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son of Gordius, who was said to have found an anchor on the spot, and
accordingly given the name to the town; which story would, however,
as it has been observed, imply that the name for anchor (ἄγκυρα)
was the same in the Greek and the Phrygian languages. The Tectosages,
who settled here about B.C. 277, are supposed to have been from the
neighbourhood of Toulouse. It is now called Angora, or Engareh; and
the fine hair of the Angora goat may have formed one of the staple
commodities of the place, which had a very considerable trade. The
chief monument of antiquity here is the marble temple of the Emperor
Augustus, built in his honour during his lifetime. In the inside is the
Latin inscription known as the _monumentum_, or _marmor Ancyranum_,
containing a record of the memorable actions of Augustus. The ruins
here are otherwise interesting in a high degree.

[4316] Now Tchoroum, according to Ansart.

[4317] Its ruins are called Bala-Hisar, in the south-west of Galatia,
on the southern slope of Mount Didymus. This place was celebrated as a
chief seat of the worship of the goddess Cybele, under the surname of
Agdistis, whose temple, filled with riches, stood on a hill outside of
the city.

[4318] Hardouin suggests that these are the Chomenses, the people of
the city of Choma, in the interior of Lycia, mentioned in C. 28 of the
present Book.

[4319] The people of Lystra, a city of Lycaonia, on the confines of
Isauria, celebrated as one of the chief scenes of the preaching of Paul
and Barnabas. See Acts xiv.

[4320] The people of Seleucia, in Pisidia.

[4321] The people of Sebaste, a town of the Tectosages.

[4322] The people of Timonium, a town of Paphlagonia, according to
Stephanus Byzantinus.

[4323] Thebasa, a town of Lycaonia, has been mentioned in C. 25 of the
present Book.

[4324] See C. 25 of the present Book.

[4325] The town of Oroanda, giving name to this district, is mentioned
at the end of C. 24 of the present Book.

[4326] The Caÿster, the Rhyndacus, and the Cios.

[4327] Now called the Sakariyeh, the largest river of Asia Minor after
the ancient Halys.

[4328] Now called the Lefke, which discharges itself into the
Tangarius, or Sakariyeh.

[4329] Called “Galli.” They were said to become mad from drinking of
the waters of this river, and to mutilate themselves when in a frantic
state. See Ovid’s Fasti, B. iv. l. 364 _et seq._

[4330] Now called Brusa. It stood on the north side of Mount Olympus,
fifteen Roman miles from Cius. According to most accounts, it was
built by Prusias, king of Bithynia. It is most probable that Hannibal
superintended the works, while staying as a refugee at the court of

[4331] Now Lake Iznik.

[4332] Its ruins are to be seen at Iznik, on the east side of the lake
of that name. Its site is supposed to have been originally occupied by
the town of Attæa, and afterwards by a settlement of the Bottiæans,
called Ancore, or Helicore, which was destroyed by the Mysians. On this
spot, shortly after the death of Alexander the Great, Antigonus built
a city which he named after himself, Antigonæa; but Lysimachus soon
afterwards changed the name into Nicæa, in honour of his wife. Under
the kings of Bithynia, it was often the royal residence, and it long
disputed with Nicomedia the rank of capital of Bithynia. The modern
Iznik is only a poor village, with about 100 houses. Considerable ruins
of the ancient city are still in existence. Littré seems to think that
there are two Nicæas meant in these passages; but it would seem that
the same place is alluded to in both lines. The only thing that seems
to give countenance to Littré’s supposition (in which he is supported
by Hardouin) is, the expression “Et Prusa _item_ altera.”

[4333] It has been suggested, that this is only another name for the
town of Cios, previously mentioned; but it is most probable that they
were distinct places, and that this was originally called Cierus,
and belonged to the territory of Heraclea, but was conquered by King
Prusias, who named it after himself. It stood to the north-west of the
other Prusa.

[4334] Or the “Golden Stream.”

[4335] Suggested by Parisot to be the modern Cape Fagma.

[4336] From the Greek κράσπεδον, a “skirt.”

[4337] Or Astacus, a colony originally from Megara and Athens. From
Scylax it would appear that this city was also called Olbia. Its site
is placed by some of the modern geographers at a spot called Ovaschik,
and also Bashkele.

[4338] Called Gebiseh, according to Busbequis,—at least in his day. The
modern Hereket, on the coast, has been suggested.

[4339] Its ruins now bear the name of Izmid, or Iznikmid, at the
north-eastern corner of the Sinus Astacenus, or Gulf of Izmid. It was
the chief residence of the kings of Bithynia, and one of the most
splendid cities in the world. Under the Romans it was made a colony,
and was a favourite residence of Diocletian and Constantine the Great.
Arrian the historian was born here.

[4340] Now Akrita. It is also called Akritas by Ptolemy.

[4341] The Straits, or Channel of Constantinople.

