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place called Kushunlu Tepe, not far from Baramitsh.

[4126] Mentioned in Acts xvi. 8. It is now called Eski Stambul or
Old Stambul. It was situate on the coast of Troas, opposite to the
south-eastern point of the island of Tenedos, and north of Assus.
It was founded by Antigonus, under the name of Antigonia Troas, and
peopled with settlers from Scepsis and other neighbouring towns. The
ruins of this city are very extensive.

[4127] Or Nea, mentioned in B. ii. c. 97.

[4128] Now called the Mendereh-Chai.

[4129] On the north-west promontory of Troas. Here Homer places the
Grecian fleet and camp during the Trojan war. The promontory is now
called Yenisheri.

[4130] Now called Jeni-Scher, according to Ansart. It was at this spot
that the Greeks landed in their expedition against Troy.

[4131] Usually identified with the Mendereh-Chai or Scamander.

[4132] The modern Gumbrek.

[4133] Or “ancient Scamander.”

[4134] Now known as the Koja-Chai; memorable as the scene of the three
great victories by which Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian
empire, B.C. 334. Here also a victory was gained by Lucullus over
Mithridates, B.C. 73.

[4135] Or Sea of Marmora.

[4136] It is not exactly known whether _New_ Ilium was built on the
same site as the Ilium or Troy which had been destroyed by the Greeks;
but it has been considered improbable that the exploits mentioned
in the Iliad should have happened in so short a space as that lying
between the later Ilium and the coast. The site of New Ilium is
generally considered to be the spot covered with ruins, now called
Kissarlik, between the villages called Kum-kioi, Kalli-fath, and

[4137] The Dictator Sylla showed especial favour to Ilium.

[4138] Now called Cape Intepeh or Barbieri.

[4139] The modern Paleo Castro probably occupies its site.

[4140] More generally called Dardanus, or Dardanum, said to have been
built by Dardanus. It was situate about a mile south of the promontory
Dardanis or Dardanium. Its exact site does not appear to bo known: from
it the modern Dardanelles are supposed to have derived their name.

[4141] Situate between Percote and Abydus, and founded by Scamandrius
and Ascanius the son of Æneas. The village of Moussa is supposed to
occupy its site. The army of Alexander mustered here after crossing the

[4142] Alexander the Great visited this place on his Asiatic expedition
in B.C. 334, and placed chaplets on the tomb of Achilles.

[4143] So called from Æas, the Greek name of Ajax.

[4144] Teuthrania was in the south-western comer of Mysia, between
Temnus and the borders of Lydia, where in very early times Teuthras was
said to have founded a Mysian kingdom, which was early subdued by the
kings of Lydia: this part was also called Pergamene.

[4145] Called Pionitæ in the preceding Chapter.

[4146] A town in the Troad, the site of which is unknown.

[4147] A town on the Propontis, according to Stephanus. The sites of
most of the places here mentioned are utterly unknown.

[4148] Also called Pergama or Pergamus. Its ruins are to be seen at
the modern Pergamo or Bergamo. It was the capital of the kingdom of
Pergamus, and situate in the Teuthranian district of Mysia, on the
northern bank of the river Caïcus. Under its kings, its library almost
equalled that of Alexandria, and the formation of it gave rise to the
invention of parchment, as a writing material, which was thence called
_Charta Pergamena_. This city was an early seat of Christianity, and is
one of the seven churches of Asia to whom the Apocalyptic Epistles are
addressed. Its ruins are still to be seen.

[4149] At the beginning of the preceding Chapter.

[4150] The people of Thyatira, mentioned in B. v. c. 31.

[4151] The people of Mygdonia, a district between Mount Olympus and the
coast, in the east of Mysia and the west of Bithynia.

[4152] “The people of the Holy Village.” Hierocome is mentioned by Livy
as situate beyond the river Mæander.

[4153] The people of Attalia, mentioned in C. 32.

[4154] Previously mentioned in the present Chapter.

