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ruins on a hill near the village of Olou Bounar mark the site of New
Isaura. Of the two next places nothing seems to be known at the present

[3863] In the last Chapter.

[3864] In Pisidia, at the southern extremity of Lake Caralitis.
Tacitus, Annals, iii. 48, says that this people possessed forty-four
fortresses: whereas Strabo speaks of them as the most barbarous of all
the Pisidian tribes, dwelling only in caves. They were conquered by the
consul Quirinius in the time of Augustus.

[3865] Pisidia was a mountainous region formed by that part of the main
chain of Mount Taurus which sweeps round in a semicircle parallel to
the shore of the Pamphylian Gulf; the shore itself at the foot of the
mountains forming the district of Pamphylia. On the south-east it was
bounded by Cilicia, on the east and north-east by Lycaonia and Isauria,
and by Phrygia Parorios on the north, where its boundaries greatly
varied at different times.

[3866] Generally called “Antioch of Pisidia,” was situate on the south
side of the mountain boundary between Phrygia and Pisidia. The modern
Yalobatch is supposed to occupy its site. The remains of the ancient
town are numerous. Its title of Cæsarea was probably given to it on its
becoming a Roman colony early in the imperial period.

[3867] D’Anville suggests that the modern Haviran occupies its site,
and that Sadjakla stands on that of Sagalessos.

[3868] This country was bounded on the north by Galatia, on the east
by Cappadocia, on the south by Cilicia Aspera, on the south-west by
Isauria and Phrygia Parorios, and on the north-west by Great Phrygia.
It was assigned under the Persian empire to the satrapy of Cappadocia,
but considered by the Greek and Roman geographers the south-east part
of Phrygia.

[3869] Phrygia, or the western part of Asia, the first part of the
Asiatic continent that received the name of Asia. Sec Chapters 28 & 29
of the present Book.

[3870] D’Anville thinks that the place called Il-Goun occupies the site
of Philomela.

[3871] Hardouin suggests that the reading here is “Tibriani,” the
people of Tibrias. Ansart is of opinion that Thymbrium is meant, the
place at which Cyrus defeated the army of Crœsus.

[3872] Its site is unknown. It was probably so called from the quarries
of white stone or marble in its vicinity. Pelta and Tyrium are also
equally unknown.

[3873] Iconium was regarded in the time of Xenophon as the easternmost
town of Phrygia, while all the later authorities described it as the
principal city of Lycaonia. In the Acts of the Apostles it is described
as a very populous city, inhabited by Greeks and Jews. Its site is now
called Kunjah or Koniyeh.

[3874] It has been suggested that this may be the Tarbassus of
Artemidorus, quoted by Strabo. Hyde was in later times one of the
episcopal cities of Lycaonia.

[3875] Their district is called Melyas by Herodotus, B. i. c. 173. The
city of Arycanda is unknown.

[3876] United with Cilicia it now forms the province of Caramania or
Kermanieh. It was a narrow strip of the southern coast of Asia Minor,
extending in an arch along the Pamphylian Gulf between Lycia on the
west, Cilicia on the east, and on the north bordering on Pisidia.

[3877] Tradition ascribed the first Greek settlements in this country
to Mopsus, son of Apollo (or of Rhacius), after the Trojan war.

[3878] Now called the Gulf of Adalia, lying between Cape Khelidonia and
Cape Anemour.

[3879] Now called Candeloro, according to D’Anville and Beaufort.

[3880] Or Aspendus, an Argeian colony on the river Eurymedon. The
“mountain” of Pliny is nothing but a hill or piece of elevated ground.
It is supposed that it still retains its ancient name. In B. xxxi. c.
7, Pliny mentions a salt lake in its vicinity.

[3881] Hardouin suggests that the correct reading is ‘Petnelessum.’

