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The one was probably the port of the other. The ruins of the port still
retain the name of Yebora, and are situate on an eminence about an
hour’s distance from the sea, on the banks of the river Rûbin.

[3629] Or Joppa of Scripture, now called Yâfa or Jaffa. The timber
from Lebanon intended for both the first and second Temples was landed
here. It was taken and retaken more than once during the wars of the
Maccabees, and was finally annexed by Pompey to the Roman province of
Syria. It is mentioned several times in the New Testament in connection
with Saint Peter. In the Jewish war, having become a refuge for
pirates, it was taken by Cestius and destroyed, and even the very ruins
were demolished by Vespasian. It was afterwards rebuilt, and in the
time of the Crusades was alternately in the hands of the Christians and
the Moslems.

[3630] To be devoured by the sea monster, from which she was delivered
by Perseus, who had borrowed for the occasion the _talaria_ or winged
shoes of Mercury. In B. ix. c. 4, Pliny states that the skeleton of the
monster was exhibited at Rome by M. Æmilius Scaurus, when he was Curule

[3631] Probably the same as Derceto or Atargatis, the fish-goddess with
a woman’s head, of the Syrians.

[3632] Situate between Cæsarea and Joppa. It is probable that it owed
its name to the Macedonian kings of either Egypt or Syria. Arsûf, a
deserted village, but which itself was of considerable importance in
the time of the Crusades, represents the ancient Apollonia.

[3633] The site of the Turris Stratonis was afterwards occupied by
Cæsarea, a city on the coast, founded by Herod the Great, and named
Cæsarea in honour of Augustus Cæsar. It was renowned for the extent
and magnificence of its harbour, which was secured by a breakwater of
stupendous construction. For some time it was considered the principal
city of Palestine and the chief seat of the Roman government. Although
it again changed its name, as Pliny states, it still retained its name
of Cæsarea as the Metropolitan See of the First Palestine. It was also
of considerable importance during the occupation of the Holy Land by
the Crusaders. Its ruins are still visible, but have served as a quarry
for many generations, and Jaffa, Sidon, Acre and Beyrout have been
supplied with stones from this site. Massive remains of its mole or
breakwater and its towers still exist.

[3634] Or Phœnicia.

[3635] By some regarded as the Scriptural town of Sichem, but by others
as a distinct place, though in its immediate vicinity. Its present
name is Naplous or Nabolos, situate between Mounts Ebal and Gerizim.
Its proper name under the Romans was Flavia Neapolis. It was the
birth-place of Justin Martyr.

[3636] The city of Samaria, so called from Shemer, the owner of the
hill which Omri, King of Israel, purchased, about B.C. 922, for its
site. Herod greatly renovated this city, which he called Sebaste, in
honour of his patron Augustus, in Greek “Sebastos.” Its site is now
occupied by a poor village, which bears the name of Sebustieh.

[3637] A town of Palæstina, frequently mentioned by Josephus as
remarkable for the strength of its fortifications, and situate on the
Lake Tiberias, opposite to Tarichæa. After a spirited defence, it was
taken by Vespasian, who slaughtered 4000 of the survivors, upon which
5000 threw themselves from the walls, and were dashed to pieces below.
The site had been forgotten for nearly eighteen centuries, when Lord
Lindsay discovered it on a lofty hill on the east of Lake Tiberias, and
nearly opposite the town of that name. It is now called El-Hossn, and
the ruins of the fortifications are very extensive.

[3638] Antiochian Syria.

[3639] Peræa was the general name of that part of Palæstina which lay
east of the river Jordan; but more usually, in a restricted sense, it
signified a part only of that region, namely the district between the
rivers Hieromax on the north, and Arnon on the south.

[3640] Jericho, so often mentioned in Scripture. It was celebrated for
its palm-grove, which was presented by Antony to Cleopatra. A Bedouin
encampment called Riha is all that now occupies its site.

