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modern name is Psiloriti, looking down on the plain of Mesara. The word
_Ida_ is supposed to mean a mountain in which mines are worked, and the
Idæi Dactyli of Crete were probably among the first workers in iron and
bronze. The position of Mount Cadistus, belonging to the range of White
Mountains, has been fixed by Hoeck at Cape Spadha, the most northerly
point of the island. It is thought that Pliny and Solinus are in error
in speaking of Cadistus and Dictynnæus as separate peaks, these being,
both of them, names of the mountain of which the cape was formed; the
latter name having been given in later times, from the worship and
temple there of Dictynna.

[2655] Now Grabusa, the N.W. promontory of Crete.

[2656] Now Ras-al-Sem, or Cape Rasat, in Africa. The distance,
according to Brotier, is in reality about 225 miles.

[2657] Now Skarpanto.

[2658] According to Hardouin, all of these are mere rocks rather than

[2659] The modern Haghios Theodhoros.

[2660] According to Hoeck, they are now called Turlure.

[2661] Now called Standiu.

[2662] Now Capo Xacro, on the east, though Cape Salomon, further north,
has been suggested. In the latter case, the Grandes islands would
correspond with Onisia and Leuce, mentioned by Pliny.

[2663] Now Gaidurognissa. None of the other islands here mentioned seem
to have been identified.

[2664] Between Eubœa and Locris. They are now called Ponticonesi.

[2665] Now Koluri. It is memorable for the naval battle fought off its
coast, when Xerxes was defeated by the Greeks, B.C. 480.

[2666] Now called Lypsokutali.

[2667] Now Makronisi, or “the Long Island.” Its ancient name was also
Macris. Strabo identifies it with the Homeric Cranaë, to which Paris
fled with Helen.

[2668] Usually called Cea, one of the Cyclades, about thirteen miles
S.E. of Sunium. Its modern name is Zea. Iulis was the most important
town, and the birth-place of the poets Simonides and Bacchylides, of
the sophist Prodicus, the physician Erasistratus, and the Peripatetic
philosopher Ariston. Extensive remains of it still exist.

[2669] There are considerable remains of this town, called by the
inhabitants Stais Palais.

[2670] Or Coresia. It was the harbour of Iulis, to which place we learn
from Strabo that its inhabitants were transferred.

[2671] On the S.W. side of the island. Its ruins are inconsiderable,
but retain their ancient name.

[2672] Now called Eubœa, as also Egripo, or Negropont,—a corruption of
the former word and “pont,” “a bridge.”

[2673] Hardouin speaks of this as existing in his time, 1670, and being
250 feet in length. It is supposed to have been first constructed about
B.C. 411, for the purpose of uninterrupted communication with Bœotia.

[2674] Now Capo Mandili.

[2675] Now Kavo Doro, or Xylofago.

[2676] Now Lithadha, with a mountain 2837 feet above the sea.

[2677] These measurements are not exactly correct. The length from
north to south is about ninety miles; the extreme breadth across,
thirty, and in one part, not more than four miles.

[2678] Still extant in the time of Strabo, who speaks of it as an
inconsiderable place.

[2679] Its site is now called Lipso. It contained warm baths sacred to
Hercules, and used by the Dictator Sylla. They are still to be seen.

[2680] Now Egripo, or Negropont, having given name to the rest of the
island. The Euripus is here only forty yards across, being crossed by
a bridge, partly of stone, partly of wood. The poet Lycophron and the
orator Isæus were natives of this place, and Aristotle died here.

[2681] Near the promontory of that name, now Capo Mandili. In the
town there was a famous temple of Poseidon, or Neptune. According to
Hardouin, the modern name is Iastura.

[2682] One of the most powerful cities of Eubœa. It was destroyed by
the Persians under Darius, and a new town was built to the south of the
old one. New Eretria stood, according to Leake, at the modern Kastri,
and old Eretria in the neighbourhood of Vathy. The tragic poet Achæus,
a contemporary of Æschylus, was born here; and a school of philosophy
was founded at this place by Menedemus, a disciple of Plato.