[3882] A city of remarkable splendour, between the rivers Catarrhactes
and Cestrus, sixty stadia from the mouth of the former. It was a
celebrated seat of the worship of Artemis or Diana. In the later Roman
empire it was the capital of Pamphylia Secunda. It was the first place
visited by St. Paul in Asia Minor. See Acts, xiii. 13 and xiv. 25.
Its splendid ruins are still to be seen at Murtana, sixteen miles
north-east of Adalia.

[3883] Now known as the Kapri-Su.

[3884] Now called Duden-Su. It descends the mountains of Taurus in a
great broken waterfall, whence its name.

[3885] Probably occupying the site of the modern Atalieh or Satalieh.

[3886] On the borders of Lycia and Pamphylia, at the foot of Mount
Solyma. Its ruins now bear the name of Tekrova.

[3887] It was inclosed by Caria and Pamphylia on the west and east, and
on the north by the district of Cibyrates in Phrygia.

[3888] The Gulf of Satalieh or Adalia.

[3889] Still known as Cape Khelidonia or Cameroso.

[3890] Parisot remarks here, “Pliny describes on this occasion, with an
exactness very remarkable for his time, the chain of mountains which
runs through the part of Asia known to the ancients, although it is
evident that he confines the extent of them within much too small a

[3891] The Caspian and the Hyrcanian Seas are generally looked upon
as identical, but we find them again distinguished by Pliny in B. vi.
c. 13, where he says that this inland sea commences to be called the
_Caspian_ after you have passed the river Cyrus (or Kúr), and that the
Caspii live near it; and in C. 16, that it is called the _Hyrcanian_
Sea, from the Hyrcani who live along its shores. The western side would
therefore in strictness be called the _Caspian_, and the eastern the
_Hyrcanian_ Sea.

[3892] “The name of Imaüs was, in the first instance, applied by the
Greek geographers to the Hindú-Kúsh and to the chain parallel to the
equator, to which the name of Himâlaya is usually given at the present
day. The name was gradually extended to the intersection running north
and south, the meridian axis of Central Asia, or the _Bolor_ range. The
divisions of Asia into ‘intra et extra Imaum,’ were unknown to Strabo
and Pliny, though the latter describes the knot of mountains formed
by the intersections of the Himâlaya, the Hindú-Kúsh, and Bolor, by
the expression ‘quorum (Montes Emodi) promontorium Imaüs vocatur.’ The
Bolor chain has been for ages, with one or two exceptions, the boundary
between the empires of China and Turkestan.”—_Dr. Smith’s Dictionary of
Ancient Geography._

[3893] The Gates of Armenia are spoken of in B. vi. c. 12, the Gates of
the Caspian in C. 16 of the same Book, and the Gates of Cilicia in C.
22 of the present Book.

[3894] See C. ix. of the next Book.

[3895] “Strabo gives this name to only the eastern portion of the
Caucasian chain which overhangs the Caspian Sea and forms the northern
boundary of Albania, and in which he places the Amazons. Mela seems to
apply the name to the whole chain which other writers call Caucasus,
confining the latter term to a part of it. Pliny (B. v. c. 27 & B. vi.
c. 11) gives precisely the same representation, with the additional
error of making the Ceraunii (_i. e._ the Caucasus of others) part of
the Great Taurus Chain. He seems to apply the name of Caucasus to the
spurs which spread out both to the north-east and the south-east from
the main chain near its eastern extremity, and which he regarded as a
continuous range, bordering the western shores of the Caspian. See B.
vi. c. 10.”—_Dr. Smith’s Dictionary of Ancient Geography._

[3896] Of Chelidonium, now Khelidonia, formed by the range of Taurus.

[3897] See B. ii. c. 110. The flame which continually burned on this
mountain has been examined by Beaufort, the modern traveller. The name
of the mountain is now Yanar: it is formed of a mass of scaglia with
serpentine. Spratt says that the flame is nothing more than a stream
of inflammable gas issuing from a crevice, such as is seen in several
places in the Apennines. By Homer it is represented as a fabulous
monster, which is explained by Servius, the commentator of Virgil, in
the following manner. He says that flames issue from the top of the
mountain, and that there are lions in the vicinity; the middle part
abounds in goats, and the lower part with serpents. Simena appears to
be unknown.

