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on a river of the same name, and at which King Syphax had formerly

[3293] While Pomponius Mela does not make any difference between the
Mauri and the Gætuli, Pliny here speaks of them as being essentially

[3294] Derived, according to Marcus, from the Arabic compound
_bani-our_, ‘child of nakedness,’ as equivalent to the Greek word
_gymnetes_, by which name Pliny and other ancient writers designate the
wandering naked races of Western Africa.

[3295] The Autololes or, as Ptolemy calls them, the Autololæ, dwelt, it
is supposed, on the western coast of Africa, between Cape Cantin and
Cape Ger. Their city of Autolala or Autolalæ is one of Ptolemy’s points
of astronomical observation, having the longest day thirteen hours
and a half, being distant three hours and a half west of Alexandria,
and having the sun vertical once a year, at the time of the winter
solstice. Reichard takes it for the modern Agulon or Aquilon.

[3296] The Æthiopian Daratitæ, Marcus says.

[3297] The present Ceuta.

[3298] They were so called from the circumstance, Marcus says, of their
peaks being so numerous, and so strongly resembling each other. They
are now called, according to D’Anville, ‘Gebel Mousa,’ which means “the
Mountain of Apes,” an animal by which they are now much frequented,
instead of by elephants as in Pliny’s time.

[3299] Or Mediterranean.

[3300] The modern Bedia, according to Olivarius, the Tasanel, according
to Dupinet, and the Alamos or Kerkal, according to Ansart. Marcus says
that it is called the Setuan, and is the largest stream on the northern
shores of Western Africa.

[3301] The modern Gomera according to Hardouin, the Nocor according to

[3302] The modern Melilla most probably.

[3303] The modern Maluia. Antoninus calls it Malva, and Ptolemy Maloua.

[3304] Its site is occupied by the modern Aresgol, according to
Mariana, Guardia or Sereni according to Dupinet, Ned-Roma according
to Mannert and D’Anville, and Tachumbrit according to Shaw. Marcus is
inclined to be of the same opinion as the last-mentioned geographer.

[3305] Now the city of Malaga.

[3306] Mauritania Cæsariensis, or Cæsarian Mauritania, now forming the
French province of Algiers.

[3307] “Bogudiana;” from Bogud or Bogoas. The last king Bogud was
deprived of his kingdom by Bocchus, king of Mauritania Cæsariensis, a
warm partisan of Cæsar.

[3308] Or the “Great Harbour,” now Arzeu according to D’Anville, and
Mars-el-Kebir according to Marcus.

[3309] The same river probably as the Malva or Malvana previously
mentioned, the word _mulucha_ or _malacha_ coming from the Greek
μολόχη, “a marsh mallow,” which _malva_, as a Latin word, also
signifies. See p. 383.

[3310] From the Greek word ξένος, “a stranger.” Pomponius Mela and
Antoninus call this place Guiza, and Ptolemy Quisa. D’Anville places it
on the right side of the river Malvana or Mulucha, and Shaw says that
it was situate in the vicinity of the modern town of Oran.

[3311] Now Marz-Agolet, or situate in its vicinity, according to
Hardouin and Ansart, and the present Arzen, according to Marcus, where
numerous remains of antiquity are found.

[3312] Now Tenez, according to D’Anville, and Mesgraïm, according to
Mannert; with which last opinion Marcus agrees.

[3313] Ptolemy and Antoninus place this colony to the east of the
Promontory of Apollo, and not the west as Pliny does.

[3314] The present Cape Mestagan.

[3315] According to Dupinet and Mannert, the modern Tenez occupies
its site, Zershell according to Hardouin and Shaw, Vacur according to
D’Anville and Ansart, and Algiers according to others. It is suggested
by Marcus that the name Iol is derived from the Arabic verb _galla_,
“to be noble” or “famous.” There is no doubt that the magnificent ruins
at Zershell are those of Iol, and that its name is an abbreviation of
Cæsarea Iol.

[3316] Or New Town.