[3641] A city eight or ten miles from the village Emmaüs of the New
Testament. It was called Nicopolis, in commemoration, it has been
suggested, of the destruction of Jerusalem. Its site is still marked by
a village called Ammious, on the road from Jerusalem to Jaffa.

[3642] So often mentioned in the New Testament. This town lay to the
S.E. of Joppa, and N.W. of Jerusalem, at the junction of several roads
which lead from the sea-coast. It was destroyed by the Romans in the
Jewish war, but was soon after rebuilt, and called Diospolis. A village
called Lud occupies its site.

[3643] So called from Acrabbim, its chief town, situate nine miles from
Nicopolis. The toparchy of Acrabbim, which formerly formed part of
Samaria, was the most northerly of those of Judæa.

[3644] Situate in the country of Benjamin. Josephus reckons it second
in importance only to Jerusalem, from which, according to Eusebius,
it was distant fifteen miles, on the road to the modern Nablous. That
author also identifies it with the Eshcol of Scripture. Its site is
marked by a small Christian village, called by the natives Jufna.

[3645] Like the two preceding ones, this toparchy for a long time
belonged to Samaria. Thamna, or Thamnis, was the Timnath-Serah in Mount
Ephraim, mentioned in Joshua xix. 50, and xxiv. 30, as the place where
Joshua was buried.

[3646] The toparchy of Bethleptepha of other authors. It appears to
have been situate in the south of Judæa, and in that part which is by
Josephus commonly called Idumæa. Reland has remarked, that the name
resembles Beth-lebaoth, a city of the tribe of Simeon, mentioned in
Joshua xix. 6.

[3647] From the Greek, meaning the “mountain district,” or the “hill
country,” as mentioned in Luke i. 39.

[3648] Or “Sacred Solyma.”

[3649] A fortress of Palæstina, erected by Herod the Great, at a
distance of about sixty stadia from Jerusalem, and not far from Tekoa.
Its site has been identified by modern travellers with El-Furedis,
or the Paradise; probably the same as the spot called the “Frank
Mountain,” on the top of which the ruined walls of the fortress are
still to be seen.

[3650] Called by the Arabs Bahr-el-Arden.

[3651] Situate on Mount Panias, or Paneas, on the range of Anti-Libanus.

[3652] In C. 16 of the present Book.

[3653] On the contrary, as Parisot observes, the Jordan runs in a
straight line almost into the Dead Sea.

[3654] The Lake of Sodom, or the Dead Sea, in which the Cities of the
Plain were swallowed up.

[3655] In Scripture also called the Lake Tiberias, and the Sea of
Gennesareth, or Chinnereth. It is now called the Sea of Tabariah, or

[3656] The one of the two Bethsaidas, which was situate on the north
of the Sea of Tiberias. It was enlarged by Philip the Tetrarch, who
greatly beautified it, and changed its name to Julias, in honour of the
daughter of Augustus, the wife of Tiberius. It is generally supposed by
the learned world, that this was not the Bethsaida mentioned so often
in the New Testament. Its ruins are probably those now seen on a hill
called Et-Tell, on the north-western extremity of the lake.

[3657] On the east of the lake. From it the district of Hippene took
its name.

[3658] Its ruins are to be seen at El-Kereh, on the south side of the
lake. It was strongly fortified, and made a vigorous resistance against
the Romans in the Jewish War. It received its name from the great
quantities of fish which were salted there, τάριχοι.

[3659] Now Tabariah, or Tabarieh, a miserable village. It was built by
Herod Antipas, in honour of the Emperor Tiberius. After the destruction
of Jerusalem, it became the seat of the Jewish Sanhedrin.

[3660] These hot springs are by Josephus called Emmaüs, probably a form
of the Hebrew name Hammath. Dr. Robinson, in his Biblical Researches,
identifies this with the town of Hammath, of the tribe of Naphthali,
mentioned in Joshua xix. 35.

[3661] From the Greek ἄσφαλτος.

