Pliny the Elder.

The Natural History of Pliny, Volume 1 (of 6) online

. (page 55 of 57)
Online LibraryPliny the ElderThe Natural History of Pliny, Volume 1 (of 6) → online text (page 55 of 57)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Iasus, the site of which is now called Askem or Asyn-Kalessi.

[3973] Its ruins are to be seen at the port called Gumishlu. This was
a Dorian colony on the coast of Caria, founded probably on the site of
the old town of the Leleges.

[3974] It has been suggested that this was only another name for the
new town of Myndos, in contradistinction to Palæomyndos, or “old

[3975] Scylax the geographer is supposed to have been a native of this
place. The town is supposed to have been built partly on the mainland
and partly on an island. Pastra Limani is supposed to have been the
harbour of Caryanda.

[3976] A Dorian city on the Promontory of Termerium.

[3977] Situate near Iasus and Myndos. Leake conjectures that it may
have been on the bay between Pastra Limâne and Asyn Kalesi. There was
a statue here of Artemis Cindyas, under the bare sky, of which the
incredible story was told that neither rain nor snow ever fell on it.

[3978] See note [3972] on the last page.

[3979] Its ruins are to be seen at the spot still called Melasso. It
was a very flourishing city, eight miles from the coast of the Gulf of
Iasus, and situate at the foot of a rock of fine white marble. It was
partly destroyed in the Roman civil wars by Labienus. Its ruins are
very extensive.

[3980] Hamilton has fixed the site of this place between four and
five miles south-east of Kuyuja, near the mouth of the valley of the
Kara-Su. The surrounding district was famous for the excellence of its
figs. The city was built by Antiochus, the son of Seleucus.

[3981] Now called the Mendereh or Meinder.

[3982] Pococke thinks that the present Jenjer is the Orsinus, while
Mannert takes it to be the Hadchizik, a little winding river that falls
into the Mæander.

[3983] Now called Guzel-Hissar, according to Ansart.

[3984] On the road from Dorylæum to Apamea. It is said to have received
its name from Attalus II., who named the town after his brother and
predecessor Eumenes II. Its site is known as Ishekle, and it is still
marked by numerous ruins and sculptures.

[3985] A tributary of the Mæander. Its modern name is not mentioned.

[3986] Mannert takes the ruins to be seen at Jegni-Chehr to be those
of ancient Orthosia. The town of Lysias does not appear to have been

[3987] The situation of this district is not known. See B. xvi. c. 16,
where it appears that this region was famous for its boxwood.

[3988] One of the numerous places of that name devoted to the worship
of Bacchus. It was built on both sides of the ravine of the brook
Eudon, which fell into the Mæander. Its ruins are to be seen at
Sultan-Hissar, a little to the west of Hazeli.

[3989] Its ruins are to be seen at Ghiuzel-Hissar, near Aidin. This was
a flourishing commercial city, included sometimes in Ionia, sometimes
in Caria. It stood on the banks of the Eudon, a tributary of the river
Mæander. Under the Seleucidæ it was called Antiochia and Seleucia.

[3990] From the beauty and fertility of the surrounding country.

[3991] An Ionic town of Caria, on the north side of the Sinus Latmicus,
fifty stadia from the mouth of the Mæander.

[3992] Or Euromus, a town of Caria, at the foot of Mount Grion, which
runs parallel with Latmos. Ruins of a temple to the north-west of
Alabanda are considered to belong to Euromus.

[3993] A town of uncertain site. It must not be confounded with the
place of the same name, mentioned in c. 31 of the present Book.

[3994] The ruins of its citadel and walls still exist on the east side
of Mount Latmos, on the road from Bafi to Tchisme.

[3995] Situate about twenty miles south of Tralles. The modern site is
doubtful, but Arab Hissa, on a branch of the Mæander, now called the
Tchina, is supposed to represent Alabanda. It was notorious for the
luxuriousness of its inhabitants. A stone found in the vicinity was
used for making glass and glazing vessels. See B. xxxvi. c. 13.