[4155] Or “the Table.” Now known as Capo de Janisseri.

[4156] Also called the Milyæ, probably of the Syro-Arabian race; they
were said to have been the earliest inhabitants of Lycia.

[4157] The Leleges are now considered to have been a branch of the
great Indo-Germanic race, who gradually became incorporated with the
Hellenic race, and thus ceased to exist as an independent people.

[4158] A nation belonging probably more to mythology than history.
Strabo supposes them to have been of Thracian origin, and that their
first place of settlement was Mysia.

[4159] By some supposed to have been a people of Phrygia.

[4160] Mentioned in C. 29 of the present Book.

[4161] From the Greek δαμάω, “to subdue.” Hardouin thinks that this
appellation is intended to be given by Pliny to Asia in general, and
not to the city of Apamea in particular, as imagined by Ortelius and

[4162] It is so described by Homer.

[4163] This was the light-house built upon it by Ptolemy II.
Philadelphus, whence the name of _pharus_ came to be applied to similar
structures. It was here also that, according to the common story, the
seventy Translators of the Greek version of the Old Testament, hence
called the Septuagint, were confined while completing their work.

[4164] The _narrow_ or _fortified_ channel.

[4165] The _Neptunian_ channel.

[4166] Mentioned also in C. 14 of the present Book.

[4167] In C. 17 of the present Book.

[4168] The boatmen of Ruad, the ancient Aradus, still draw fresh water
from the spring Ain Ibrahim, in the sea, a few rods from the shore of
the opposite coast.

[4169] Now called Kibris.

[4170] Strabo makes it 425. Hardouin remarks that Isidorus has not made
allowance for the margin of the creeks and bays.

[4171] The north-eastern extremity of Cyprus. It is now called Capo
Sant Andreas. It is more generally known in the editions of Pliny by
the name of Dinaretum.

[4172] Now called Capo Sant Epifanio, or Pifano, after the celebrated
metropolitan of Cyprus. It is the western extremity of the island.

[4173] From the Greek κέρας, “a horn.” It was not improbably so called
from the numerous _horns_ or promontories on its coast.

[4174] From the Greek μακάριος, “blessed,” in compliment to its fertile
soil and delightful temperature.

[4175] Apparently from the Greek κρυπτὸς, “concealed.” Stephanus
Byzantinus says that it was so called because it was frequently hidden
beneath the surface of the sea.

[4176] Or New Paphos. The spot is still called Bafa or Bafo.

[4177] Or Old Paphos, now Kukala or Konuklia. Old Paphos was situate
near the promontory Zephyrium on the river Bocarno, where it had a good
harbour; while New Paphos lay more inland, in the midst of a fertile
plain, sixty stadia from the former. Old Paphos was the chief seat of
worship of Aphrodite or Venus, who was said to have landed at that
place after her ascent from the sea.

[4178] Situate on the most southerly point in the island; now Capo
Gavatta or delle Gatte.

[4179] A town situate on the south coast of Cyprus. Its ruins are to be
seen between Larnika and the port now known as Salines; they are very
extensive. In B. xxx. c. 9, Pliny speaks of the salt lakes near this
place, which are worked at the present day.

[4180] In the middle of the east coast. It was said to have been
founded by Teucer the son of Telamon, who gave it the name of his
native land from which he had been banished by his father.

[4181] Now called Old Limasol, a town on the south coast, celebrated
for its worship of Aphrodite or Venus. It was a Phœnician settlement,
and Stephanus calls it the most ancient city in the island. It long
preserved its oriental customs, and here the Tyrian Hercules was
worshipped under his name of Melkart.

[4182] Its site is now called Lapitho or Lapta.

[4183] Probably the same as the Temese of Homer. It was situate in a
fertile district in the middle of Cyprus, and in the neighbourhood
of extensive copper mines. Near it was a celebrated plain, sacred to
Venus, mentioned by Ovid.