[3317] Scylax calls it Thapsus; Ammianus Marcellinus, Tiposa. According
to Mannert it was situate in the vicinity of the modern Damas.

[3318] Or Icosium. It has been identified by inscriptions discovered
by the French as standing on the same site as the modern Algiers.
D’Anville, Mannert and others identify it with Scherchell or Zershell,
thus placing it too far west. Mannert was evidently misled by an error
in the Antonine Itinerary, whereby all the places along this coast are,
for a considerable distance, thrown too far to the west; the researches
however which followed the French conquest of the country have revealed
inscriptions which completely set the question at rest.

[3319] According to Mannert, this was situate on the modern Cape
Arbatel. Marcus thinks that the Hebrew _ros_, or Arab _ras_, “a rock,”
enters into the composition of the word.

[3320] Now Hur according to D’Anville, Colcah according to Mannert.

[3321] The modern Acor, according to Marcus.

[3322] The modern Pedeles or Delys, according to Ortellius and Mannert,
Tedles according to D’Anville.

[3323] The modern Jigeli or Gigeri. It was probably in ancient times
the emporium of the surrounding country.

[3324] Destroyed, according to Hardouin, and probably by the incursions
of the sea. At the mouth of the Ampsaga (now called the Wad-El-Kebir
or Sufjimar, and higher up the Wadi Roumel) there is situate a small
sea-port called Marsa Zeitoun.

[3325] Near the present Mazuaa, according to Mannert.

[3326] The modern Burgh, according to D’Anville and Mannert, but more
probably considerably to the east of that place.

[3327] The modern El-Herba, according to Mannert.

[3328] Marcus suggests that this is the Chinalaph of Ptolemy, and
probably the modern Schellif.

[3329] The same that is called Savis by Ptolemy, who places Icosium on
its banks.

[3330] By Mela called the Vabar. Marcus supposes it to be the same as
the modern Giffer.

[3331] By Ptolemy called the Sisar; the Ajebbi of modern geographers,
which falls into the Mediterranean, near the city of Budja.

[3332] Brotier says that this reading is incorrect, and that 222 is the
proper one, that being the true distance between the river Ampsaga or
Wad-el-Kebir and the city of Cæsarea, the modern Zershell.

[3333] It was not only Numidia that bore this name, but all the
northern coast of Africa from the frontiers of the kingdom of Carthage
near Hippo Regius to the Columns of Hercules. It was thus called
from the Greek _metagonos_, a “descendant” or “successor;” as the
Carthaginians established a number of small towns and villages on the
coast, which were thus posterior in their origin to the large cities
already founded there.

[3334] Hardouin says that the Moors in the interior still follow the
same usage, carrying their houses from pasture to pasture on waggons.

[3335] Now Chollum or Collo.

[3336] The modern Sgigada or Stora, according to Mannert, D’Anville,
and Shaw.

[3337] The modern Constantina occupies its site. Numerous remains of
the ancient town are still discovered. Sitius was an officer who served
under Cæsar, and obtained a grant of this place after the defeat of

[3338] Called Urbs, or Kaff, according to D’Anville and Shaw; the
latter of whom found an inscription there with the words _Ordo

[3339] Or ‘Royal Bulla’; which epithet shows that it was either a
residence or a foundation of the kings of Numidia, and distinguishes
it from a small place called Bulla Mensa, south of Carthage. Bulla
Regia was four days’ journey south-west of Carthage, on a tributary of
the river Bagrada, the valley of which is still called Wad-el-Boul.
This place was one of the points of Ptolemy’s recorded astronomical
observations, having its longest day fourteen hours and one-eighth, and
being distant from Alexandria two hours to the west.

[3340] The modern Tamseh, according to Shaw and Mannert, and Tagodet,
according to D’Anville.

[3341] Its ruins are south of the modern Bona. It received the name of
_Regius_ or ‘Royal’ from being the residence of the Numidian kings. It
was also famed as being the see of St. Augustine. It was a colony of
Tyre, and stood on the bay now forming the Gulf of Bona. It was one
of the most flourishing cities of Africa till it was destroyed by the
Vandals A.D. 430.

