279] Nomiai and Hellenitza are modern names given to this mountain.

[2280] In the south of Arcadia. It is now called Roïnon.

[2281] Or Artemisium, forming the boundary between Argolis and Arcadia.
It is now called Turniki.

[2282] The pass by this mountain from Argolis to Tegea is still called

[2283] Now called Zembi, according to Ansart.

[2284] The town of Nonacris stood at its foot. The river Styx took its
rise in these mountains.

[2285] Now called the Landona.

[2286] The town now called Fonia, already mentioned by Pliny. The
waters of its marshes were discharged by a subterranean passage, said
to have been made by Hercules.

[2287] Now called the Dogana. The two principal heights of Mount
Erymanthus are Olonos and Kalefoni.

[2288] The people of Aliphira, a town of Arcadia, in the district of
Cynura. Considerable remains of it are still to be seen on the hill of

[2289] The people of Abea, in Messenia.

[2290] The people of Pyrgos, in Arcadia.

[2291] The people of Paroræa, in Arcadia. Of the two next, nothing
appears to be known.

[2292] The inhabitants of Typaneæ, in Elis.

[2293] The people of Thrius, in Elis, near Patræ.

[2294] The people of Tritia, in Achaia, now Chalanthistra.

[2295] Nero abolished the institutions of the Roman province of
Achaia, which had been assigned to the Roman senate, and governed
by a proconsul, granting it its liberty. Vespasian, however, again
established the provincial government, and compelled the Greeks to pay
a yearly tribute.

[2296] Now Vostitza.

[2297] See p. 281.

[2298] From the Greek ἀκτὴ, “the sea-shore.”

[2299] It still retains its ancient name.

[2300] Or Pegæ. It lay on the borders of the Corinthian Gulf, being,
as Pliny says, the utmost point of the Peloponnesus on that side, as
Megara was on the Saronic Gulf. According to Kruse, Psato occupies its
site, but according to Lapie, Alepochori. The former is most probably

[2301] On the Corinthian Gulf. Porto Ghermano occupies its site.

[2302] On the Saronic Gulf, to the north of Cenchreæ. The present Porto
Cocosi occupies its site.

[2303] Now Leandra, according to Ansart.

[2304] Or Crommyon. It was the chief place on the Saronic Gulf, between
the Isthmus, properly so called, and Megara. Its ruins are thought to
be those seen near the chapel of Saint Theodorus. It was said to have
been the haunt of the wild boar killed by Theseus.

[2305] So called from being the scene of the ravages of the robber
Sciron. They are now called Kaki Scala.

[2306] Famous as the principal seat of the worship of the goddesses
Demeter and Persephone. Its remains are to be seen at the modern

[2307] Pera Chora marks its site. It was a member of the Tetrapolis of
Attica, and Probalinthos another.

[2308] Ulrichs, the best authority, places the port of Phalerum at the
east corner of the great Phaleric Bay, in the vicinity of Tripirghi,
or the Three Towers. The three harbours of the Piræus are the present
Phanari, Stratiotiki or Paschalimani, and Drako or Porto Leone.

[2309] The Piræus was united to the city by two walls, called the “Long
Walls,” forty stadia in length. The length of the Phaleric wall was
thirty-five stadia.

[2310] It is to be regretted that such was his opinion. He could have
well spared space for a description of it.

[2311] The city of Cephisia, still called Kivisia, was one of the
twelve cities of Cecrops. The fountain of transparent water is still to
be seen here.

[2312] Or the “Nine Springs.” It was the only source of good water for
drinking purposes in Athens. This spring is still called by its ancient
name. Of Larine nothing seems to be known.

[2313] This is thought to have been the ancient name of the mountain
afterwards known as Pentelicus, so famous for its marble, now called
Mendeli or Penteli.

[2314] The northern or Greater Hymettus is now called Telo-Vuni, the
southern or Lesser Mavro-Vuni.

[2315] On the N.E. of Athens, now called the Hill of Saint George.

[2316] Probably on the river of the same name.

[2317] Now Capo Colonna.

[2318] North of Sunium and the modern bay of Panorimo. Thoricus was one
of the Demi of Attica.

[2319] This was the name of two Demi, though probably one place. It lay
on the east coast to the north of Thoricus. Its harbour was probably
the modern Dhaskalio; and the town is placed by Leake at the ruins
called Paleokastro, to the south of the village of Dardheza.