[4184] Now called Chytria, a town of Cyprus on the road from Cerinea to

[4185] In the east of Cyprus, near the Promontory of Acamas, formerly
called Marion. Ptolemy Soter destroyed this town, and removed the
inhabitants to Paphos. The modern name of its site is Polikrusoko or
Crisophou, from the gold mines in the neighbourhood. There was more
than one city of this name in Cyprus, which was probably bestowed on
them during its subjection to the princes of the line of Lagus. Another
Arsinoë is placed near Ammochostus to the north of the island, and a
third of the same name appears in Strabo with a harbour, temple and
grove, between Old and New Paphos.

[4186] Or Carpasia, to the north-east of the island, facing the
Promontory of Sarpedon on the Cilician coast. It was said to have
been founded by Pygmalion, king of Tyre. Pococke speaks of remains at
Carpas, the site of this place, especially a long wall and a pier.

[4187] Or Golgos, famous for the worship of Aphrodite or Venus, which
had existed here even before its introduction at Paphos by Agapenor.
Its position is unknown.

[4188] Or Idalia, adjoining to which was a forest sacred to Aphrodite.
The poets, who connect this place with her worship, give us no
indications whatever of its precise locality. Engel identifies it with
the modern Dalin, situate to the south of Leucosia, at the foot of
Mount Olympus.

[4189] Now Cape Anamur.

[4190] “Aulon Cilicium,” now the Sea of Caramania or Cyprus.

[4191] The Cilician Sea, namely.

[4192] There were several islands of this name. It is not improbable
that Pliny alludes to the one lying off the coast of Caria between
the isle of Rhodes and the mainland, and which seems to be the island
marked Alessa in the maps. There was another of the same name close to
the shore of Cilicia, afterwards known by the name of Sebaste.

[4193] Or Cleides, meaning the “Keys.” This was a group of small
islands lying to the north-east of Cyprus. The name of the islands was
afterwards transferred by some geographer to the Cape which Pliny above
calls Dinæ, and others Dinaretum.

[4194] Cape Acamas, now Pifano.

[4195] Or the “Sacred Garden.” The names of this and the Salaminiæ do
not appear to be known to the modern geographers.

[4196] This is identified by Beaufort with the islet called Bœshat,
which is separated by a narrow channel from the Lycian shore. The
others do not seem to have been identified. Attelebussa is supposed to
take its name from a kind of destructive grasshopper without wings,
called by the Greeks ἀττέλεβος.

[4197] Situate off the commencement of the sea-coast of Pamphylia, on
the borders of Lycia. Beaufort speaks of them as five in number; he did
not meet with any of the dangers of the navigation here mentioned by
Pliny. The Greeks still call them Chelidoniæ, and the Italian sailors
Celidoni, which the Turks have corrupted into Shelidan.

[4198] Hardouin supposes these four islands to be the names of the
group forming the Pactyæ. The names given appear to signify, the “Wild”
or “Rough Islands,” the “Isle of the Nymphs,” the “Long Island,”
and the “Greatest Island.” They were off the coast of Lycia, and
seem to have belonged to the Rhodians. The modern name of Megista is
Kastelorizo, according to Ansart.

[4199] Or Doliche, the “Long Island,” in the Lycian Sea, west of the
ruins of Myra. Its modern name is Kakava. It is now uninhabited.

[4200] Still known as Grambousa, a small island off the east coast of
Lycia. There seems to have been another of the same name off the Lycian

[4201] An island off the coast of Lycia.

[4202] Hardouin thinks that they were opposite to the city of Dædala on
the coast of Caria.

[4203] Off the city of Crya, probably, in Caria.

[4204] On the coast of Lycia.

[4205] In Lycia. See C. 29 of the present Book.

[4206] Probably so called from the number of hares found there.

[4207] On the coast of Caria.

[4208] Still known as Lindo and Camiro, according to D’Anville.