[3342] Now the Mafragg, according to Mannert.

[3343] Still called Tabarca, according to Hardouin.

[3344] Now the Zaina, according to Marcus.

[3345] For the character of the Numidian marble, see Pliny, B. xxxvi.
c. 7.

[3346] Extending from the river Tusca, or Zaina, to the northern
frontiers of Byzacium. It corresponds with the Turkish province or
beylik of Tunis.

[3347] He says this not only to distinguish it from Africa, considered
as one-third of the globe, but also in contradistinction to the
proconsular province of the Roman empire of the same name, which
contained not only the province of Zeugitana, but also those of
Numidia, Byzacium, and Tripolis.

[3348] Candidum: now Ras-el-Abiad.

[3349] The references to this headland identify it with Cape Farina, or
Ras Sidi Ali-al-Mekhi, and not, as some have thought, the more westerly
Cape Zibeeb or Ras Sidi Bou-Shoushe. Shaw however applies the name of
Zibeeb to the former.

[3350] Now Cape Bon, or Ras-Addar.

[3351] More properly called Hippo Diarrhytus or Zaritus, a Tyrian
colony, situate on a large lake which communicated with the sea, and
received the waters of another lake. Its situation exposed it to
frequent inundations, whence, as the Greeks used to state, the epithet
διάῤῥυτος. It seems more probable however that this is the remnant of
some Phœnician title, as the ancients were not agreed on the true form
of the name, and of this uncertainty we have a further proof in the
_Hippo Dirutus_ of our author.

[3352] This is placed by Ptolemy to the south-east of Hippo, and near
the southern extremity of Lake Sisar.

[3353] This important city stood on the north part of the Carthaginian
Gulf, west of the mouth of the Bagrada, and twenty-seven Roman miles
N.W. of Carthage; but the site of its ruins at the modern Bou-Shater
is now inland, in consequence of the changes made by the Bagrada
in the coast-line. In the Third Punic war Utica took part with the
Romans against Carthage, and was rewarded with the greater part of the
Carthaginian territory.

[3354] Now called the Mejerdah, and though of very inconsiderable
size, the chief river of the Carthaginian territory. The main stream
is formed by the union of two branches, the southern of which, the
ancient Bagrada, is now called the Mellig, and in its upper course the
Meskianah. The other branch is called the Hamiz.

[3355] Or the “Cornelian Camp.” The spot where Cornelius Scipio
Africanus the Elder first encamped, on landing in Africa, B.C. 204.
Cæsar describes this spot, in his description of Curio’s operations
against Utica, B. C. b. ii. c. 24, 25. This spot is now called Ghellah.

[3356] This colony was first established by Caius Gracchus, who sent
6000 settlers to found on the site of Carthage the new city of Junonia.
The Roman senate afterwards annulled this with the other acts of
Gracchus. Under Augustus however the new city of Carthage was founded,
which, when Strabo wrote, was as prosperous as any city in Africa. It
was made, in place of Utica, which had favoured the Pompeian party,
the seat of the proconsul of Old Africa. It stood on the peninsula
terminated by Ras-Sidi-Bou-Said, Cape Carthage or Carthagena. As Gibbon
has remarked, “The place might be unknown if some broken arches of an
aqueduct did not guide the footsteps of the inquisitive traveller.”

[3357] The original city of Carthage was called ‘Carthago Magna’ to
distinguish it from New Carthage and Old Carthage, colonies in Spain.

[3358] Now Rhades, according to Marcus.

[3359] Marcus identifies it with the modern Gurtos.

[3360] By the Greeks called ‘Aspis.’ It derived its Greek and Roman
names from its site on a hill of a shield-like shape. It was built by
Agathocles, the Sicilian, B.C. 310. In the first Punic war it was the
landing-place of Manlius and Regulus, whose first action was to take
it, B.C. 256. Its site is still known as Kalebiah, and its ruins are
peculiarly interesting. The site of Misua is occupied by Sidi-Doud,
according to Shaw and D’Anville.