[3898] So called from Ἥφαιστος, the Greek name of Vulcan. Pliny
mentions this spot also in B. ii. c. 110. The flame probably proceeded
from an inflammable gas, or else was ignited by a stream of naphtha.

[3899] More generally known as Phœnicus, a flourishing city on Mount
Olympus; now Yanar Dagh, a volcano on the eastern coast of Lycia, with
which it often exchanged names. Having become the head-quarters of the
pirates, it was destroyed by the Roman general Servilius Isauricus. Its
ruins are to be seen at a spot called Deliktash.

[3900] Mentioned again in B. xxxvi. c. 34, as the spot whence the
_gagates lapis_ or ‘agate’ took its name. The ruins at Aladja are
regarded by Leake as marking the site of Gagæ; but Sir Charles Fellowes
identifies the place with the modern village of Hascooe, the vicinity
of which is covered with ruins.

[3901] On the road from Phaselis in Lycia to Patara. Its site is a
village called Hadgivella, about sixteen miles south-west of Phaselis.
The remains are very considerable.

[3902] The remains of Rhodiopolis were found by Spratt and Forbes in
the vicinity of Corydalla.

[3903] On the Limyrus, probably the modern Phineka; the ruins to the
north of which are supposed to be those of Limyra.

[3904] The modern Akhtar Dagh.

[3905] Now Andraki. This was the port of Myra, next mentioned. It stood
at the mouth of the river now known as the Andraki. Cramer observes
that it was here St. Paul was put on board the ship of Alexandria, Acts
xxvii. 5, 6.

[3906] Still called Myra by the Greeks, but Dembre by the Turks. It was
built on a rock twenty stadia from the sea. St. Paul touched here on
his voyage as a prisoner to Rome, and from the mention made of it in
Acts xxvii. 5, 6, it would appear to have been an important sea-port.
There are magnificent ruins of this city still to be seen, in part hewn
out of the solid rock.

[3907] From an inscription found by Cockerell at the head of the
Hassac Bay, it is thought that _Aperlæ_ is the proper name of this
place, though again there are coins of Gordian which give the name as
_Aperræ_. It is fixed by the Stadismus as sixty stadia west of Somena,
which Leake supposes to be the same as the Simena mentioned above by

[3908] Now called Antephelo or Andifilo, on the south coast of Lycia,
at the head of a bay. Its theatre is still complete, with the exception
of the proscenium. There are also other interesting remains of

[3909] Fellowes places the site of Phellos near a village called
_Saaret_, west-north-west of Antiphellos, where he found the remains
of a town; but Spratt considers this to mark the site of the Pyrra of
Pliny, mentioned above—judging from Pliny’s words. Modern geographers
deem it more consistent with his meaning to look for Phellos north of
Antiphellos than in any other direction, and the ruins at Tchookoorbye,
north of Antiphellos, on the spur of a mountain called Fellerdagh, are
thought to be those of Phellos.

[3910] The most famous city of Lycia. It stood on the western bank
of the river of that name, now called the Echen Chai. It was twice
besieged, and on both occasions the inhabitants destroyed themselves
with their property, first by the Persians under Harpagus, and
afterwards by the Romans under Brutus. Among its most famous temples
were those of Sarpedon and of the Lycian Apollo. The ruins now known
by the name of Gunik, have been explored by Sir C. Fellows and other
travellers, and a portion of its remains are now to be seen in the
British Museum, under the name of the Xanthian marbles.

[3911] Its ruins still bear the same name. It was a flourishing
seaport, on a promontory of the same name, sixty stadia east of the
mouth of the Xanthus. It was early colonized by the Dorians from Crete,
and became a chief seat of the worship of Apollo, from whose son
Patarus it was said to have received its name. Ptolemy Philadelphus
enlarged it, and called it Arsinoë, but it still remained better known
by its old name. This place was visited by St. Paul, who thence took
ship for Phœnicia. See Acts xxi. 1.

