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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



T,! T 'RAUY
UNIVERSITY CF I AUFORNIA

1,03 ANGELES



PLUTARCH'S

LIVES AND WRITINGS

QJlye look Blotters' Stmifrfc

IX.



ESSAYS AND MISCELLANIES

VOLUME FOUR



CJ~HE Booh Lovers' Limited Edition of Plutarch's
Lives and Writings, Extra Illustrated, is
limited to One Tlwusand Sets, of which this is
No...



Sappho.
Front the paintim/ by Sir L. Alma-Tndmna.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES AND WRITINGS

EDITED BY A. H. CLOUGH AND PROF. WILLIAM W. GOODWIN
WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY RALPH WALDO EMERSON



PLUTARCH'S ESSAYS
AND MISCELLANIES

COMPRISING ALL HIS WORKS COLLECTED UNDER THE TITLE OF
"MORALS;" TRANSLATED FROM THE GREEK BY SEVERAL HANDS
CORRECTED AND REVISED BY WILLIAM W. GOODWIN, PH.D.
PROFESSOR OF GREEK LITERATURE IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY

IN FIVE VOLUMES
VOLUME FOUR

ILLUSTRATED WITH PHOTOGRAVURE REPRODUCTIONS
OP PAINTINGS AND SCULPTURES




LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY

BOSTON AND NEW YORK
1909



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870,

By LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY,
In the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.

Copyright, 1898, 1905,
By LITTLE, BEOWN, AND COMPANY.



s. .1. I'ARKim.i, ,t Co.. BOSTON, I". S. A.



College
Libvr.i v

'



V{\



CONTENTS OF VOLUME FOURTH.

WITH THE TRANSLATORS' NAMES.



WHY THE ORACLES CEASE TO GIVE ANSWERS.
BY ROBERT MIDGLEY, M.D., AND COLL. MED. LOUD. CAND.

Two men, Demetrius of Tarsus, from England, and Cleombrotus the Lacedaemonian,
from Egypt, meet at Delphi, 8. Their conversation about what Cleombrotus had
seen and heard in Egypt, 4. He had visited the oracle of Jupiter Ammon, 4. A
remarkable lamp there, which was never extinguished, though its supply of oil
was lessened continually, 4-6. The conversation turns on oracles : why have most
of the oracles, even in Greece, become silent ? 7. Formerly these oracles gave
responses, 8. What responses were given, 8. Are responses now withheld, because
of the great wickedness of the time ? 10. The gods are not inconstant or malev-
olent, 11. One cause may be found in the diminished population of Greece, 12.
When there were more men, there were more responses, 12. God himself has not
abolished divination, 13. God is not concerned in all human affairs, 14. There
are beings, called Daemons, intermediate between Gods and men, 14. These
Daemons were originally human beings, 14. They are not immortal, though
very long-lived, 16. A mathematical computation of the possible length of a
Daemon's life, 16-17. A Daemon resembles an isosceles triangle, 17. A Dae-
mon compared to the moon, 17, 18. Daemons are employed by the gods as
their agents and ministers in human affairs, particularly in matters of worship
and religious ceremony, 18. Human sacrifices and cruel rites are required by
malignant Daemons, 19. Combat between Apollo and the Dragon Python for
the possession of the oracle at Delphi, 20. Daemons are appointed to have the
care of oracles ; when the Daemons depart, the oracles must of course fail, 21. That
Daemons may be mortal, proved by a story related by one of the company :
" The great god Pan is dead," 23. Another story, about the death in Britain of
a Daemon, and the terrible storm that followed, 24. Opinions of the Stoics con-
cerning Daemons, 24. Epicureans reject the idea of Daemons, and with it the
Divine Providence, 25. Story of a stranger encountered by Cleombrotus in his
travels, and what he said about Daemons and oracles, 26-28. The wars of the
Titans were battles of Daemons with Daemons, 27. Daemons, though not gods,
like to be called gods and honored as such, 28. How many worlds are there 1
one hundred and eighty-three, ranged in the form of a triangle, 29. Homer says
there are five worlds, 30. Plato makes but one world, 28, 31. Probably there
are several worlds, 31. Reasons for this opinion, 32. There is one supreme God,
but many inferior gods, 31, 33. A plurality of worlds further discussed, 34, 35.
A plurality of worlds does not involve the existence of a plurality of Jupiters, 36.
An infinite number of worlds is a chimera : but a certain definite number is quite
probable; and Jupiter may pass from one world to another, as occasion requires,