[3662] This is an exaggeration, though it is the fact that many heavy
substances, which in ordinary water would sink immediately, will float
on the surface of this lake. It has been suggested, that the story
here mentioned arose from the circumstance of the name of ‘bulls,’ or
‘cows,’ having been applied by the ancient Nabatæi to the large masses
of asphaltum which floated on its surface.

[3663] The country of the Arabian Scenitæ, or “tent people.”

[3664] It lay on the east of the Dead Sea, and not the south, as here
mentioned by Pliny, being a border fortress in the south of Peræa, and
on the confines of the Nabatæi. There was a tradition that it was at
this place that John the Baptist was beheaded. The city now bears the
name of Mascra.

[3665] A Greek name, signifying the “Fine Stream.” These were warm
springs, situate on the eastern side of Jordan, to which Herod
the Great resorted during his last illness, by the advice of his
physicians. The valley of Callirhoë was visited by Captains Irby and
Mangles in 1818, and an interesting account of it is to be found in
their ‘Travels,’ pp. 467-469. The waters are sulphureous to the taste.

[3666] The Essenes, or Hessenes. These properly formed one of the
great sects into which the Jews were divided in the time of Christ.
They are not mentioned by name in the New Testament, but it has been
conjectured that they are alluded to in Matt. xix. 12, and Col. ii.
18, 23. As stated here by Pliny, they generally lived at a distance
from large towns, in communities which bore a great resemblance to the
monkish societies of later times. They sent gifts to the Temple at
Jerusalem, but never offered sacrifices there. They were divided into
four classes, according to the time of their initiation. Their origin
is uncertain. Some writers look upon them as the same as the Assidians,
or Chasidim, mentioned in 1 Maccabees, ii. 42, vii. 13. Their principal
society was probably the one mentioned by Pliny, and from this other
smaller ones proceeded, and spread over Palestine, Syria, and Egypt.
The Essenes of Egypt were divided into two sects; the _practical_
Essenes, whose mode of life was the same as those of Palestine; and
the _contemplative_ Essenes, who were called _Therapeutæ_. Both sects
maintained the same doctrines; but the latter were distinguished by a
more rigid mode of life. It has been suggested by Taylor, the editor of
‘Calmet’s Dictionary of the Bible,’ that John the Baptist belonged to
this sect.

[3667] Or Engedi. Its ancient name was Hazezon-Tamar, when it was
inhabited by the Amorites. See Gen. xiv. 7; 2 Chron. xx. 2. According
to Josephus, it gave name to one of the fifteen toparchies of Judæa. It
still retains its name, Ain-Jedey, or “Fountain of the Goats,” and was
so called from a spring which issued out of the limestone rock at the
base of a lofty cliff.

[3668] Its site is now known as Sebbeh, on the south-west of the Dead

[3669] Δεκὰ πολεῖς, the “Ten Cities.” He alludes to the circumstance,
that the number of cities varied from time to time in this district;
one being destroyed in warfare, and others suddenly rising from its

[3670] The capital city of Syria, both in ancient and modern times.
It is now called Es-Sham. The only epithet given to it by the ancient
poets is that of “ventosa,” or “windy,” found in the Pharsalia of
Lucan, B. iii. l. 215, which, it has been remarked, is anything but
appropriately chosen.

[3671] Or the “Golden River.” It is uncertain whether this was the
Abana or Pharpar, mentioned in 2 Kings v. 12. Strabo remarks, that the
waters of the Chrysorroös “are almost entirely consumed in irrigation,
as it waters a large extent of deep soil.”

[3672] The ancient Rabbath Ammon, a city of the Ammonites. It was
afterwards called Astarte, and then Philadelphia, in honour of Ptolemy
Philadelphus. According to D’Anville, the present name of its site is

[3673] Thirty-three miles from Apamea. Its ruins are probably those
mentioned by Abulfeda under the name of Rafaniat. William of Tyre says,
that it was taken in the year 1125 by the Count of Tripoli.