[2320] On the east coast, between Prasiæ and Brauron.

[2321] One of the twelve ancient cities of Cecrops, on the eastern
coast. Its name is supposed to be preserved in those of the villages
Vraona and Paleo Vraona.

[2322] A Demus belonging to the tribe Æantis. It was famous for its
temple of Nemesis, the goddess of retribution. The present Obrio Castro
occupies its site.

[2323] Memorable for the defeat of the Persians by the Athenians, B.C.
490. The site of the ancient town of Marathon is thought not to have
been at the modern village of Marathon, but a place called Vrana, to
the south of it.

[2324] The eastern part of the Eleusinian plain was thus called, from
the Demus of Thria. Its exact site is uncertain.

[2325] Melite was a Demus of the tribe Cecropis, of Athens, west of the
Inner Ceramicus.

[2326] Now Oropo, on the eastern frontiers of Bœotia and Attica, near
the Euripus. It originally belonged to the Bœotians.

[2327] Its ruins are supposed to be those seen eight miles from Egripo.
Lukisi has also been suggested.

[2328] Its ruins are still to be seen on the S.W. slope of Mount Faga.

[2329] On the S.E. slope of Mount Helicon. Its ruins are to be seen at
the modern Eremo or Rimokastro.

[2330] Now Livadhia. The celebrated cave of Trophonius stood in its

[2331] Extensive remains of it are still to be seen; but the modern
town of Theba or Stiva stands only on the site of its ancient Cadmea or

[2332] To distinguish it from places of the same name in Egypt,
Phthiotis, and Lucania.

[2333] On the range of mountains of that name separating Bœotia from
Megaris and Attica. The forest abounded in game, and the vicinity was a
favourite scene of the poetic legends. Paleovuni is the highest summit
of the Heliconian range. Leake fixes the Grove of the Muses at the
present church of Saint Nicholas, at the foot of Mount Marandali, one
of the summits of Helicon.

[2334] These fountains or springs are very difficult to identify,
but Hippocrene, or the “Horse-Spring” (said to have been produced by
Pegasus striking the ground with his feet), was probably at the present
Makariotissa; while Aganippe is the fountain that flows midway between
Paleo-panaghia and Pyrgaki.

[2335] This place was originally a member of the Bœotian confederacy,
but joined the Athenians, though it did not become an Attic Demus.
Leake thinks that its ruins are those seen at Myupoli. Ross thinks
that it stood to the east of Ghyfto-kastro, while other writers are
of opinion that it stood more to the west, near the modern village of

[2336] Razed to the ground by the Roman prætor Lucretius, for having
espoused the cause of king Perseus. Its remains are seen about a mile
from the village of Mazi, on the road from Thebes to Lebadæa.

[2337] Memorable for the defeat of the Persians under Mardonius, B.C.

[2338] Distant twenty stadia from Orchomenus. Leake places it at the
modern Izamali, Forchhammer at Avro-Kastro.

[2339] Its site is uncertain. Leake supposes it to be at Paleokastro,
between the north end of Lake Hylica and the foot of Mount Palea.
Ulrichs places it at the south end of the lake.

[2340] The modern Kakosia occupies its site.

[2341] At the foot of Mount Cithæron. Leake places it eastward of
Katzula, at the foot of the rocks there.

[2342] Leake identifies it with the ruins on the torrent of Plataniki,
below the mountain of Siamata. Pausanias says it was situate seven
stadia beyond Teumessus, and at the foot of Hypatus, now Siamata.

[2343] On Lake Copaïs. The modern village of Topolia occupies its site.

[2344] The waters of the Cephisus here burst forth from their
subterraneous channel.

[2345] On Lake Copaïs. Its ruins are at a short distance to the south
of the modern Kardhitza.

[2346] South of Mount Helicon. Its principal remains are those of its
theatre, a temple of Hera, and the agora or market-place.

[2347] On the borders of Phocis; famous for the battles fought in its
vicinity between the Athenians and Bœotians, B.C. 447, and between
Philip of Macedon and the Athenians and Bœotians, B.C. 338, and that in
which Sylla defeated the generals of Mithridates B.C. 86. It stood on
the site of the modern village of Kapurna.

[2348] On the river Copaïs, at the foot of Mount Tilphusion.