[3996] Built by Antiochus I. Soter, and named, in honour of his wife,
Stratonice. It stood south of Alabanda, near the river Marsyas. It is
supposed that it stood on the site of a former city called Idrias, and
still earlier, Chrysaoris.

[3997] D’Anville identifies it with a place called Keramo, but no such
place appears to be known. Strabo places it near the sea between Cnidus
and Halicarnassus, and Ceramus comes next after Cnidus. Ptolemy seems
to place it on the south side of the bay. Of Hynidos nothing appears to
be known.

[3998] Its situation is unknown; but there can be little doubt that it
was founded by the Dorians who emigrated to the coast of Asia Minor
from Argolis and Trœzene in the Peloponnesus. Phorontis appears to be

[3999] Parisot observes that many of the towns here mentioned belonged
to the northern part of Phrygia.

[4000] The people of Alinda in Caria, which was surrendered to
Alexander the Great by Alinda, queen of Caria. It was one of the
strongest places in Caria. Its position has been fixed by Fellowes at
Demmeergee-derasy, between Arab-Hissa and Karpuslee, on a steep rock.

[4001] Of Xystis, as also of Hydissa, nothing appears to be known.

[4002] Inhabitants of Apollonia in Caria, of which place nothing
appears to be known.

[4003] Pococke says that the modern site of Trapezopolis is called

[4004] The people of Aphrodisias, an ancient city of Caria, situate at
the modern Ghera or Geyra, south of Antiochia on the Mæander. Aphrodite
or Venus seems to have been principally worshipped at this place.
Strabo places it in Phrygia.

[4005] Or Coscinia, a place in Caria, which, as we may gather from
Strabo, ranked below a town. Leake thinks that Tshina, where Pococke
found considerable remains, is the site of this place.

[4006] On the eastern bank of the Harpasus, a tributary of the Mæander.
Its ruins are supposed to be those seen at a place called Harpas
Kalessi. In B. ii. c. 98, Pliny speaks of a wonderful rock at this

[4007] Now known as the Harpa.

[4008] By this name alone it is known to Homer.

[4009] Its ruins, now called Sart, are very extensive, though
presenting nothing of importance. Its citadel, situated on a rock, was
considered to be almost impregnable.

[4010] Now called Kisilja Musa Dagh. It was famous for its wine,
saffron, and gold.

[4011] Now called the Sarabat. It was famous for its gold-producing

[4012] On the road between Thyatira and Sardes: near it was situate the
necropolis of Sardes.

[4013] Strabo says that some persons called the citadel only by that

[4014] There was a city of Mysia or Phrygia of the name of Cadus or
Cadi; but nothing is known of the place here alluded to, whose people
would appear to have been a colony from Macedonia.

[4015] The people of Philadelphia, now Ala-Cher, or the “Fine City,”
twelve leagues south-east of Sardes, and nine leagues south of Attalia.

[4016] So called from the Greek Ἀπόλλωνος ἱερὸν, “the temple of
Apollo,” in the vicinity of which, south-east of Pergamus, their town
was probably situate. Nothing is known of these localities.

[4017] Dwellers in Mesotmolus, a town which, from its name, would
appear to have been situate on the middle of Mount Tmolus.

[4018] Now called the Gulf of Melasso.

[4019] Now the Cape of Melasso.

[4020] The remains of the Temple of Didymæan Apollo at Branchidæ are
still visible to those sailing along the coast. It was in the Milesian
territory, and above the harbour Panormus. The name of the site was
probably Didyma or Didymi, but the place was also called Branchidæ,
from that being the name of a body of priests who had the care of the
temple. We learn from Herodotus that Crœsus, king of Lydia, consulted
this oracle, and made rich presents to the temple. The temple, of which
only two columns are left, was of white marble.