IV CONTENTS OF VOL. IV.

to regulate its affairs, 36-88. As there are five regular forms of solid bodies,
there are probably five worlds, 38, 39. Objections to this opinion, 40. The
opinion defended, 41, 42. One, or unity ; two, or duality, are the supreme
principles of all things, 42. One and two make three, an odd number ; three and
two make five ; we reckon by fives, or by twice five ; all other numbers are pro-
duced from these ; we have five senses, and five fingers ; the earth haa five zones ;
the heaven has five circles ; for these and similar reasons it is inferred that there
are five worlds and no more, 42-47. The silence of the oracles is due to the fact
that the Daemons who presided over them have departed, 47. But how did the
Daemons exert their power over the oracles ? 47. If the Daemons, being hu-
man spirits disembodied, may foresee and foretell future events, why may not
human spirits, embodied, possess a similar power ? 48, 49. Our souls certainly
are endued by nature with this power, 60. This power exists in certain states or
dispositions of the body, assisted and enforced by certain exhalations from the
earth, 51, 52. Such an exhalation issues from the earth at Delphi and other
places, 63. But these exhalations are subject to changes, caused by earthquakes,
&c., 53, 54. From such causes the oracle may fail, 54. A story about an oracle
in Cilicia, 56. Objections to the views now expressed, 66, 67. If the prophetic
faculty be n natural endowment, why do we offer sacrifice to the gods, in order
to obtain a response ? 57. Because all good comes from the gods ; although our
natural wit and reason may help in obtaining it, 68-60. Divination is from God ;
it is also from wit and reason ; it is promoted by enthusiastic exhalations
from the earth, 59. When all these things concur, the oracle gives responses ;
when any are wanting, the oracle is silent, 60-64.



OF ISIS AND OSIRIS, OR OF THE ANCIENT RELIGION AND PHI-
LOSOPHY OF EGYPT.

BY WILLIAM BAXTER, PHILALETHBS.

The knowledge of truth man's greatest blessing ; to be sought of the gods, 65. lais
the goJdess of wisdom and knowledge, 66. What makes a true priest of Isis ? 67.
Why do the priests of Isis shave their heads and wear linen garments ? 67. Why
are those priests scrupulous about their food ? 68. Why is the bull Apis not
watered from the Nile ? 68. Why do the priests cf the Sun abstain from wine,
or drink it sparingly 1 69. Why do the priests abstain from fish and from onions ?
70. They do not sacrifice the swine, 71. They conceal their wisdom in enig-
mas, 72. Hence the enigmas of Pythagoras, 72. Some of the Egyptian enigmas
stated, 73. The tales related of the Egyptian gods not to be taken literally, 73.
A story about the birth of Osiris, 74. Another about the birth of Isis and other
deities, 75. The great actions of Osiris, 75. The manner of his death, 76. His
wife Isis, her lamentations, 76-78. Her search for her husband, 77. Finds
the body of Osiris, 78, 79. About Maneros, the foster-son of Isis, 79. The body
of Osiris torn in pieces by Typhon, his murderer, and the members scattered
about, 80. The members found and interred in many places, 80. War between
Typhon and Horus, the son of Osiris, 80, 81. These stories not to be literally
understood, 82. These gods were not kings and mighty men, 83. Semiramis,
Sesostris, Cyrus, Alexander, were human beings, not deities, 85. Isis, Osiris,
and Typhon, were not divine I>eiiig8, nor human, but Daemons, an intermediate
genus, 86. Such also were Saturn, the giants and Titans of the Greeks, 86. Thia
notion is sanctioned by Homer, Ilesiod, Plato, Xenocrates, and Empedocles, 86,