[4209] One of the three ancient Doric cities of Rhodes. It lay
three-quarters of a mile to the south-west of the city of Rhodes,
with which Pliny seems here to confound it. Its site is occupied by a
village which still bears the name of Ialiso, and where a few ancient
remains are to be found.

[4210] From its productiveness of serpents.

[4211] Either from Asterius, its former king, or from its being a
“constellation” of the sea.

[4212] Probably because of the clearness and serenity of its
atmosphere. See B. ii. c. 62.

[4213] From its three-cornered shape.

[4214] Perhaps so called from its fruitfulness in ivy, in Greek
κορυμβήθρα, or else from κόρυμβος, “a summit,” from its elevated

[4215] From its verdant and grassy soil.

[4216] Either from King Atabyrius, or the mountain Atabyrion; or else
from the temple of Jupiter Tabyrius, which Appian speaks of as situate
in this island.

[4217] The “fortunate,” or “blessed” island.

[4218] “Venomous,” or “deadly.” This name it most probably had in early
times (and not more recently, as Pliny says), when it was covered with
dense forests, the retreats of serpents and noxious reptiles.

[4219] Now known as Skarpanto.

[4220] Mentioned by Homer, Il. ii. 676. See also B. iv. c. 23 of the
present work. It is described by Ross as a single ridge of mountains,
of considerable height.

[4221] Signifying “sea-foam.”

[4222] Still known as Nicero.

[4223] From its production of the ‘murex,’ or ‘purple.’

[4224] Now called Symi, a small island off the south-west coast of
Caria, at the mouth of the Gulf of Doris, to the west of the Promontory
of Cynossema.

[4225] Now called the Island of St. Catherine, according to Ansart.

[4226] Stephanus Byzantinus mentions these islands as lying in the
vicinity at Syme. Perhaps they are the group lying to the south of it,
now called Siskle.

[4227] Distant about fifty miles from Carpathus, or Skarpanto. It was
probably subject to Rhodes, in the vicinity of which it was situate.
Its present name is Chalki.

[4228] An island, according to Hardouin, not far from Halicarnassus, on
the coast of Ionia.

[4229] So called from its productiveness of the νάρθηξ, or ferula.

[4230] More probably Calydnæ, because there were several islands
forming the group, of which Calymna was the chief. See B. iv. c. 23,
where Pliny mentions only one town, that of Coös. There are some
remains of the ancient towns still to be seen.

[4231] A small island of Caria, south of Halicarnassus. It is now
called Orak-Ada.

[4232] Probably so called from the almost continual rains there.

[4233] Now called Stanko, or Stanchio, a corruption of ἐς τὰν Κῶ.

[4234] Which has been previously mentioned in this Chapter.

[4235] In C. 29, Pliny has mentioned a Caryanda on the mainland. It
is probable that there was a town on the mainland and another in the
island of the same name. Leake says, that there can be little doubt
that the large peninsula, towards the west end of which is the fine
harbour called by the Turks Pasha Limani, is the ancient island of
Caryanda, now joined to the mainland by a narrow sandy isthmus.

[4236] The island of Hyali, near the harbour of Meffi, on the coast of
Caria, according to Dupinet.

[4237] Probably so called from the worship of the god Priapus there.

[4238] Few, if any, of these islets can now be recognized. Sepiussa was
probably so called from the abundance of the sepia, or cuttle-fish,

[4239] Over against the isle of Samos.

[4240] B. iv. c. 23.

[4241] Near the city of Miletus.

[4242] So called from their resemblance to camels.

[4243] Lying before the Promontory of Trogilium, mentioned in C. 31.

[4244] Augustus gave their liberty to the Samians. The island is still
called by the Greeks Samo, and by the Turks Susam Adassi.

[4245] The “Virgin’s Island,” if so called after Juno, as some say; but
according to Strabo, it received its name from the river Parthenius.

[4246] From its numerous oaks.

[4247] From the abundance of its flowers.

[4248] “Of dark,” or “black foliage;” in allusion probably to its

[4249] “Cypress-bearing.”