[4021] The ruins of this important city are difficult to discover on
account of the great changes made on the coast by the river Mæander.
They are usually supposed to be those at the poor village of Palatia on
the south bank of the Mendereh; but Forbiger has shown that these are
more probably the remains of Myus, and that those of Miletus are buried
in a lake formed by the Mendereh at the foot of Mount Latmus.

[4022] See B. vii. c. 57. Josephus says that he lived very shortly
before the Persian invasion of Greece.

[4023] Now called the Monte di Palatia.

[4024] Generally called “Heraclea upon Latmus,” from its situation at
the western foot of Mount Latmus. Ruins of this town still exist at the
foot of that mountain on the borders of Lake Baffi.

[4025] Its ruins are now to be seen at Palatia. It was the smallest
city of the Ionian Confederacy, and was situate at the mouth of the
Mæander, thirty stadia from its mouth.

[4026] Mannert says that its ruins are to be seen at a spot called by
the Turks Sarasun-Kalesi.

[4027] One of the twelve Ionian cities, situate at the foot of Mount
Mycale. It stood originally on the shore, but the change in the coast
by the alluvial deposits of the Mæander left it some distance from the
land. It was celebrated as being the birth-place of the philosopher
Bias. Its ruins are to be seen at the spot called Samsun.

[4028] Now called Cape Santa Maria, or Samsun.

[4029] He implies that it is derived from φυγὴ “flight.”

[4030] Between Ephesus and Neapolis. It belonged to the Samians who
exchanged with the Ephesians for Neapolis, which lay nearer to their
island. The modern Scala Nova occupies the site of one of them, it is
uncertain which.

[4031] Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Inek-Bazar. It was
situate on the river Lethæus, a tributary of the Mæander. It was famous
for its temple of Artemis Leucophryene, the ruins of which still exist.

[4032] See B. ii. c. 91.

[4033] Now known as Ak-Hissar or the “White Castle.” Strabo informs us
that it was founded by Seleucus Nicator.

[4034] From the excellence of its horses.

[4035] Its ruins are to be seen near the modern Ayazaluk. It was
the chief of the twelve Ionian cities on the coast of Asia Minor,
and devoted to the worship of Artemis, whose temple here was deemed
one of the wonders of the world. Nothing, except some traces of its
foundations, is now to be seen of this stupendous building.

[4036] It was more generally said to have been founded by the Carians
and the Leleges.

[4037] Now called the Kara-Su, or Black River, or Kuchuk-Meinder, or
Little Mæander.

[4038] It has been observed that though Pliny seems to say that the
Caÿster receives many streams, they must have had but a short course,
and could only be so many channels by which the rivers descend from the
mountain slopes that shut in the contracted basin of the river.

[4039] This lake or marsh seems to be the morass situate on the road
from Smyrna to Ephesus, into which the Phyrites flows, and out of which
it comes a considerable stream.

[4040] The Phyrites is a small river that is crossed on the road from
Ephesus to Smyrna, and joins the Caÿster on the right bank ten or
twelve miles above Ayazaluk, near the site of Ephesus.

[4041] See B. ii. c. 91. for further mention of this island.

[4042] Said to be derived from the Greek, meaning “The beautiful
(stream) from Pion.”

[4043] One of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia, founded by Andræmon.
Notium was its port. There do not seem to be any remains of either of
these places.

[4044] Called also the Hales or Ales, and noted for the coolness of its

[4045] At Clarus, near Colophon. When Germanicus was on his way to the
East, this oracle foretold to him his speedy death. Chandler is of
opinion that he discovered the site of this place at Zillé, where he
found a spring of water with marble steps to it, which he considers to
have been the sacred fountain. Others again suggest that these ruins
may be those of Notium.

[4046] Its site was probably near the modern Ekklesia, but no traces of
the city itself are to be found.

[4047] Implying that in his time Notium was not in existence, whereas
in reality Notium superseded Old Colophon, of which it was the port,
and was sometimes known as New Colophon.

[4048] Now known as Cape Curco.

[4049] The site of this place is now known as Ritri, on the south side
of a small peninsula, which projects into the bay of Erythræ. The ruins
are considerable.