CONTENTS OF VOL. IV. y

87. Typhon was a malignant Daemon, 88. Isis and Osiris were good Daemons,
afterwards changed into gods, 88. Isis is the same as Proserpine ; Serapis is Pluto,

88. Osiris is identical with Serapis and with Bacchus, 89. Osiris is also identical
with the bull Apis, 90. The Egyptians offer disrespect to Typhon, 91. They
maltreat the ass and animals and men having red hair, because his hair was red, 91.
According to some, Osiris is the Nile, and Typhon the sea ; explanation, 92. The
most learned hold Osiris to be the cause of generation, 94. Proofs that Osiris is
the same as Bacchus, 95, 96. The Phallic rites, and how they originated, 96, 97.
The Nile, and every thing humid, is the efflux of Osiris, and he is thus the cause
of all things, 96, 97. The country bordering on the Nile is the body of Isis, 98.
The conspiracy of Typhon explained, 99. The mourning of Isis, and her recovery
of the body of Osiris explained, 100. Another explanation of Typhon, Osiris and
Isis, the heavenly bodies, 101. The eclipse of the moon is the death of Osiris,
104. Worship of the dog Anubis, 77, 104. Typhon stands for the principle or
cause of evil, distress, and destruction, 105. The Magian or Persian doctrine of
two original independent forces or powers ; one the source of light or good, the
other of darkness and evil, 106. These maintain an incessant struggle, 107.
The final issue will be happy, 108. The same ideas are found among the Chal-
deans and the Greeks, 108. These ideas are found also among the Pythagoreans
and in Plato, 109. Throughout nature we find the two discordant principles, which
are represented by the names Osiris and Typhon, 109, 110. The hieroglyphics
and religious rites which refer to these principles, 110-112. Isis is the feminine
and productive property of Nature, 113. Horus, son of Isis, represents the world
of mind, 114. He has a struggle with Typhon, 114, 115. The tnree constituents
of the divine nature, 115. Illustrated by a triangle, 115. What Plato says of the
production of love, 116, 117. Fables are doctrinal only in part, 117. The fable
of Typhon further explained, 118. Supposed etymology of the words Isis, Osiris,
Anubis, and others, 119-121. The sistrum, or timbrel, used at the feasts of Isis,
121. Isis and Osiris produce whatever is orderly and beneficial ; Typhon is the
cause of disorder and mischief, 122. These deities are not peculiar to Egypt ;
all mankind have them, 123. We are not to rest in the letter of the accounts
given of these gods, 124. Sun, moon, earth, fire, wind, water, are not gods, but
elements wielded by the gods, and by which the gods exhibit and manifest them-
selves, 124. We are to rise above the symbol to the thing symbolized, 125.
We should not confound the true idea of God with the appearances and changes
of external nature, 126, 127. The statues of the gods are not the gods, 128.
The assumption of the forms of brute animals by the gods is not to be believed,
129. Yet the idolatrous worship of the Egyptians had no better foundation
than this belief, 129, 130. Some reasons assigned for brute worship, 131, 132.
God is to be worshiped in Nature, not Nature instead of God, 134. The sacred
vestments of Isis and Osiris ; their nature and use, 135. Purpose for which
incense and perfumes are burnt, 136-139.

CONCERNING SUCH WHOM GOD IS SLOW TO PUNISH.
BY JOHN PHILIPS, GENT.