[3674] Previously called Beth-shan. It was the next city of the
Decapolis in magnitude after Damascus. It was situate in the land of
the tribe of Issachar, though it belonged to the Manasites. At this
place the bodies of Saul and his sons were hung up by the Philistines;
see 1 Sam. xxxi. 10-12. Reland suggests that it received the name of
Scythopolis, not from a Scythian colony, but from the Succoth of Gen.
xxxiii. 17, which appears to have been in its vicinity. Its ruins,
which still bear the name of Baisan, are very extensive.

[3675] Called by Josephus the capital of Peræa, and the chief place of
the district of the Gadarenes of the Evangelists. Its ruins, about six
miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, are very extensive.

[3676] Still called the Yarmak, evidently from its ancient name. Hippo
has been mentioned in the last Chapter.

[3677] Or Dium, between Pella and Gadara. In later times, this place
was included in Roman Arabia.

[3678] Also called Butis. It was the most southerly of the ten cities
which comprised the Decapolis, standing about five miles south of
Scythopolis, or Beth-shan. Its exact site seems not to have been
ascertained; but it has been suggested that it is the modern El-Bujeh.
From the expression used by Pliny, it would appear to have had mineral
waters in its vicinity.

[3679] Of this place nothing is known; but it is most probable that
the _Gerasa_ of Ptolemy and Josephus is meant. According to the former
writer, it was thirty-five miles from Pella. Its site is marked by
extensive ruins, thirty-five miles east of the Jordan, known by the
name of Gerash, and on the borders of the Great Desert of the Hauvan.
According to Dr. Keith, the ruins bear extensive marks of splendour.

[3680] Ptolemy mentions a city of this name in Cœlesyria.

[3681] So called from having been originally groups of four
principalities, held by princes who were vassals to the Roman emperors,
or the kings of Syria.

[3682] Containing the northern district of Palestine, beyond the
Jordan, between Antilibanus and the mountains of Arabia. It was bounded
on the north by the territory of Damascus, on the east by Auranitis, on
the south by Ituræa, and on the west by Gaulanitis. It was so called
from its ranges of rocky mountains, or τραχῶνες, the caves in which
gave refuge to numerous bands of robbers.

[3683] So called from the mountain of that name. Cæsarea Philippi also
bore the name of Panias. It was situate at the south of Mount Hermon,
on the Jordan, just below its source. It was built by Philip the
Tetrarch, B.C. 3. King Agrippa called it Neronias; but it soon lost
that name.

[3684] In C. xiv. of the present Book, as that in which the Jordan
takes its rise.

[3685] A place of great strength in Cœle-Syria, now known as Nebi Abel,
situate between Heliopolis and Damascus.

[3686] Situate between Tripolis and Antaradus, at the north-west foot
of Mount Libanus. It lay within a short distance of the sea, and
was famous for the worship paid by its inhabitants to Astarte, the
Syrian Aphrodite. A temple was erected here to Alexander the Great,
in which Alexander Severus, the Roman Emperor, was born, his parents
having resorted thither to celebrate a festival, A.D. 205. From this
circumstance, its name was changed to Cæsarea. Burckhardt fixes its
site at a hill called Tel-Arka.

[3687] Of this place, which probably took its name from its numerous
vines, nothing whatever is known.

[3688] Called by Pliny, in B. xii. c. 41, Gabba. It was situate at the
foot of Mount Carmel between Cæsarea and Ptolemais, sixteen miles from
the former. No remains of it are to be seen. It must not be confounded
with Gabala, in Galilee, fortified by Herod the Great.

[3689] The town was situate between Cæsarea and Ptolemais. The river
has been identified with the modern Nahi-el-Zerka, in which, according
to Pococke, crocodiles have been found.

[3690] Called Dor, before the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites.
See Joshua xvii. 11, and Judges i. 27. It afterwards belonged to the
half-tribe of Manasseh. Its site is now called Tortura.