[3912] This was more properly the name of a mountain district of Lycia.
Strabo speaks of Cragus, a mountain with eight summits, and a city of
the same name. Beaufort thinks that Yedy-Booroon, the Seven Capes, a
group of high and rugged mountains, appear to have been the ancient
Mount Cragus of Lycia.

[3913] Probably the Gulf of Macri, equal in size to the Gulf of
Satalia, which is next to it.

[3914] This place lay in the interior at the base of Cragus, and
its ruins are still to be seen on the east side of the range, about
half-way between Telmessus and the termination of the range on the
south coast.

[3915] Its ruins are to be seen at Mei, or the modern port of Macri.

[3916] Its site is unknown. That of Candyba has been ascertained to be
a place called Gendevar, east of the Xanthus, and a few miles from the
coast. Its rock-tombs are said to be beautifully executed. The Œnian
grove or forest, it has been suggested, may still be recognized in the
extensive pine forest that now covers the mountain above the city. The
sites of Podalia and Choma seem to be unknown.

[3917] In some editions “Cyane.” Leake says that this place was
discovered to the west of Andriaca by Cockerell. It appears from
Scott and Forbes’s account of Lycia, that three sites have been found
between port Tristorus and the inland valley of Kassabar, which from
the inscriptions appeared anciently to have borne this name, Yarvoo,
Ghiouristan, and Toussa. The former is the chief place and is covered
with ruins of the Roman and middle-age construction. At Ghiouristan
there are Lycian rock-tombs.

[3918] Its ruins are to be seen near the modern Doover, in the interior
of Lycia, about two miles and a half east of the river Xanthus. Of the
three places previously mentioned the sites appear to be unknown.

[3919] Mentioned by the geographer Stephanus as being in Caria.

[3920] Its site is fixed at Katara, on both sides of the Katara Su, the
most northern branch of the Xanthus. The ruins are very considerable,
lying on both sides of the stream. Balbura is a neuter plural.

[3921] It lay to the west of Balbura, near a place now called Ebajik,
on a small stream that flows into the Horzoom Tchy. In B. xxxv. c. 17,
Pliny mentions a kind of chalk found in the vicinity of this place. Its
ruins are still to be seen, but they are not striking.

[3922] In the south-west corner of Asia Minor, bounded on the north and
north-east by the mountains Messagis and Cadmus, dividing it from Lydia
and Phrygia, and adjoining to Phrygia and Lycia on the south-east.

[3923] Caria.

[3924] Now Cape Ghinazi. It was also called Artemisium, from the temple
of Artemis or Diana situate upon it.

[3925] Discharging itself into the bay of Telmissus, now Makri.

[3926] “Telmissus” is the reading here in some editions.

[3927] Situate in the district of Caria called Peræa. It was also the
name given to a mountainous district. In Hoskyn’s map the ruins of
Dædala are placed near the head of the Gulf of Glaucus, on the west
of a small river called Inegi Chai, probably the ancient Ninus, where
Dædalus was bitten by a water-snake, in consequence of which he died.

[3928] On the Gulf of Glaucus: Stephanus however places it in Lycia.
Mela speaks only of a promontory of this name.

[3929] Leake places this river immediately west of the Gulf of Glaucus.

[3930] Placed by Strabo sixty stadia from the sea, west of the Gulf
of Glaucus, and east of Carinus. Its site is uncertain, but it may
possibly be the place discovered by Fellows, which is proved by
inscriptions to have been called Cadyanda, a name otherwise unknown to
us. This lies N.N.E. of Makri, on the Gulf of Glaucus or Makri, at a
place called Hoozoomlee, situate on an elevated plain.

[3931] The same as the river Calbis of Strabo and Mela, at present the
Dalamon Tchy, Quingi or Taas, having its sources in Mount Cadmus above
Cibyra. It was said to have derived its name from an Indian, who had
been thrown into it from an elephant.