[3361] Shaw informs us that an inscription found on the spot designates
this place as a colony, not a free city or town. Its present name is

[3362] The present Nabal, according to D’Anville.

[3363] Zeugitana extended from the river Tusca to Horrea-Cælia, and
Byzacium from this last place to Thenæ.

[3364] As sprung partly from the Phœnician immigrants, and partly from
the native Libyans or Africans.

[3365] Pliny says, B. xvii. c. 3, “A hundred and fifty fold.” From Shaw
we learn that this fertility no longer exists, the fields producing not
more than eight- or at most twelve-fold.

[3366] The modern Lempta occupies its site.

[3367] Originally a Phœnician colony, older than Carthage. It was the
capital of Byzacium, and stood within the southern extremity of the
Sinus Neapolitanus or Gulf of Hammamet. Trajan made it a colony, under
the high-sounding name, as we gather from inscriptions, of _Colonia
Concordia Ulpia Trajana Augusta Frugifera Hadrumetana_, or, as set
forth on coins, _Colonia Concordia Julia Hadrumetana Pia_. The epithet
_Frugifera_ refers to the fact that it was one of the chief sea-ports
for the corn-producing country of Byzacium. It was destroyed by the
Vandals, but restored by the Emperor Justinian under the name of
Justiniana or Justinianopolis. The modern Sousa stands on its site; and
but slight traces of the ancient city are to be found.

[3368] Situate in the vicinity of the modern Monastir.

[3369] Shaw discovered its ruins at the modern town of Demas.

[3370] Now Taineh, according to D’Anville. This place formed the
boundary between the proconsular province of Africa and the territory
of the Numidian king Masinissa and his descendants.

[3371] The present Mahometa, according to Marcus, El Mahres according
to D’Anville.

[3372] Now Cabès, according to D’Anville, giving name to the Gulf of
Cabès. Marcus calls it Gaps.

[3373] Now Tripoli Vecchio; also called Sabart according to D’Anville.

[3374] Scipio Æmilianus, the son-in-law of Æmilius Paulus.

[3375] Micipsa, the son of Masinissa, and his two legitimate brethren.
Scipio having been left by Masinissa executor of his will, the
sovereign power was divided by him between Micipsa and his two brethren
Gulussa and Mastanabal. On this occasion also he separated Numidia from
Zeugitana and Byzacium, by a long dyke drawn from Thenæ, due south,
to the borders of the Great Desert, and thence in a north-westerly
direction to the river Tusca.

[3376] The Syrtes or ‘Quicksands’ are now called, the Lesser Syrtes the
Gulf of Cabès, and the Greater the Gulf of Sydra. The country situate
between the two Syrtes is called Tripoli, formerly Tripolis, a name
which, according to Solinus, it owed to its three cities, Sabrata,
Leptis, and Œa.

[3377] Marcus observes with reference to this passage, that both
Hardouin and Poinsinet have mistaken its meaning. They evidently think
that Pliny is speaking here of a route to the Syrtes leading from the
interior of Africa, whereas it is pretty clear that he is speaking
of the dangers which attend those who approach it by the line of the
sea-coast, as Cato did, on his march to Utica, so beautifully described
by Lucan in his Ninth Book. This is no doubt the same route which was
taken by the caravans on their passage from Lebida, the ancient Leptis,
to Berenice in Cyrenaica.

[3378] Those which we find at the middle of the coast bordering upon
the Greater Syrtis, and which separate the mountains of Fezzan and
Atlas from Cyrenaica and Barca.

[3379] In its widest sense this name is applied to all the Libyan
tribes inhabiting the Oases on the eastern part of the Great Desert,
as the Gætulians inhabited its western part, the boundary between the
two nations being drawn at the sources of the Bagrada and the mountain
Usargala. In the stricter sense however, and in which the term must be
here understood, the name ‘Garamantes’ denoted the people of Phazania,
the modern Fezzan, which forms by far the largest oasis in the Grand
Desert of Zahara.