[3691] Its site is now called Atlik, according to D’Anville. Parisot
suggests that it is the modern Keufah; others that it is Hepha, near
Mount Carmel.

[3692] Insignificant in height and extent, but celebrated in Scripture
history. It still bears the name of Cape Carmel.

[3693] It is not improbable that he means the town of Porphyrium, now
Khaifa, at the foot of the mountain.

[3694] Probably the Gitta of Polybius. Of it and Jeba, nothing is known.

[3695] The Nahr-Naman, or Abou, on which Ptolemais was situate.

[3696] Employed in the extensive manufacture of that article at Tyre
and Sidon, to the north of this district.

[3697] A corruption of Acco, the native name; from which the English
name Acre, and the French St. Jean d’Acre. The earliest mention of it
is in the Book of Judges, i. 31. It is supposed that it was Ptolemy I.,
the son of Lagus, who enlarged it and gave it the name of Ptolemais.
Its citadel, however, still retained the name of Ace. Under the Romans,
Ptolemais, as mentioned by Pliny, was a colony, and belonged to
Galilee. The modern city of Acre occupies its site.

[3698] The Ach-Zib of Scripture, mentioned in Joshua xix. 29, and
Judges i. 31. Its ruins are to be seen near the sea-shore, about three
hours’ journey north of Acre. The spot is still called Es-Zib.

[3699] Still called the Ras-el-Abiad, or White Promontory.

[3700] A colony of the Sidonians: its scanty ruins are still to be seen
at the poor village of Sur. The wars of the Crusades completed its
downfall. The island is still joined to the mainland by the mole which
was erected by Alexander the Great during the siege of the place; or,
according to some, by the Syrians themselves.

[3701] Carthage is supposed to have been colonized _immediately_ by the
people of Utica.

[3702] From which was made the famous Tyrian purple.

[3703] Or “ancient Tyre,” which was built on the mainland.

[3704] The Zarephath of 1 Kings xvii. 9, 10, whither Elijah was sent to
the widow, whose son he afterwards raised from the dead. Its site is
now known as Sarfand.

[3705] Probably meaning “City of the Birds,” perhaps from the
quantities of game in its vicinity. Its site now bears the name of

[3706] Its site is now called Saïda. In the time of David and Solomon,
it was probably subject to the kings of Tyre.

[3707] Cadmus, the founder of Thebes, was said to have been the son of
its king Agenor.

[3708] The Lebanon of Scripture. This intervening space, the ancient
Cœle-Syria, is now inhabited by the Druses.

[3709] Perhaps the modern Nahr-el-Damur.

[3710] Now Beyrout. By some it has been identified with the Berotha,
or Berothai, of the Hebrew Scriptures. Its full name as a Roman colony
was, “Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus.” It was colonized by the
veterans of the Fifth, or Macedonian, and the Eighth, or Augustan,
Legions. Beyrout, or Berut, is now, in a commercial point of view, the
most important place in Syria.

[3711] Nothing is known of this place. The name seems to mean, the
“Town of the Lion.”

[3712] Now the Nahr-el-Kelb, or “Dog’s River.”

[3713] The site of this place seems not to be known.

[3714] Now the Nahr-el-Ibrahim.

[3715] The modern town which stands on its site is called Jebeil. It
is situate at the foot of Lebanon. The ancient name seems to have been
Gebal, and the Geblites are mentioned in Joshua, xiii. 5; 1 Kings,
v. 18; and Ezek. xxvii. 9. The ruins of the ancient city are very
extensive. Astarte and Isis seem to have been worshipped here.

[3716] Now Batrun, a small town about twelve miles north of Byblus,
said to have been founded by Ithobal, king of Tyre.

[3717] Now Gazir, according to D’Anville.

[3718] Twelve miles from Tripolis. Its name would seem to bear
reference to a trireme, or galley. It has been said that this is the
place referred to in the Book of Daniel, xi. 30.