[4050] On the south side of the bay of Smyrna. In Strabo’s time this
city appears to have been removed from Chytrium, its original site.
Chandler found traces of the city near Vourla, from which he came to
the conclusion that the place was very small and inconsiderable.

[4051] According to Nicander, this was a mountain of the territory of
Clazomenæ, almost surrounded by sea.

[4052] Or “the Horses,” originally four islands close to the mainland,
off Clazomenæ.

[4053] This was probably the same causeway that was observed by
Chandler in the neighbourhood of Vourla, the site of ancient Clazomenæ.

[4054] See B. ii. c. 91, where he speaks of this place as being
swallowed up in the earth.

[4055] From Clazomenæ.

[4056] Now called Izmir by the Turks, Smyrna by the western nations of
Europe; the only one of the great cities on the western coast of Asia
Minor that has survived to the present day. This place stood at the
head of the cities that claimed to be the birth-place of Homer; and
the poet was worshipped here for a hero or demi-god in a magnificent
building called the Homereum. There are but few remains of the ancient
city: the modern one is the greatest commercial city of the Levant.

[4057] Hardouin takes this to be the name of a town, but Ortelius and
Pinetus seem to be more correct in thinking it to be the name of a

[4058] It does not appear that all these mountains have been
identified. Cadmus is the Baba Dagh of the Turks.

[4059] Mentioned in C. 29 of the present Book.

[4060] In the time of Strabo this tributary of the Hermus seems to have
been known as the Phrygius.

[4061] Its site is now called Menemen, according to D’Anville. The
Cryus was so called from the Greek κρύος, “cold.”

[4062] The present Gulf of Smyrna.

[4063] Or the “Ants.”

[4064] Probably so called from the whiteness of the promontory on
which it was situate. It was built by Tachos, the Persian general, in
B.C. 352, and remarkable as the scene of the battle between the Consul
Licinius Crassus and Aristonicus in B.C. 131. The modern name of its
site is Lefke.

[4065] Its ruins are to be seen at Karaja-Fokia or Old Fokia,
south-west of Fouges or New Fokia. It was said to have been founded by
Phocian colonists under Philogenes and Damon.

[4066] The people of Hyrcania, one of the twelve cities which were
prostrated by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar; see B. ii.
c. 86.

[4067] The people of Magnesia “ad Sipylum,” or the city of Magnesia on
the Sipylus. It was situate on the south bank of the Hermus, and is
famous in history as the scene of the victory gained by the two Scipios
over Antiochus the Great, which secured to the Romans the empire of the
East, B.C. 190. This place also suffered from the great earthquake in
the reign of Tiberius, but was still a place of importance in the fifth

[4068] The people, it is supposed, of a place called Hierocæsarea.

[4069] The people probably of Metropolis in Lydia, now Turbali, a
city on the plain of the Caÿster, between Ephesus and Smyrna. Cilbis,
perhaps the present Durgut, was their chief place.

[4070] A people dwelling in the upper valley of Caÿster.

[4071] Or Mysian Macedonians.

[4072] The people of Mastaura in Lydia. Its site is still known as

[4073] The people of Briula, the site of which is unknown.

[4074] The people of Hypæpæ, a small town of Lydia, on the southern
slope of Mount Tmolus, forty-two miles from Ephesus. Under the Persian
supremacy, the worship of Fire was introduced at this place. Arachne,
the spinner, and competitor with Minerva, is represented by Ovid as
dwelling at this place; he calls it on two occasions “the _little_
Hypæpæ.” Leake is of opinion that the ruins seen at Bereki belong to
this place.

[4075] The people of Dios Hieron, or the “Temple of Jupiter.” This
was a small place in Ionia between Lebedus and Colophon. It has been
suggested that it was on the banks of the Caÿster, but its site is

[4076] Æolis, properly so called, extended as far north as the
promontory of Lectum, at the northern entrance of the bay of

[4077] Near Cyme, a place of Pelasgian origin. It was called Egyptian
Larissa, because Cyrus the Great settled here a body of his Egyptian
soldiers. According to D’Anville its site is still known as Larusar.