[2683] Now Karysto, on the south of the island, at the foot of Mount
Ocha, upon which are supposed to have been its quarries of marble.
There are but few remains of the ancient city. The historian Antigonus,
the comic poet Apollodorus, and the physician Diocles, were natives of
this place.

[2684] Probably on the promontory of the same name. It was off this
coast that the Greek fleet engaged that of Xerxes, B.C. 480.

[2685] There were tame fish kept in this fountain; and its waters were
sometimes disturbed by volcanic agency. Leake says that it has now
totally disappeared.

[2686] From the fact of its producing copper, and of its being in shape
long and narrow.

[2687] Strabo remarks, that Homer calls its inhabitants Abantes, while
he gives to the island the name of Eubœa. The poets say that it took
its name from the cow (Βοῦς) Io, who gave birth to Epaphus on this

[2688] Hardouin remarks here, that Pliny, Strabo, Mela, and Pausanias
use the term “Myrtoan Sea,” as meaning that portion of it which lies
between Crete and Attica, while Ptolemy so calls the sea which lies off
the coast of Caria.

[2689] Now called Spitilus, and the group of Micronisia, or “Little
Islands,” according to Hardouin.

[2690] From κύκλος, “a circle.”

[2691] Now Andro. It gives name to one of the comedies of Terence. The
ruins of the ancient city were found by the German traveller Ross, who
has published a hymn to Isis, in hexameter verse, which he discovered
here. It was famous for its wines.

[2692] Now Tino.

[2693] From its abounding in snakes (ὄφεις) and scorpions.

[2694] Now Mycono, south-east of Tenos and east of Delos. It was
famous in ancient mythology as one of the places where Hercules was
said to have defeated the Giants. It was also remarkable for the great
proportion of bald persons among its inhabitants.

[2695] So called from its resemblance to two breasts, μαζοι.

[2696] Wheeler says that the distance is but three miles; Tournefort,

[2697] Once famous for its gold and silver mines, but equally notorious
for the bad character of its people. It is now called Siphno.

[2698] Now Serpho, lying between Cythnos and Siphnus.

[2699] Now Fermina, according to Hardouin.

[2700] Between Ceos and Seriphus. It is now called Thermia. Cydias the
painter was born here, and it was famous for its cheeses. Its modern
name is derived from its hot springs, which are much frequented.

[2701] Still called Delos; and, though so celebrated, nothing more than
a mere rock, five miles in circumference.

[2702] That is, according to Varro, whose statement is ridiculed
by Seneca. Some of the editors, however, punctuate this passage
differently, making it to mean, “the only island that has never
experienced an earthquake. Mucianus however has informed us, that down
to the time of M. Varro, it has been twice so visited.”

[2703] From its then becoming δῆλος, “plain,” or “manifest.” It was
after the fall of Corinth that Delos became so famous for its commerce.
Its bronze was in great request.

[2704] From ὄρτυξ, “a quail”; the legend being, that Latona was changed
into that bird by Jupiter, in order to effect her escape thither from
the anger of Juno. Its name of Asteria was derived from ἄστρον, “a
star,” either in consequence of its being devoted to the worship of
the great luminary Apollo, or of its being considered by the gods the
star of the earth. It was also called Lagia, from λαγὼς, “a hare,” that
animal abounding there; and Cynæthus, from κύων, “a dog,” it being
famous for its hounds.

[2705] A bare granite rock, not more than 500 feet in height. The
island is now a mass of ruins; a great part of its remains having been
carried away in the middle ages to Venice and Constantinople.

[2706] Divided by a strait of four stadia in width from Delos. Nicias
connected the two islands by a bridge. Its name of Celadussa was said
to be derived from the noise of the waves, κέλαδος, and of Artemite,
from Artemis, or Diana.