[2349] On the river of that name, and on the road from Thebes to

[2350] Its site appears to be unknown.

[2351] Enumerated by Homer with Aulis. Ancient critics have, without
sufficient reason, identified it with Hysiæ.

[2352] It was sacked by the Athenians, B.C. 413, and in ruins in the
time of Pausanias.

[2353] The modern Grimadha or Grimala occupies its site.

[2354] The modern channel of Egripo.

[2355] The place where the Grecian fleet assembled when about to sail
for Troy. Leake says that its harbour is now called Vathy, evidently
from the Greek βαθὺς, “wide.”

[2356] So called from dwelling near Mount Cnemis.

[2357] Its ruins are to be seen three miles from the modern Talanti.

[2358] Now the Golfo di Talanti.

[2359] On the Eubœan Sea, which here extended to the Corinthian Gulf.
It was in ruins in the time of Strabo. Cynus was the chief sea-port of
the Locri Opuntii. Its site is marked by a tower called Palæopyrgo, and
some ruins to the south of the village of Livanates.

[2360] The modern village of Lefti stands on its site, and there are
some ruins to be seen.

[2361] In C. iv. of this Book.

[2362] Or Cnemides, a fortress built on the range of Mount Cnemis, near
the modern Nikoraki.

[2363] Ravaged by Philip of Macedon. Its ruins are near the modern
village of Vogdhani.

[2364] The Lower Larymna. Its ruins are seen between the modern
Matzumadi and Martini.

[2365] Its ruins are to be seen near the modern Andera.

[2366] Between Daphnus and Cynus. Gell found its ruins on a hill near
the sea-shore.

[2367] Its ruins are to be seen three miles from those of Thronium.

[2368] Now called the Gulf of Zeitoun. The people from whom it received
its name were the Malienses.

[2369] Its ruins are two leagues from the modern town of Zeitoun.

[2370] Or Sperchia.

[2371] Strabo says that it lay below the town of Pindus. It is perhaps
the present Palæo Choria.

[2372] Its ruins are placed by Leake near the modern Mariolates.

[2373] Like Pindus, one of the four towns or Tetrapolis of Doris. Its
site corresponds to the modern Gravia.

[2374] He seems to think that the name Græcus is older than that of
Hellen, in which he is supported by Apollodorus.

[2375] So called from Echion, fabled to have sprung from the dragon’s
teeth. Its site is marked by the modern village called Akhino. The
Sperchius is now called the Ellada.

[2376] This famous spot still retains its name. It is also called Bocca
di Lupo.

[2377] From τραχὺς, “narrow,” in allusion to the narrowness of the
mountain passes. Brotier places it on the site of the modern Zeitoun,
but he is probably in error.

[2378] A peak of the range of Œta.

[2379] The name of a town and small district of Phthiotis: it
eventually gave its name to the whole of Greece, which by its
inhabitants was called Hellas.

[2380] Near the river Amphrysus. Leake places it at Kefalosi, at the
extremity of Mount Othrys.

[2381] The modern Zeitoun.

[2382] Said to have been the city of Achilles.

[2383] According to Stephanus of Byzantium, Cierium was identical with
Arne. Leake places it at the modern Mataranga.

[2384] So called from the people called Minyæ, who derived their name
from Minyas, the father of Orchomenus. In the time of Strabo, this
city, the capital of the Minyan empire, was in ruins. Its site is now
called Seripu.

[2385] Leake places its site on the left bank of the Peneius, opposite
the village of Gunitza.

[2386] The residence of Admetus, and in later times of the tyrants of
Thessaly. The modern Valestina occupies its site.

[2387] Spoken of in C. 17 of the present book.

[2388] The ancient capital of the Pelasgi. It is now called Larissa,
Larza, or Ienitchen.

[2389] Leake places Gomphi on the heights now called Episkopi, on the
left bank of the Bliuri.

[2390] Its ruins are said to be seen about eight miles from the modern
city of Volo.

[2391] The city of Volo stands on its site. The Gulf is called the Bay
of Volo.

[2392] This is not strictly correct. Demetrias was founded by Demetrius
Poliorcetes, about two or three miles to the west of Pagasa, the
inhabitants of which were removed to that place. Its remains are to
be seen, according to Leake, on the face of a maritime height called

[2393] Pharsalus, now Farsa or Fersala, in Thessaliotis. On its plain
Pompey was defeated by Cæsar, B.C. 48.