[4342] Its site is supposed to have been about two miles south of
the modern Scutari, and it is said that the modern Greeks call it
Chalkedon, and the Turks Kadi-Kioi. Its destruction was completed by
the Turks, who used its materials for the construction of the mosques
and other buildings of Constantinople.

[4343] So called, Hardouin thinks, from its being opposite to the
Golden Horn, or promontory on which Byzantium was built.

[4344] Or Myrlea, mentioned above in C. 40. See p. 490.

[4345] Or Bithynium, lying above Tius. Its vicinity was a good feeding
country for cattle, and noted for the excellence of its cheese, as
mentioned by Pliny, B. xi. c. 42. Antinoüs, the favourite of the
Emperor Adrian, was born here, as Pausanias informs us. Its site does
not appear to be known.

[4346] These rivers do not appear to have been identified by the modern

[4347] The modern Scutari occupies its site. Dionysius of Byzantium
states, that it was called Chrysopolis, either because the Persians
made it the place of deposit for the gold which they levied from the
cities, or else from Chryses, a son of Agamemnon and Chryseis.

[4348] A king of the Bebrycians. For some further particulars relative
to this place, see B. xvi. c. 89 of the present Book.

[4349] Situate on a promontory, which is represented by the modern
Algiro, according to Hardouin and Parisot.

[4350] Other writers say that it was erected in honour of the Twelve
Greater Divinities.

[4351] Called Phinopolis in most of the editions. It is very doubtful
whether this passage ought not to be translated, “At a distance thence
of eight miles and three-quarters is the first entrance to this strait,
at the spot,” &c. We have, however, adopted the rendering of Holland,
Ajasson, and Littré.

[4352] Mentioned in C. 28 of the present Book.

[4353] In B. iv. c. 24.

[4354] Or “Deer Island.”

[4355] Now Afzia, according to D’Anville.

[4356] There is still an island in the Sea of Marmora known by the
name Alon, which is separated from the north-western extremity of the
Peninsula of Cyzicus by a narrow channel.

[4357] Hesychius says, that there were two islands near Byzantium
called by the common name of Demonnesi, but severally having the names
of Chalcitis and Pityusa. Pliny, on the other hand, places Demonnesus
opposite to Nicomedia, and at the same time mentions Chalcitis and
Pityodes (probably the same as Pityusa) as distinct places. D’Anville
calls Demonnesus “The Isle of Princes.”

[4358] The position assigned to this island by Pliny and Strabo
corresponds with that of Kalolimno, a small island ten miles north of
the mouth of the Rhyndacus.

[4359] Now called Prota, according to Parisot.

[4360] So called from its copper-mines; now called Khalki, or Karki.

[4361] Now called Prinkipo, east of Khalki.

[4362] See end of B. iii.

[4363] A celebrated Roman general, who was successively governor
of Numidia and Britain, where he defeated Queen Boadicea. He was a
supporter of the Emperor Otho, but afterwards obtained a pardon from
Vitellius on the plea that he had betrayed Otho at the battle of
Bedriacum, and so contributed to his defeat; which, however, was not
the case.

[4364] See end of B. ii.

[4365] See end of B. iii.

[4366] See end of B. ii.

[4367] See end of B. iii.

[4368] See end of B. iii.

[4369] See end of B. iii.

[4370] Brother of Cæsonia, the wife of Caligula, and father of Domitia
Longina, the wife of Domitian. He was the greatest general of his day,
and conquered Tiridates, the powerful king of Parthia. He slew himself
at Cenchreæ, A.D. 67, upon hearing that Nero had given orders for his

[4371] See end of B. ii.

[4372] The Roman emperor, grandson of Livia, the wife of Augustus. As
an author, the character in which he is here referred to, he occupied
himself chiefly with history, and was encouraged in the pursuit by
Livy the historian. At an early age he began to write a history from
the death of the Dictator Cæsar, a plan which he afterwards abandoned,
and began his work with the restoration of peace, after the battle of
Actium. Of the earlier period he had written only four books, but the
latter work he extended to forty-four. He also wrote memoirs of his own
life, which Suetonius describes as written with more silliness than
inelegance. A fourth work was a defence of Cicero against the attacks
of Asinius Pollio. He also wrote histories of Carthage and of Etruria
in Greek. All of his literary works have perished.

[4373] See end of B. iii.

[4374] Nothing whatever is known of this son of T. Livius, the
great Roman historian. It is not improbable that the transcribers
have committed an error in inserting the word _filio_, and that the
historian himself is the person meant.

[4375] See end of B. ii.