[2707] Now Syra; famous for its wine and corn.

[2708] Now Antiparos; famous for its stalactite grotto, which is not
mentioned by the ancient writers.

[2709] Now Paro; south of Delos and west of Naxos. The ruins of its
town are still to be seen at the modern Paroikia. The Parian Chronicle,
inscribed on marble, and containing a chronicle of Grecian history from
Cecrops, B.C. 1582, to B.C. 264, was found here. It is preserved at

[2710] Chiefly obtained from a mountain called Marpessa.

[2711] Now Naxia, famous both in ancient and modern times for its
remarkable fertility.

[2712] From στρογγύλος, “round,” its shape being somewhat inclined
to circular, though by Eustathius it is compared to the shape of a
vine-leaf. It is commonly called Dia by the poets. Tournefort says that
it is distant forty miles from Delos.

[2713] From Διόνυσος, or Bacchus, the god of wine.

[2714] Or “Fine City.” It took its other name from the fact of its
rivalling the fertility of Sicily.

[2715] According to Brotier, the Jesuit Babin, on visiting it, found
its circumference estimated at thirty-six miles only.

[2716] So called from lying scattered at random as it were, σπορὰς

[2717] Helene is supposed to be the modern Pira; Phacussa, Fecussa;
Nicasia, Rachia; Schinussa, Schinusa; and Pholegandros, Policandro.

[2718] Now Nikaria, to the west of Samos. According to tradition, it
derived its name from Icarus, the son of Dædalus, who was believed to
have fallen into the sea in its vicinity.

[2719] Its length is not so great as is here mentioned by Pliny. Its
towns were Drepanum, or Dracanum, Œnoë, and Isti.

[2720] The first two names are from the Greek, in allusion to its long,
narrow shape, and the last bears reference to the fact of its shores
abounding in fish.

[2721] Now Scyro, east of Eubœa, and one of the Sporades. Here Achilles
was said to have been concealed by his mother Thetis, in woman’s attire.

[2722] Now Nio, one of the Sporades, inaccurately called by Stephanus
one of the Cyclades. The modern town is built on the site of the
ancient one, of which there are some remains. It was said that Homer
died here, on his voyage from Smyrna to Athens, and that his mother,
Clymene, was a native of this island. In 1773, Van Krienen, a Dutch
nobleman, asserted that he had discovered the tomb of Homer here, with
certain inscriptions relative to him; but they have been generally
regarded by the learned as forgeries. Odia and Oletandros seem not to
have been identified.

[2723] Now called Gioura, or Jura. It was little better than a barren
rock, though inhabited; but so notorious for its poverty, that its mice
were said to be able to gnaw through iron. It was used as a place of
banishment under the Roman emperors, whence the line of Juvenal, i. 73—

“Aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum.”

“Dare some deed deserving of the little Gyara and the gaol.” It is now
uninhabited, except by a few shepherds in the summer.

[2724] Now Telos, or Piskopi, a small island in the Carpathian Sea, and
one of the Sporades. It lies off the coast of Caria. Syrnos appears not
to have been identified.

[2725] Near Naxos. Virgil calls it ‘viridis,’ or ‘green,’ which
Servius explains by the colour of its marble. Like Gyara, it was used
as a place of banishment under the Roman Empire. In C. 22, Pliny has
mentioned Cynæthus as one of the names of Delos.

[2726] Now Patmo, one of the Sporades, and west of the Promontory of
Posidium, in Caria. To this place St. John was banished, and here he
wrote the Apocalypse.

[2727] A group between Icaria and Samos. They are now called Phurni and

[2728] One of the Sporades, now Lebitha.

[2729] Now Lero. Its inhabitants were of Milesian origin, and of
indifferent character. In its temple of Artemis, the sisters of
Meleager were said to have been changed into guinea-fowls. It was
opposite the coast of Caria.