[3932] Their district was Cibyratis, of which the chief city was
Cibyra. This place, uniting with the towns of Balbura, Bubon, and
Œnianda, had the name of Tetrapolis; of which league Cibyra was the
head, mustering 30,000 infantry and 2000 cavalry. The iron found in
this district was easily cut with a chisel or other sharp tool. The
site of this powerful city has been ascertained to be at Horzoom, on
the Horzoom Tchy, a branch of the Dalamon Tchy or Indus. The ruins are
very extensive, and the theatre in fine preservation.

[3933] Placed by Strabo west of Calynda. The ancient descriptions of
its locality vary, but the place now known as Kaiguez is said to denote
its site. The Caunii are frequently mentioned in the Persian, Grecian,
and Roman histories. It was noted for its dried figs, mentioned by
Pliny in B. xv. c. 19.

[3934] Supposed by Mannert to be the Physcus of Strabo and the Phuscæ
of Ptolemy.

[3935] Leake says that this harbour is now called Aplothíka by the
Greeks, and Porto Cavaliere by the Italians, lie also says that on its
western shore are the ruins of an Hellenic fortress and town, which are
undoubtedly those of Loryma.

[3936] It had a port of the same name.

[3937] Called Pandion by Mela, according to Parisot.

[3938] Parisot suggests that it is the same as Loryma previously

[3939] Like the Gulf of Schœnus, a portion probably of the Dorian Gulf,
now the Gulf of Syme.

[3940] The modern name of this promontory is not given by Hamilton, who
sailed round it. It has been confounded with the Cynos Sema of Strabo,
now Capo Velo. The site of Hyda or Hyde is unknown.

[3941] There was a town of this name as well. Stephen of Byzantium
tells us that it received its name from a shepherd who saved the life
of Podalirius, when shipwrecked on the coast of Caria.

[3942] Part of it was situate on an island now called Cape Krio,
connected by a causeway with the mainland. Its site is covered with
ruins of a most interesting character in every direction. The Triopian
promontory, evidently alluded to by Pliny, is the modern Cape Krio.

[3943] It has been remarked that in his description here Pliny is very
brief and confused, and that he may intend to give the name of Triopia
either to the small peninsula or island, or may include in this term
the western part of the whole of the larger peninsula.

[3944] Of these _conventus_. For an account of Cibyra see last page.

[3945] On the Lycus, now known as the Choruk-Su. By different writers
it has been assigned to Lydia, Caria, and Phrygia, but in the ultimate
division of the Roman provinces it was assigned to the Greater Phrygia.
It was founded by Antiochus II. on the site of a previous town, and
named in honour of his wife Laodice. Its site is occupied by ruins
of great magnificence. In the Apostolic age it was the seat of a
flourishing Christian Church, which however very soon gave signs of
degeneracy, as we learn from St. John’s Epistle to it, Revel. ii.
14-22. St. Paul also addresses it in common with the neighbouring
church of Colossæ. Its site is now called Eski-Hissar, or the Old

[3946] A tributary of the Phrygian Mæander.

[3947] The people of Hydrela, a town of Caria, said to have been
founded by one of three brothers who emigrated from Sparta.

[3948] The people of Themisonium, now called Tseni.

[3949] The people of Hierapolis, a town of Phrygia, situate on a
height between the rivers Lycus and Mæander, about five miles north
of Laodicea, on the road from Apamea to Sardis. It was celebrated for
its warm springs, and its Plutonium, or cave of Pluto, from which
issued a mephitic vapour of a poisonous nature; see B. ii. c. 95. The
Christian Church here is alluded to by St. Paul in his Epistle to the
Colossians, iv. 13. Its ruins are situate at an uninhabited place
called Pambuk-Kalessi.

[3950] Situate in the north of Phrygia Salutaris; its ruins being
probably those to be seen at Afiour-Kara-Hisar. From the time of
Constantine this place became the capital of Phrygia Salutaris. It
stood in a fruitful plain, near a mountain quarry of the celebrated
Synnadic marble, which was white with red veins and spots. This marble
was also called “Docimiticus,” from Docimia, a nearer place.