Concerning those whom God is slow to punish." This subject is discussed
between Plutarch and several of his relatives, Plutarch being the principal
speaker. Epicurus had just left the company uttering invectives against the
.'UBtice of the Deity in the government of the world, 140. It is admitted that the



CONTENTS OF VOL. IV.

delay of divine justice gives rise to perplexing thoughts, 141. Some of the
objections are, (1) Such delay seems to proceed from indifference ou the part
of the Deity to the desert of crime ; (2) Punishment long delayed fails to restrain
the commission of crime, as a speedy retribution would do ; (3) It is often entirely
useless as a reparation to those who have suffered from injustice; (4) It embold-
ens the transgressor, 141 ; (5) It diminishes in many minds the belief of Divine
Providence ; (6) Punishment long delayed fails of any good effect on the offender
himself, 143. To what good purpose, then, do the millstones of the gods grind,
when they grind so slowly ? 143. To these objections it is answered as follows :
It becomes us to enter on such inquiries with great caution and self-distrust,
because our knowledge of God and of his ways is extremely narrow and imper-
fect, 144. We are very incompetent judges of what it is fit for God to do, 144.
God only knows when, and in what manner, and how much to punish, 144. Those
who are ignorant of music or of military affairs are not competent judges of
those matters, 144. No one who is not properly trained can wisely administer
human law, 146. The remissness of which complaint is made is true only in
part, and is only apparent. So far as it is real, it may be vindicated by the fol-
lowing considerations: (1) The Deity, by being slow to punish, teaches us to
moderate our anger, and never to punish in a passion, 146 ; He would lead us to
imitate his own gentleness and forbearance, 147 ; (2) The wicked, in consequence
of delay, have opportunity to repent, and are therefore spared from a desire of
their reformation, 148 ; The summary justice, to which the passions of men
incite them, excludes all regard to this object, and degenerates into the mere
gratification of malice and revenge, 148 ; The wisdom of the divine policy, so
different from this, is fully justified by the results, since history records many
instances where men who, in early life, were profligate, have afterwards reformed
and become useful to society, 149, 160 ; (3) The wicked are often permitted to
live and prosper, that Providence may by them execute its justice on others, of
which instances are given, 151, 152 ; (4) The wicked are sometimes spared that
a noble and virtuous posterity, proceeding from them, may bless the world, 152;
(6) Punishment is sometimes deferred for a time that the hand of Providence
may be more conspicuous in inflicting it, 153. But the objection against an over-
ruling Providence, founded on the prosperity of the wicked, assumes too much ;
the delay is apparent, rather than real, 154. Retribution follows hard on the
steps of crime, in the shame, remorse, and inward suffering of the offender, 164.
Many look with envy on wicked men who seem to enjoy high prosperity, while
those men are soon to become involved in the deepest misery, 164. Wicked men
uffer not a late but a long punishment; they suffer all the time, 165. What we
call delay, is not such to the Deity ; distinctions of time with him have no place,
165. It is not the last moment of punishment which contains all the punish-
ment, 155. God has the offender all the while in his power, and does not sutler
him to rest, 156. Instances are given of remorse suffered by the guilty, 156, 157.
Were death the extinction of our being, it might still be maintained that the
Deity is not remiss in punishing crime, 157. The wicked find, even here, that
no real good comes from their wickedness, 158. Self-condemnation, a dread of
censure, a fear of death, embitter their lives, 159. One of the company now
leads the conversation to a kindred subject, the question how the conduct of
Providence can be justified in punishing children for the misconduct of their
parents, of which several instances are quoted, 160, 161. To this it is replied :
(1) Children often derive advantage from the virtue and piety of their lathers ;
it is not therefore strange that they should suffer for their wickedness, 163, 164