[3380] Augylæ, now Aujelah, was an oasis in the desert of Barca, in the
region of Cyrenaica, about 3-1/2° south of Cyrene. It has been remarked
that Pliny, here and in the Eighth Chapter of the present Book, in
abridging the account given by Herodotus of the tribes of Northern
Africa, has transferred to the Augylæ what that author really says
of the Nasamones. This oasis forms one of the chief stations on the
caravan route from Cairo to Fezzan. It is placed by Rennell in 30° 3′
North Lat. and 22° 46′ East Long., 180 miles south-east of Barca, 180
west by north of Siwah, the ancient Ammonium, and 426 east by north of
Mourzouk. Later authorities, however, place the village of Aujelah in
29° 15′ North Lat. and 21° 55′ East Long.

[3381] For an account of the Psylli see B. vii. c. 2. They probably
dwelt in the vicinity of the modern Cape Mesurata.

[3382] Now Lake Lynxama, according to Marcus.

[3383] Marcus observes that in order properly to understand this
passage we must remember that the ancients considered Africa as
terminating north of the Equator, and imagined that from the Straits of
Hercules the western coast of Africa ran, not towards the south-west,
but slanted in a south-easterly direction to the Straits of Babelmandel.

[3384] The modern Tripoli.

[3385] A flourishing city with a mixed population of Libyans and
Sicilians. It was at this place that Apuleius made his eloquent and
ingenious defence against the charge of sorcery brought against him by
his step-sons. According to some writers the modern Tripoli is built on
its site, while other accounts make it to have been situate six leagues
from that city.

[3386] Now called the Wady-el-Quaham.

[3387] Mannert is of opinion that this was only another name for the
city of Leptis Magna or the “Greater Leptis” here mentioned by Pliny.
There is little doubt that his supposition is correct.

[3388] The more common reading is Taphra or Taphara. D’Anville
identifies it with the town of Sfakes.

[3389] Scylax identifies it with Neapolis or Leptis, and it is
generally looked upon as being the same place as Sabrata or Old Tripoli.

[3390] Now called Lebida. It was the birth-place of the Emperor
Septimius Severus. It was almost destroyed by an attack from a Libyan
tribe A.D. 366, and its ruin was completed by the invasion of the
Arabs. Its ruins are considerable.

[3391] “Men of sea complexion,” is the meaning of this Greek name.
According to Marcus they dwelt between the Greater Leptis and the Lake
Tritonis, at the present day called Schibkah-el-Loudeah. For a further
account of the Lotophagi, see B. xiii. c. 32.

[3392] Two brothers, citizens of Carthage, who in a dispute as to
their respective territories with the people of Cyrene, submitted to
be buried alive in the sand, at the boundary-line between the two
countries. Sallust (Jugurthine War) is the main authority for the
story. It is also related by Pomponius Mela, B. i. c. 7, and Valerius
Maximus, B. v. c. 6, but from the Greek name of the brothers, meaning
“lovers of praise,” it is doubtful whether the story is not of spurious

[3393] The Lake Tritonis mentioned in note [3391], p. 393.

[3394] Now called El Hammah, according to Shaw.

[3395] According to some accounts the goddess Pallas or Minerva was
born on the banks of Lake Tritonis.

[3396] The modern Cape of Tajuni.

[3397] Now called Udina, according to Marcus.

[3398] Now called Tabersole, according to Marcus.

[3399] In the north of Byzacium, near the Bagrada and the confines
of Numidia. It was the station of a Roman garrison, and considerable
remains of it are still visible near the modern Zanfour.

[3400] Called Cannopissæ by Ptolemy, who places it to the east of

[3401] There is great doubt as to the correct orthography of these
places, most of which can be no longer identified.

[3402] According to Marcus the present Porto Tarina.