[2394] Or Cranon; said to have been anciently called Ephyre. Leake
places its site at some ruins called Palea Larissa, distant two hours
and twenty-seven minutes’ journey from Larissa. It was the residence of
the powerful family of the Scopadæ.

[2395] This range in Macedonia is now called Verria. Herodotus states
that it was impassably for cold, and that beyond were the gardens of
Midas, where roses grew spontaneously.

[2396] The name of the eastern part of the great mountain chain
extending west and east from the Promontory of Acroceraunia on the
Adriatic to the Thermaic Gulf. It is now called by the Greeks Elymbo,
and by the Turks Semavat-Evi, the “Abode of the Celestials.” A portion
of this range was called Pierus; and Ossa, now Kissavo, the “ivy-clad,”
was divided from Olympus on the N.W. by the Vale of Tempe. Othrys
extended from the south of Mount Pindus, to the eastern coast and the
Promontory between the Gulf of Pagasa and the northern point of Eubœa.

[2397] Now called Plessedhi or Zagora; situate in the district of
Magnesia in Thessaly, between lake Bœbeis and the Pagasæan Gulf.

[2398] Now the Gouropotamo.

[2399] Flowing into the Asopus near Thermopylæ.

[2400] In Pieria. Supposed to be the modern Litokhoro.

[2401] The modern Rajani.

[2402] This lake received the rivers Onchestus, Amyrus, and others.
It is now called Karla, from an adjoining village which has ceased to
exist. The town of Bœbe was in its vicinity.

[2403] Now the Salambria or Salamria.

[2404] The _jugerum_ was properly 240 feet long and 120 broad, but
Pliny uses it here solely as a measure of length; corresponding
probably to the Greek πλέθρον, 100 Grecian or 104 Roman feet long.
Tempe is the only channel through which the waters of the Thessalian
plain flow into the sea.

[2405] Il. B. ii. c. 262. He alludes to the poetical legend that the
Orcus or Titaresius was a river of the infernal regions. Its waters
were impregnated with an oily substance, whence probably originated the
story of the unwillingness of the Peneus to mingle with it. It is now
called the Elasonitiko or Xeraghi.

[2406] Near Libethrum; said to be a favourite haunt of the Muses,
whence their name “Libethrides.” It is near the modern Goritza.

[2407] Leake places its site on the height between the southernmost
houses of Volo and Vlakho-Makhala. No remains of it are to be seen.

[2408] Ansart says that on its site stands the modern Korakai Pyrgos.

[2409] Near Neokhori, and called Eleutherokhori.

[2410] Now Kortos, near Argalisti, according to Ansart.

[2411] Now Haghios Georgios, or the Promontory of St. George.

[2412] At the foot of Mount Pelion. Leake places it at some ruins near
a small port called Tamukhari. The chestnut tree derived its Greek and
modern name from this place, in the vicinity of which it still abounds.

[2413] Probably near the village of Hagia Eutimia, according to Ansart.

[2414] Now Trikeri.

[2415] Melibœa was near the modern Mintzeles, and Rhizus near Pesi
Dendra, according to Ansart.

[2416] Ansart says, in the vicinity of the modern Conomio.

[2417] Situate at the foot of Mount Homole, between Tempe and the
village of Karitza. Leake thinks that the Convent of St. Demetrius, on
the lower part of Mount Kissavo, stands on its site.

[2418] Now Tournovo, according to Ansart.

[2419] Now called Democo, according to Ansart.

[2420] Between the Titaresius and the Peneus. The modern village of
Tatari stands on its site.

[2421] Probably the place of the same name mentioned in the last

[2422] Probably the same as Acharræ on the river Pamisus, mentioned by
Livy, B. xxxii. c. 13.

[2423] On the Dotian Plain, mentioned by Hesiod, and probably the same
place that Pindar calls Lacereia.

[2424] The birth-place of Protesilaüs, the first victim of the Trojan

[2425] Nothing is known of this place. The word “porro” appears instead
of it in some editions.

[2426] Philip, the Conqueror of Greece, and Alexander, the Conqueror of

[2427] The original Emathia, as mentioned by Homer, is coupled with
Pieria as lying between the Hellenic cities of Thessaly and Pæonia, and

[2428] A tribe of the south-west of Mœsia, and extending over a part

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