[3951] As already mentioned in C. 25 of the present Book.

[3952] The site of Appia does not appear to be known. Cicero speaks
of an application made to him by the Appiani, when he was governor of
Cilicia, respecting the taxes with which they were burdened, and the
buildings of their town.

[3953] Eucarpia was a town of Phrygia, not far from the sources of the
Mæander, on the road from Dorylæum to Apamea Cibotus. The vine grew
there in great luxuriance, and to its fruitfulness the town probably
owed its name. Kiepert places it in the vicinity of Segielar, but its
exact site is unknown.

[3954] The site of Dorylæum is now called Eski-Shehr. The hot-baths
here are mentioned by Athenæus, and its waters were pleasant to the
taste. Sheep-feeding appears to have been carried on here to a great
extent, and under the Greek empire it was a flourishing place. The site
of Midæum does not seem to be known.

[3955] The people of Julia, Juliopolis, or Julianopolis, a town of
Lydia, probably to the south of Mount Tmolus.

[3956] This place was built near Celænæ by Antiochus Soter, and named
after his mother Apama. Strabo says that it lay at the mouth of the
river Marsyas. Its site has been fixed at the modern Denair. Some
ancient ruins are to be seen.

[3957] Pliny commits an error here; Celænæ was a different place from
Apamea, though close to it.

[3958] Meaning the “Fountains of the Pipe,” and probably deriving
its name from the legend here mentioned by Pliny, and in B. xvi. c.
44. Strabo describes the Marsyas and Mæander as rising, according to
report, in one lake above Celænæ, which produced reeds adapted for
making the mouth-pieces of musical instruments, but he gives no name
to the lake. Hamilton found near Denair or Apamea, a lake nearly two
miles in circumference, full of reeds and rushes, which he looks upon
as the lake on the mountain Aulocrene, described by Pliny in the 31st
Chapter of the present Book. His account however is very confused, as
he mentions on different occasions a _region_ of Aulocrene, a _valley_
of Aulocrene, and a _mountain_ of Aulocrene.

[3959] People of “the Mother City,” said by Stephen of Byzantium to
have received that name from Cybele, the _Mother_ of the Gods.

[3960] Nothing is known of the site of Dionysopolis. It is mentioned in
a letter of Cicero’s to his brother Quintus, in which he speaks of the
people of this place as being very hostile to the latter.

[3961] The site of Euphorbium is denoted, according to Leake, by the
modern Sandukli. It lay between Synnas and Apamea, and not improbably,
like Eucarpia, received its name from the fertility of its territory.

[3962] The site of Acmona has been fixed at Ahatkoi, but it seems

[3963] The site of Pelta is by D’Anville called Ris-Chak or Hou-Chak.

[3964] The people of Silbium or Silbia, near Metropolis.

[3965] The Dorian settlements on the coast of Caria were so called. The
Dorian Gulf was probably the Sinus Ceramicus mentioned below.

[3966] Of these places nothing whatever seems to be known.

[3967] Pitaium and Eutane seem to be unknown.

[3968] A member of the Dorian Hexapolis, or League of the Six Cities.
The site of this famous city is occupied by the modern Boodroum, and
its ruins are very extensive. It was famous as being the birth-place of
the two historians Herodotus and Dionysius. It was the largest and best
fortified city of Caria.

[3969] According to Parisot the site of this place is now called Angeli
and Karabaglas.

[3970] This place must not be confounded with Telmessus or Telmissus in
Lycia, which has been previously mentioned. It was situate six miles
from Halicarnassus. Of the other places here mentioned nothing seems to
be known.

[3971] Now the Gulf of Staneo, Kos, or Boodroum. It took its name from
the port of Ceramus, now Keramo, according to D’Anville.

[3972] Now the Gulf of Mandeliyeh. It took its name from the city of

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