[4250] This is not improbably a compound, formed by a mistake of
the copyists, of the two names, Parthenia and Aryusa, mentioned by

[4251] “The Crown.” This island was the birth-place of Pythagoras.

[4252] Now known as Khio, Scio, Saka Adassi, or Saksadasi. Chios was
declared free by the Dictator Sulla.

[4253] Χιὼν, gen. Χιόνος.

[4254] Macris, from its length, and Pityusa, from its pine-trees.

[4255] Dalechamps says 112 is the correct measurement.

[4256] Mentioned in C. 31 of the present Book.

[4257] Meaning “green and flourishing.”

[4258] “Productive of laurels.” None of these islets appear to have
been recognized by their modern names.

[4259] By Strabo called Pordoselene. He says that the islands in its
vicinity were forty in number; of which Pliny here gives the names of

[4260] South of Proconnesus; now called Aloni.

[4261] Near the city of Clazomenæ. It is now called Vourla, according
to Ansart.

[4262] Now Koutali, according to Ansart.

[4263] We learn from Strabo and other writers, that this city was on
a peninsula, and that it stood on the southern side of the isthmus,
connecting Mount Mimas with the mainland of Lydia. It was the
birth-place of Anacreon and Hecatæus.

[4264] Or the “Dove Islands;” probably from the multitude of those
birds found on those islands.

[4265] Now called Antigona, according to Ansart.

[4266] Now Mitylene, or Metelin.

[4267] We find it also stated by Herodotus, that this island was
destroyed by the Methymnæans. The cities of Mitylene, Methymna, Eresus,
Pyrrha, Antissa, and Arisbe, originally formed the Æolian Hexapolis, or
Confederation of Six Cities.

[4268] The ruins found by Pococke at Calas Limneonas, north-east of
Cape Sigri, may be those of Antissa. This place was the birth-place of
Terpander, the inventor of the seven-stringed lyre.

[4269] Or Eressus, according to Strabo. It stood on a hill, reaching
down to the sea. Its ruins are said to be near a place still called
Eresso. It was the birth-place of the philosopher Theophrastus, the
disciple of Aristotle.

[4270] Still called Mitylene, or Metelin.

[4271] Strabo makes it about only 137 miles.

[4272] Or the White Islands.

[4273] So called from its fruitfulness in quinces, or “_Mala Cydonia_.”

[4274] These were three small islands, near the mainland of Æolis. It
was off these islands that the ten generals of the Athenians gained a
victory over the Spartans, B.C. 406. The modern name of these islands
is said to be Janot.

[4275] One of the Leucæ, previously mentioned.

[4276] So called from the φελλὸς, or “cork,” which it produced.

[4277] Still known as Tenedos, near the mouth of the Hellespont. Here
the Greeks were said to have concealed their fleet, to induce the
Trojans to think that they had departed, and then introduce the wooden
horse within their walls.

[4278] “Having white eye-brows;” probably from the whiteness of its

[4279] In C. 33 of the present Book.

[4280] Opposite to Sestos, made famous by the loves of Hero and
Leander. Aidos, or Avido, a village on the Hellespont, is thought to
occupy its site.

[4281] Now called Bergase, according to D’Anville.

[4282] Its ruins are still known as Lapsaki. This important city was
celebrated for its wine, and was the chief seat of the worship of the
god Priapus.

[4283] Its site is now called Camanar, according to D’Anville.

[4284] According to Ansart, the modern Caraboa marks its site.

[4285] Now called the Satal-dere, according to Ansart.

[4286] Its locality was not far from the modern Biga, according to

[4287] Now the Sea of Marmora.

[4288] Mentioned in C. 33 of the present Book.

[4289] Now called Artaki, or Erdek, a town of Mysia, and a Milesian
colony. A poor town now occupies its site.

[4290] Its ruins are called by the Turks Bal Kiz, probably meaning “Old
Cyzicus.” There are many subterraneous passages, and the ruins are of
considerable extent. Its temples and storehouses appear to have been
built on a scale of great magnificence. See Pliny, B. xxxvi. c. 15.