[4078] Said to have been so called from Cyme an Amazon. It was on
the northern side of the Hermus: Herodotus gives it the surname of
Phriconis. Its site is supposed to be at the modern Sanderli or
Sandarlio. The father of the poet Hesiod was a native of this place.

[4079] It was probably so called in honour of the Emperor Augustus.

[4080] Situate at a short distance from the coast. We learn from
Tacitus that it suffered from the great earthquake in the time of
Tiberius. Its site is called Guzel-Hissar, according to D’Anville.

[4081] Originally named Agroeira or Alloeira. There is a place still
called _Adala_, on the river Hermus, but Hamilton found no remains of
antiquity there.

[4082] Or the “New Walls.” Strabo speaks of it as distant thirty stadia
from Larissa.

[4083] Its site is unknown; but it must not be confounded with the
place of that name mentioned in the last Chapter, which stood on the
sea-coast. It suffered from the great earthquake in the reign of
Tiberius Cæsar.

[4084] Or Grynium, forty stadia from Myrina, and seventy from Elæa. It
contained a sanctuary of Apollo with an ancient oracle and a splendid
temple of white marble. Parmenio, the general of Alexander, took the
place by assault and sold the inhabitants as slaves. It is again
mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxii. c. 21.

[4085] This passage seems to be in a corrupt state, and it is difficult
to arrive at Pliny’s exact meaning.

[4086] The port of the Pergameni. Strabo places it south of the river
Caïcus, twelve stadia from that river, and 120 from Pergamum. Its site
is uncertain, but Leake fixes it at a place called Kliseli, on the road
from the south to Pergamum.

[4087] Its modern name is said to be Ak-Su or Bakir.

[4088] On the coast of the Elaitic gulf. It was almost destroyed by
an earthquake in the reign of the Emperor Titus. Its site is by some
thought to have been at Sanderli.

[4089] Supposed to have been situate near the modern Cape Coloni. It
was here that in the war with Antiochus, B.C. 191-190, the Roman fleet
was hauled up for the winter and protected by a ditch or rampart.

[4090] So called from Lysimachus, the son of Agathocles.

[4091] A strong place opposite to Lesbos. It was on the road from
Adramyttium to the plain of the Caïcus. Its site is generally fixed at
Dikeli Koi.

[4092] Or Carine. The army of Xerxes, on its route to the Hellespont,
marched through this place. Its site is unknown.

[4093] It lay outside of the bay of Adramyttium and the promontory of

[4094] Mentioned in the Iliad with Chryse and Tenedos.

[4095] A place called Kutchulan, or, as some write it,
Cotschiolan-Kuni, is supposed to occupy its site.

[4096] Or Thebes, in the vicinity of Troy.

[4097] In the plain of Thebes between Antandros and Adramyttium. It had
a temple of Artemis, of which the Antandrii had the superintendence.
Its site does not appear to have been ascertained.

[4098] Not improbably the Chryse, mentioned by Homer in the Iliad, B.
i. ll. 37, 390, 431; but there were several places of this name.

[4099] See the note [4105] to Scepsis in the present Chapter.

[4100] Or Gergis, Gergithus, or Gergithes, a town in the Troad, north
of Scamander. It was a place with an acropolis and strong walls.
Attalus, king of Pergamus, transplanted the people of Gergis to another
spot near the sources of the Caïcus, whence we afterwards find a place
called Gergetha or Gergithion, in the vicinity of Larissa. The old town
of Gergis was by some said to have been the birth-place of the Sibyl,
and its coins have her image impressed on them.

[4101] Also called Neandria, upon the Hellespont.

[4102] South of Adramyttium; in its vicinity were copper-mines and
celebrated vineyards. It was here that Thucydides is said to have died.