[3403] Also called Achilla and Achulla, the ruins of which are to be
seen at the modern El Aliah. It stood on the sea-coast of Byzacium,
a little above the northern extremity of the Lesser Syrtis. It was a
colony from the island of Melita, now Malta.

[3404] Now called El-Jemma, according to Marcus.

[3405] From it modern Tunis takes its name.

[3406] The birth-place of St. Augustin. It was to the north-west of
Hippo Regius.

[3407] In the vicinity of this place, if it is the same as the Tigisis
mentioned by Procopius, there were two columns to be seen in his day,
upon which was written in the Phœnician language, “We fled from before
the robber, Joshua the son of Nun.”

[3408] There were two towns of this name in the proconsular province
of Africa. The first was situate in the country of Zeugitana, five
days’ journey west of Carthage, and it was here that Scipio defeated
Hannibal. The other bore the surname of _Regia_ or Royal, from being
the frequent residence of the Numidian kings. It lay in the interior,
and at the present day its site bears the name of ‘Zowarin’ or

[3409] The ruins of Capsa still bear the name of Cafsa or Ghafsah.
It was an important city in the extreme south of Numidia, situate in
an oasis, in the midst of an arid desert abounding in serpents. In
the Jugurthine war it was the treasury of Jugurtha, and was taken and
destroyed by Marius; but was afterwards rebuilt and made a colony.

[3410] They dwelt between the river Ampsaga or Wady-El-Kebir and the
Tusca or Wady-Zain, the western boundary of the Carthaginian territory.

[3411] Dwelling to the east of the mountain Zalycus, now known as the
Wanashrise, according to Shaw.

[3412] The ancients called by the name of ‘Gætulians’ all the people of
Africa who dwelt south of the Mauritanias and Numidia, as far as the
line which, according to their ideas, separated Africa from Æthiopia.

[3413] The Quorra most probably of modern geographers.

[3414] So called, as mentioned below, from its five principal cities.

[3415] Where Jupiter Ammon or Hammon was worshiped under the form of
a ram, the form he was said to have assumed when the deities were
dispersed in the war with the Giants. Ancient Ammonium is the present
oasis of Siwah in the Libyan Desert.

[3416] The same that has been already mentioned in B. ii. c. 106. It is
mentioned by Herodotus and Pomponius Mela.

[3417] Previously called Hesperis or Hesperides. It was the most
westerly city of Cyrenaica, and stood just beyond the eastern extremity
of the Greater Syrtis, on a promontory called Pseudopenias, and near
the river Lethon. Its historical importance only dates from the times
of the Ptolemies, when it was named Berenice, after the wife of Ptolemy
III. or Euergetes. Having been greatly reduced, it was fortified anew
by the Emperor Justinian. Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Ben

[3418] So called from Arsinoë, the sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus.
Its earlier name was Taucheira or Teucheira, which name, according to
Marcus, it still retains.

[3419] Its ruins may still be seen at Tolmeita or Tolometa. It was
situate on the N.W. coast of Cyrenaica, and originally bore the name of
Barca. From which of the Ptolemies it took its name is not known. Its
splendid ruins are not less than four miles in circumference.

[3420] Its ruins are still to be seen, bespeaking its former splendour,
at the modern Marsa Sousah. It was originally only the port of Cyrene,
but under the Ptolemies it flourished to such an extent as to eclipse
that city. It is pretty certain that it was the Sozusa of the later
Greek writers. Eratosthenes was a native of this place.

[3421] The chief city of Cyrenaica, and the most important Hellenic
colony in Africa, the early settlers having extensively intermarried
with wives of Libyan parentage. In its most prosperous times it
maintained an extensive commerce with Greece and Egypt, especially in
silphium or assafœtida, the plantations of which, as mentioned in the
present chapter, extended for miles in its vicinity. Great quantities
of this plant were also exported to Capua in Southern Italy, where it
was extensively employed in the manufacture of perfumes. The scene of

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