[4291] The “Island of the Bears,” which animals frequented the mountain
in its vicinity.

[4292] Called Dindymum by Herodotus; probably the modern Morad Dagh, in
which the river Hermus rises.

[4293] Now called Saki, according to Ansart.

[4294] Now called the Lartacho, according to Ansart.

[4295] Previously mentioned in C. 32 of the present Book.

[4296] In its limited sense; considered as a portion only of Asia Minor.

[4297] On the west it bordered on Mysia, and on the south on Phrygia
and Galatia, while the eastern boundary seems to have been less

[4298] Ephorus, as quoted by Stephanus Byzantinus, says, that the
Halizones inhabited the district lying between Caria, Mysia, and Lydia.
Hesychius incorrectly places them in Paphlagonia.

[4299] Meaning the “Village of Gordius,” one of its ancient kings. It
was also called Gordium. After falling to decay, it was rebuilt by
Augustus, and called Juliopolis. It is celebrated in history as the
place where Alexander the Great cut the Gordian knot; the scene of the
adventure being the Acropolis of the town, the former palace of King

[4300] There were several Asiatic cities of the similar name of
Dascylium. The site of the one here mentioned does not appear to have
been ascertained.

[4301] More generally read “Gebes.”

[4302] The “Bull’s Bed,” or “Den.” It probably took its second name
from the Roman general Germanicus.

[4303] Now called Medania, or Mutania. It received its name of Apamea
from Prusias, king of Bithynia, in compliment to his wife. In the time
of the first Cæsars, it was made a Roman colony.

[4304] The Bay of Cios. The river runs into a lake, formerly known as
Lake Ascanius; probably that mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxi. c. 10.

[4305] Stephanus Byzantinus says that it was the same as the town of
Cios, or Cius, here mentioned as near to it. It was on the shores of
the Propontis.

[4306] Cape Baba, or Santa Maria; the south-western promontory of the

[4307] In Phrygia Epictetus, or “Conquered Phrygia,” so called from its
conquest by certain of the kings of Bithynia. Strabo calls this place a
“small city, or hill-fortress, towards Lydia.” It was probably situate
near the source of the Macestus, now the Susugherli Su, or the Simaul
Su, as it is called in its upper course.

[4308] The place from which the citizens were removed to Apamea, as
mentioned in C. 29 of the present Book. Hamilton (Researches, &c., p.
499) supposes its acropolis to have been situate about half a mile from
the sources of the river Marsyas.

[4309] First mentioned by Herodotus, and situate on the Lycus, a
branch of the Mæander. It had greatly declined in Strabo’s time, and
in the middle ages there rose near it a town of the name of Chonæ, and
Colossæ disappeared. Hamilton found extensive ruins of an ancient city
about three miles north of the modern Khonos. It was one of the early
Christian churches of Asia, and the Apostle Paul addressed one of his
Epistles to the people of this place. It does not appear from it that
he had ever visited the place; indeed, from Chap. ii. 1 we may conclude
that he had not.

[4310] This does not appear to be the same as the Carine mentioned in
C. 32 of this Book, as having gone to decay. Its site is unknown.

[4311] Or Cotiæum, or Cotyæum. It was on the Roman road from Dorylæum
to Philadelphia, and in Phrygia Epictetus, according to Strabo. The
modern Kutahiyah is supposed to denote its site; but there are no
remains of antiquity.

[4312] It was bounded on the west, south, and south-east by those
countries; and on the north-east, north, and north-west by Pontus,
Paphlagonia, and Bithynia.

[4313] Mentioned in C. 40, under the name of Gordiucome.

[4314] Who invaded and settled in Asia Minor, at various periods during
the third century B.C.

[4315] Near a small stream, which seems to enter the Sangarius. It
originally belonged to Phrygia, and its mythical founder was Midas, the

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