[2730] Now Zinari, N.E. of Amorgos. The artichoke (called κίναρα in
Greek) is said to have given name to it.

[2731] Now Sikino; between Pholegandros and Ios.

[2732] So called, according to Stephanus, from its cultivation of the
vine and produce of wine, οἶνος. It was situate between Pholegandros
and Ios. It was said to have had the name of Sicinus from a son of
Thoas and Œnoë. Hieracia seems to be unknown.

[2733] Still known by that name, and lying between Carpathus and Crete.
The ruins of the ancient town of Casos are still to be seen at the
village of Polin. It is mentioned by Homer.

[2734] Now Kimoli, one of the Cyclades, between Siphnos and Melos. It
took its name of Echinussa from the ‘Echinus,’ or Sea-urchin, of which
various fossil specimens are still found on the coast; but nowhere
else in these islands, except the opposite coast of Melos. There are
considerable ruins of its ancient town.

[2735] Now Milo, the most westerly of the Cyclades. It is remarkable
for its extreme fertility. Its town, which, according to most
authorities, was called Byblis, was situate on the north of the island.

[2736] Ansart remarks, that our author is mistaken in this assertion,
for not only are many others of these islands more circular in form,
but even that of Kimolo, which stands next to it.

[2737] Now Amorgo, S.E. of Naxos. It was the birth-place of the
Iambic poet Simonides. It is noted for its fertility. Under the Roman
emperors, it was used as a place of banishment.

[2738] Now Polybos, or Antimelos, an uninhabited island near Melos.
Phyle seems not to have been identified.

[2739] Now Santorin, south of the island of Ios. The tradition was,
that it was formed from a clod of earth, thrown from the ship Argo. It
is evidently of volcanic origin, and is covered with pumice-stone. It
was colonized by Lacedæmonians and Minyans of Lemnos, under the Spartan
Theras, who gave his name to the island.

[2740] A small island to the west of Thera, still known by the same

[2741] In Lapie’s map, Ascania is set down as the present Christiana.

[2742] Now Anaphe, Namfi, or Namphio, one of the Sporades. It was
celebrated for the temple of Apollo Ægletes, the foundation of which
was ascribed to the Argonauts, and of which considerable remains still
exist. It abounds in partridges, as it did also in ancient times.

[2743] Now Astropalæa, or Stamphalia. By Strabo it is called one of the
Sporades, by Stephanus one of the Cyclades. It probably was favoured
by the Romans for the excellence and importance of its harbours. From
Hegesander we learn that it was famous for its hares, and Pliny tells
us, in B. viii. c. 59, that its mussels were (as they still are) very

[2744] None of these islands can be now identified, except perhaps
Chalcia, also mentioned by Strabo, and now known as Karki.

[2745] Now Kalymno, the principal island of the group, by Homer called
Calydne. According to most of the editions, Pliny mentions here
Calydna and Calymna, making this island, which had those two names,
into two islands. Although Pliny here mentions only the town of Coös,
still, in B. v. c. 36, he speaks of three others, Notium, Nisyrus, and
Mendeterus. There are still some remains of antiquity to be seen here.

[2746] Or Carpathus, now Skarpanto. It gave name to the sea between
Crete and Rhodes.

[2747] It still preserves its ancient name, and presents some
interesting remains of antiquity.

[2748] Brotier says that the distance is really fifty-two miles.

[2749] So called from the town of Petalia, on the mainland. Ansart says
that their present name is Spili.

[2750] Now Talanti, giving name to the Channel of Talanti.

[2751] The present Gulf of Volo, mentioned in C. 15 of the present Book.

[2752] Ansart suggests that this may possibly be the small island now
called Agios Nicolaos.

[2753] Now Trikeri.

[2754] In the present Chapter.

[2755] Now Scangero, or Skantzoura, according to Ansart.

[2756] Now the Gulf of Saloniki, mentioned in C. 17. The islands here
mentioned have apparently not been identified.