[4376] “Acta Triumphorum” probably mean the registers kept in the
Capitol, in which were inscribed the names of those who were honoured
with triumphs, and the decrees of the senate or the people in their
favour. This register must not be confounded with the “Tabulæ

[4377] Juba II., king of Mauritania. After the defeat of his father at
Thapsus, he was carried a prisoner to Rome, though quite a child, and
compelled to grace the conqueror’s triumph. Augustus Cæsar afterwards
restored to him his kingdom, and gave him in marriage Cleopatra, or
Selene, the daughter of Antony and Cleopatra. To his literary pursuits
he is chiefly indebted for his reputation. His works are continually
quoted by Pliny, who regards his authority with the utmost deference.
Among his numerous works he seems to have written a History of Africa,
Assyria, Arabia, and Rome; as also Treatises on the Stage, Music,
Grammar, and Painting.

[4378] Of Miletus. See end of B. iv.

[4379] See end of B. iv.

[4380] See end of B. iv.

[4381] See end of B. ii.

[4382] He was employed by Alexander the Great in measuring distances in
his marches. He wrote a work upon this subject, entitled, “Distances of
the Marches of Alexander.”

[4383] See end of B. iv.

[4384] See end of B. iv.

[4385] See end of B. iv.

[4386] See end of B. iv.

[4387] See end of B. iv.

[4388] See end of B. ii.

[4389] See end of B. iv.

[4390] Of Chalcis. See end of B. iv.

[4391] See end of B. iv.

[4392] See end of B. ii.

[4393] See end of B. ii.

[4394] Of Rhodes, the friend of P. Scipio Æmilianus and Lælius. He was
the head of the Stoic School at Athens, where he died. His principal
work was a Treatise on Moral Duties, which served as a model for Cicero
in the composition of his work, “De Officiis.” He also wrote a work on
the philosophical sects.

[4395] See end of B. ii.

[4396] See end of B. iv.

[4397] See end of B. iv.

[4398] See end of B. iv.

[4399] See end of B. ii.

[4400] See end of B. ii.

[4401] See end of B. iv.

[4402] See end of B. iii.

[4403] See end of B. iii.

[4404] See end of B. ii.

[4405] There are four literary persons mentioned of this name. 1. An
Athenian comic poet of the middle comedy. 2. A native of Maronæa, in
Thrace, or else of Crete, who wrote lascivious and abusive verses,
and was at last put to death by order of Ptolemy Philadelphus. He was
the inventor of the Sotadean verse, or Ionic a Majore, Tetrameter
Brachycatalectic. 3. An Athenian philosopher, who wrote a book on
mysteries. 4. A Byzantine philosopher, of whom nothing whatever is

[4406] There were two writers of this name, before the time of Pliny.
1. Periander of Corinth, one of the Seven Wise Men, who wrote a
didactic poem, containing moral and political precepts, in 2000 lines;
and, 2. a physician and bad poet, contemporary with Archidamas, the son
of Agesilaüs. It is uncertain to which Pliny here refers.

[4407] Probably a writer on geography. Nothing appears to be known of

[4408] Of Cyzicus, see end of B. ii.; of Cnidos, see end of B. iv.

[4409] A Greek historian, who appears, from Plutarch, to have written a
history of the expeditions of Alexander the Great.

[4410] See end of B. iii.

[4411] See end of B. iii.

[4412] See end of B. iii.

[4413] The author of the Periplus, or voyage which he performed round
a part of Libya, of which we have a Greek translation from the Punic
original. His age is not known, but Pliny states (B. ii. c. 67, and B.
v. c. 1) that the voyage was undertaken in the most flourishing days of
Carthage. It has been considered on the whole, that he may be probably
identified with Hanno, the son or the father of Hamilcar, who was slain
at Himera, B.C. 480.

[4414] Mentioned also by Pliny, B. ii. c. 67, as having conducted a
voyage of discovery from Gades towards the north, along the western
shores of Europe, at the same time that Hanno proceeded on his voyage
along the western coast of Africa. He is repeatedly quoted by Festus
Avienus, in his geographical poem called _Ora Maritima_. His voyage is
said to have lasted four months, but it is impossible to judge how far
it extended.

[4415] See end of B. iii.

[4416] See end of B. iii.

[4417] See end of B. ii.

[4418] A Greek geographer, and friend of Seleucus Nicator, by whom
he was sent on an embassy to Sandrocottus, king of the Prasii, whoso
capital was Palibothra, a town probably in the vicinity of the present
Patna. Whether he had accompanied Alexander on his invasion of India is
quite uncertain. He wrote a work on India in four books, to which the
subsequent Greek writers were chiefly indebted for their accounts of
India. Arrian speaks highly of him as a writer, but Strabo impeaches
his veracity; and we find Pliny hinting the same in B. vi. c. 21. Of
his work only a few fragments survive.

[4419] See end of B. ii.

[4420] See end of B. iv.

[4421] There was a philosopher of this name, a nephew of Chrysippus,
and his pupil; but it is not known whether he is the person referred
to, in C. 10, either as having written a work on universal geography,
or on that of Egypt.

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