[4103] In the district of Coryphantes, opposite to Lesbos, and north of
Atarneus. Pliny speaks of the oysters of Coryphas, B. xxxii. c. 6.

[4104] This Aphrodisias does not appear to have been identified.

[4105] Again mentioned by Pliny in B. xi. c. 80. Scepsis was an
ancient city in the interior of the Troad, south-east of Alexandria,
in the mountains of Ida. Its inhabitants were removed by Antigonus to
Alexandria; but being permitted by Lysimachus to return to their homes,
they built a new city, and the remains of the old town were then called
Palæscepsis. This place is famous in literary history for being the
spot where certain MSS. of Aristotle and Theophrastus were buried to
prevent their transfer to Pergamus. When dug up they were found nearly
destroyed by mould, and in this condition were removed by Sylla to

[4106] Sometimes called the Lycormas, now known as the Fidhari or

[4107] Frequently mentioned by Homer.

[4108] Still known as Ida or Kas-Dagh.

[4109] More generally known as Adramyttium or Adramyteum, now Adramiti
or Edremit. According to tradition it was founded by Adramys, the
brother of Crœsus, king of Lydia. It is mentioned as a sea-port in the
Acts, xxvii. 2. There are no traces of ancient remains on its site.

[4110] One of the heights of Mount Ida in the Troad, now called
Kaz-Dag. The territory in this vicinity, as we learn from Virgil and
Seneca, was famous for its fertility. The modern village of Iné is
supposed to occupy the site of the ancient town of Gargara.

[4111] Now Antandro, at the head of the Gulf of Adramyttium. Aristotle
also says that its former name was Edonis, and that it was inhabited by
a Thracian tribe of Edoni. Herodotus as well as Aristotle also speak of
the seizure of the place by the Cimmerii in their incursion into Asia.

[4112] Now Cape Baba or Santa Maria, the south-west promontory of the

[4113] Or Sminthian Apollo. This appears to have been situate at the
Chrysa last mentioned by Pliny as no longer in existence. Strabo places
Chrysa on a hill, and he mentions the temple of Smintheus and speaks of
a symbol which recorded the etymon of that name, the mouse which lay
at the foot of the wooden figure, the work of Scopas. According to an
ancient tradition, Apollo had his name of Smintheus given him as being
the mouse-destroyer, for, according to Apion, the meaning of Smintheus
was a “mouse.”

[4114] According to tradition this place was in early times the
residence of Cycnus, a Thracian prince, who possessed the adjoining
country, and the island of Tenedos, opposite to which Colone was
situate on the mainland. Pliny however here places it in the interior.

[4115] The site of this Apollonia is at Abullionte, on a lake of
the same name, the Apolloniatis of Strabo. Its remains are very

[4116] Or Lycus, now known as the Edrenos.

[4117] Of this people nothing whatever is known.

[4118] D’Anville thinks that the modern Bali-Kesri occupies the site of

[4119] Stephanus Byzantinus mentions a place called Pœmaninum near

[4120] The inhabitants of Polichna, a town of the Troad.

[4121] The people of Pionia, near Scepsis and Gargara.

[4122] They occupied the greater part of Mysia Proper. They had a
native divinity to which they paid peculiar honours, by the Greeks
called Ζεὺς Ἀβρεττηνὸς.

[4123] The same as the Olympeni or Olympieni, in the district of
Olympene at the foot of Mount Olympus; next to whom, on the south and
west, were the Abretteni.

[4124] On the south-western coast of the Troad, fifty stadia south of
Larissa. In the time of Strabo it had ceased to exist. No ruins of
this place have been known to be discovered, but Prokesch is induced
to think that the architectural remains to be seen near Cape Baba are
those of Hamaxitus.

[4125] Or Cebrene or Cebren. It was separated from the territory of
Scepsis by the river Menander. Leake supposes it to have occupied the
higher region of Ida on the west, and that its site may have been at a

Online LibraryPliny the ElderThe Natural History of Pliny, Volume 1 (of 6) → online text (page 55 of 57)