[3719] Polybius speaks of this place as being burnt by Antiochus. Its
site still bears the name of Calamon, according to D’Anville.

[3720] This properly consisted of three distinct cities, 600 feet
apart, each with its own walls, but all connected in a common
constitution; having one place of assembly, and forming in reality one
city only. They were colonies, as here suggested by Pliny, of Tyre,
Sidon, and Arados respectively. It is still a considerable place,
called Tarabolos, or Tarablis, by the Turks.

[3721] Its site is still known as Ortosa, or Tortosa.

[3722] Probably the same as the Nahr-el-Kebir, or “Great River,” to the
north of Tripolis. It may have derived its Greek name, which signifies
“free,” from its similarity to that given to it by the people of the

[3723] This was an important city, near Antarados. Its ruins are spoken
of as very extensive. Simyra is still called Sumira.

[3724] Now called Ruad; an island off the northern coast of Phœnicia,
at a distance of twenty stadia from the mainland, Pliny falling short
here in his measurement. The city of Arados was very populous, though
built on a mere rock; and, contrary to Eastern custom, the houses
contained many stories. It is spoken of by the prophet Ezekiel under
the name of Arvad: see c. xxvii. 8, 11. In importance, it ranked next
to the cities of Tyre and Sidon.

[3725] Its modern name does not appear to be known.

[3726] Also called Antarados, as lying nearly opposite to the city of
Arados. According to Strabo, the port of Antarados was called Carne,
or Carnos. In the time of the Crusades, it was known under the name of
Tortosa. Its present name is Tartus.

[3727] Now Banias. It was situate twenty-four miles north of Antarados.
Its name is supposed to have originated in the baths in its vicinity.
The site is deserted; but a few ruins of the ancient town are still to
be seen.

[3728] Eight miles from Balanea. Its ruins are known by the name of

[3729] Its site is now known as Djebeleh, a small village in the
vicinity of Laodicea, or Latakia. The sun was probably worshipped here,
and hence the Emperor Heliogabalus derived his name.

[3730] About fifty miles south of Antioch, now called Ladikiyeh, or
Latakia, noted for the excellence of its tobacco, which has an European
reputation. It was built by Seleucus I., on the site of an earlier
city, called Ramitha. It was afterwards greatly favoured by Julius
Cæsar. Herod the Great built an aqueduct here, the ruins of which are
still in existence. It is now a poor Turkish village; but there are
considerable remains of the ancient city to be seen in its vicinity.

[3731] It has been suggested, that Pliny means the city of Lydda, in
the tribe of Benjamin, which of course would be very much to the south,
and quite out of the order in which he is proceeding. If that is not
the place meant, this Diospolis is utterly unknown.

[3732] At some miles’ distance to the north of Laodicea. Pococke found
some traces of its site at a spot called Minta Baurdeleh, or the Bay of
the Tower.

[3733] Pliny is in error here most probably, and is speaking of a place
as being in Syria which in reality was in Cilicia, between Platanus and
Cragus. The name implies its situation near a mountain torrent.

[3734] On a small bay, some miles north of Heraclea.

[3735] Or Antioch, the capital of the Greek kings of Syria, and the
most famous of the sixteen cities built by Seleucus Nicator, and called
after the name of his father, (or son, as some say,) Antiochus. It was
built on the Orontes, and formed one of the most beautiful and pleasant
cities of the ancient world. The modern Antakieh is a poor town, built
on the north-western part of the site of the ancient city, by the
river. The walls, built by Justinian, may still be traced for a circuit
of four miles. Here the followers of our Saviour first obtained the
name of “Christians.”

[3736] That is, “Near Daphne,” there being a celebrated grove of that
name, consecrated to Apollo, in its immediate vicinity.

[3737] Now called the Nahr-el-Asy.

[3738] Now Seleuca, or Kepse, at the foot of Mount Pieria. It has been
referred to in a previous note.

[3739] Now known as Djebel-el-Akra.

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