[2757] Off the coast of Thessaly, now Piperi.

[2758] Now Skiathos. It was famous for its wine.

[2759] Now called Embro, or Imru. Both the island and city of Imbros
are mentioned by Homer.

[2760] This is double the actual circumference of the island.

[2761] Now called Stalimene.

[2762] Its site is now called Palæo Kastro. Hephæstia, or Vulcan’s
Town, stood near the modern Rapanidi. That god was said to have fallen
into this island when thrown from heaven by Jupiter.

[2763] Now Thaso, or Tasso. Its gold mines were in early periods very

[2764] Mentioned in C. 17 of this Book.

[2765] Ansart says that “forty-two” would be the correct reading here,
that being also the distance between Samothrace and Thasos.

[2766] Its modern name is Samothraki. It was the chief seat of the
mysterious worship of the Cabiri.

[2767] Only twelve, according to Ansart.

[2768] Barely eighteen, according to Brotier.

[2769] Now Monte Nettuno. Of course the height here mentioned by Pliny
is erroneous; but Homer says that from this mountain Troy could be seen.

[2770] Now called Skopelo, if it is the same island which is mentioned
by Ptolemy under the name of Scopelus. It exports wine in large

[2771] Or the Fox Island, so called from its first settlers having
been directed by an oracle to establish a colony where they should
first meet a fox with its cub. Like many others of the islands here
mentioned, it appears not to have been identified.

[2772] See C. 18 of this Book.

[2773] None of these islands appear to have been identified by modern

[2774] Now generally known as the Palus Mæotis or Sea of Azof.

[2775] The modern Caraboa, according to Brotier, stands on its site.
Priapus was the tutelary divinity of Lampsacus in this vicinity.

[2776] Or “entrance of Pontus”; now the Sea of Marmora.

[2777] “Ox Ford,” or “passage of the cow,” Io being said to have
crossed it in that form: now called the “Straits of Constantinople.”

[2778] Said to have been called ἄξενος or “inhospitable,” from its
frequent storms and the savage state of the people living on its
shores. In later times, on the principle of Euphemism, or abstaining
from words of ill omen, its name was changed to εὔξεινος, “hospitable.”

[2779] This was a favourite comparison of the ancients; the north
coast, between the Thracian Bosporus and the Phasis, formed the bow,
and the southern shores the string. The Scythian bow somewhat resembled
in form the figure Σ, the capital Sigma of the Greeks.

[2780] Now the Straits of Kaffa or Enikale.

[2781] This town lay about the middle of the Tauric Chersonesus or
Crimea, and was situate on a small peninsula, called the Smaller
Chersonesus, to distinguish it from the larger one, of which it formed
a part. It was founded by the inhabitants of the Pontic Heraclea, or
Heracleium, the site of which is unknown. See note [2844] to p. 333.

[2782] Now Kertsch, in the Crimea. It derived its name from the river
Panticapes; and was founded by the Milesians about B.C. 541. It was the
residence of the Greek kings of Bosporus, and hence it was sometimes so

[2783] “Thirty-six” properly.

[2784] The Tanais or Don does not rise in the Riphæan Mountains, or
western branch of the Uralian chain, but on slightly elevated ground in
the centre of European Russia.

[2785] Chap. 18 of the present Book. Istropolis is supposed to be the
present Istere, though some would make it to have stood on the site of
the present Kostendsje, and Brotier identifies it with Kara-Kerman.

[2786] Now called the Schwarzwald or Black Forest. The Danube or Ister
rises on the eastern side at the spot called Donaueschingen.

[2787] So called from the Raurici, a powerful people of Gallia Belgica,
who possessed several towns, of which the most important were Augusta,
now Augst, and Basilia, now Bâle.

[2788] Only three of these are now considered of importance, as being
the main branches of the river. It is looked upon as impossible by
modern geographers to identify the accounts given by the ancients with
the present channels, by name, as the Danube has undergone in lapse of
time, very considerable changes at its mouth. Strabo mentions seven
mouths, three being lesser ones.

[2789] So called, as stated by Pliny, from the island of Peuce, now
Piczina. Peuce appears to have been the most southerly of the mouths.

[2790] Now called Kara-Sou, according to Brotier. Also called Rassefu
in the maps.

[2791] Now called Hazrali Bogasi, according to Brotier. It is called by
Ptolemy the Narakian Mouth.

[2792] Or the “Beautiful Mouth.” Now Susie Bogasi, according to Brotier.

[2793] Or the “False Mouth”: now the Sulina Bogasi, the principal mouth
of the Danube, so maltreated by its Russian guardians.

[2794] Or the “Passage of the Gnats,” so called from being the resort
of swarms of mosquitoes, which were said at a certain time of the year
to migrate to the Palus Mæotis. According to Brotier the present name
of this island is Ilan Adasi, or Serpent Island.

[2795] The “Northern Mouth”: near the town of Kilia.

[2796] Or the “Narrow Mouth.”

[2797] Though Strabo distinguishes the Getæ from the Daci, most of the
ancient writers, with Pliny, speak of them as identical. It is not
known, however, why the Getæ in later times assumed the name of Daci.

[2798] “Dwellers in waggons.” These were a Sarmatian tribe who wandered
with their waggons along the banks of the Volga. The chief seats of
the Aorsi, who seem in reality to have been a distinct people from
the Hamaxobii, was in the country between the Tanais, the Euxine, the
Caspian, and the Caucasus.

[2799] “Dwellers in Caves.” This name appears to have been given to
various savage races in different parts of the world.

[2800] There were races of the Alani in Asia on the Caucasus, and in
Europe on the Mæotis and the Euxine; but their precise geographical
position is not clearly ascertained.

[2801] The present Transylvania and Hungary.

[2802] The name given in the age of Pliny to the range of mountains
extending around Bohemia, and through Moravia into Hungary.

[2803] Its ruins are still to be seen on the south bank of the Danube
near Haimburg, between Deutsch-Altenburg and Petronell. The Roman fleet
of the Danube, with the 14th legion, was originally established there.

[2804] In Pliny’s time this migratory tribe seems to have removed to
the plains between the Lower Theiss and the mountains of Transylvania,
from which places they had expelled the Dacians.

[2805] The Lower Theiss.

[2806] Now the river Mark, Maros, or Morava.

[2807] The name of the two streams now known as the Dora Baltea and
Dora Riparia, both of which fall into the Po. This passage appears to
be in a mutilated state.

[2808] A chief of the Quadi; who, as we learn from Tacitus, was made
king of the Suevi by Germanicus, A.D. 19. Being afterwards expelled by
his nephews Vangio and Sido, he received from the emperor Claudius a
settlement in Pannonia. Tacitus gives the name of Suevia to the whole
of the east of Germany from the Danube to the Baltic.

[2809] According to Hardouin, Pliny here speaks of the other side of
the mountainous district called Higher Hungary, facing the Danube and
extending from the river Theiss to the Morava.

[2810] This, according to Sillig, is the real meaning of _a desertis_
here, the distance being measured from the Danube, and not between
the Vistula and the wilds of Sarmatia. The reading “four thousand” is
probably corrupt, but it seems more likely than that of 404 miles,
adopted by Littré, in his French translation.

[2811] Placed by Forbiger near Lake Burmasaka, or near Islama.

[2812] The Dniester. The mountains of Macrocremnus, or the “Great
Heights,” seem not to have been identified.

[2813] According to Hardouin, the modern name of this island is Tandra.

[2814] Now called the Teligul, east of the Tyra or Dniester.

[2815] Now called Sasik Beregen, according to Brotier.

[2816] The modern Gulf of Berezen, according to Brotier.

[2817] Probably the modern Okzakow.

[2818] The modern Dnieper. It also retains its ancient name of

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