CONTENTS OF VOL. IV. vii

(2) The law of cause and effect comes in here, as in other cases, though we may
not fully explain it ; children often inherit the diseases of their parents ; the
plague of Athens took its rise in far distant Ethiopia, 165. (3) The constitution
of society binds one generation to another, and thus renders this retribution just,
as well as inevitable ; every family, as well as every state, has a separate exist-
ence, a personal identity of its own, and it is one and the same through succes-
sive ages ; hence the social crime of one age may properly work out its legitimate
results in another, 166-168. (4) In all cases, God deals with men according to their
deserts j if children are virtuous, they are not harmed for what their ancestors
have done, 169. But, says one of the company, some of your remarks imply the
immortality of the soul, 168, 169. Plutarch answers, yes ; and we have good
reason for assuming that point ; if we were like the leaves which fall from the
trees in autumn, or like the hot-house plant which has no enduring root ; if we
were brought into existence to endure only for a day, it would be unworthy of
the Deity to lavish so much care upon us, 169. The immortality of the soul,
and an overruling Providence, are confirmed to us by the same argument, 170.
If the soul survives the body, we may conclude that its future state will be one
of reward or punishment, because life is a struggle and a probation, 170. Punish-
ments that reach posterity often restrain the inclinations of wicked persons, 171.
Children born of diseased parents need to be guarded against the hereditary
disease, 172. And children of wicked parents will be themselves wicked, unless
careful and timely restraints be placed upon them, 173, 1 74. God sees the inbred
corruption if we do not, and often does not wait till the actual outbreak before
animadverting upon it, 174, 175. Dormant villany may be more dangerous than
open iniquity, and so may need chastisement, 175. The innocent are never
punished for the guilty ; but if a man tread in his father's steps, he must succeed
to his punishment, 175, 176. The argument is enforced by the story of a man
who lived a dishonest and wicked life ; who appeared to die ; visited the world
of spirits ; saw the rewards and punishments there experienced ; came back to
life, and was greatly reformed in consequence, 177-188.



OF NATURAL AFFECTION TOWARDS ONE'S OFFSPRING.
BY R. BROWN, M.L

fhe Grecians, from distrust of Grecian justice, appealed to foreign judicatures, 189.
In a similar manner, philosophers, instead of appeals to human nature, have
appealed to brute affection, 189. Absurdity of such an appeal, 189. Brutes,
having no reason, follow blindly and implicitly the guidance of Nature, 190. All
brutes love their offspring, toiling and suffering for their good, 190, 191. Let them
herein be our examples, 192. Some pretend that among human beings disin-
terested affection does not exist, 192. This assertion is not true, 193. Nature
has so ordered the circumstances in which man comes into being, as to necessitate
the existence of a strong and tender love on the part of the mother, 193, 194.
Parents do not love their children in the hope of benefit to be derived from them,
195. Nor from the desire of having heirs to their estates, 196. A rich man
without heirs has many friends ; and children, when born to him, do not augment
his power, 196. Natural affection may be obscured and hindered by vice; but
this disproves not its existence, 197.



viii CONTENTS OF VOL. IV

CONCERNING THE FORTUNE OF THE ROMANS.
BY JOHN OSWALD.

Is the grandeur and power of the Roman Empire due to Virtue, or to Fortune 1 198.
Virtue and Fortune, though different hi nature, conspire to produce the same
results, 198. Both united hi rearing that stupendous structure, the Roman Em-
pire, 199. The world was full of change, confusion, and disorder, till the power
of Rome extended over the nations, 200. Virtue and Fortune now come forward
in this discussion to maintain their respective claims as architects and supporters
of the Roman greatness, 200. In the train of Virtue are Fabricius, Camillas.
Cincinnatus, Marcellus, Scipio, and others, 201. Fortune, having deserted the
Persians, Greeks and Carthaginians, comes forward leading Numa, Aemilius
Paulus, Metellus, Sylla, as her favored sons, 201-203. The Romans themselves
attributed their greatness to Fortune, and built many temples to it, 203, 211.
Caesar relied much on Fortune, and was greatly assisted by it, 204, 205. Aug-
ustus was the favored child of Fortune, 205. Fortune was manifest in all the
affairs of Rome from the beginning, as in the birth and education of Romulus,
206-208. In the long, wise, and peaceful reign of Numa, 208-210. In the birth,
elevation, and prosperity of Servius Tullius, 212, 213. In the triumphs of the
Romans over Philip, Antiochus, and the Carthaginians, and especially the expe-
ditions of Pompey, 214. The favor of Fortune was constant, from age to age : it
attended the Romans in all their enterprises, 215. The great overthrow at the
river Allia was not fatal to Rome, 216-218. The cackling of the sacred geese, a
piece of good fortune, saved Rome, 217. Alexander of Macedon was intending
war against the Romans, but Fortune ordered his death just at the right time for
them, 219. [The remainder of this treatise, containing the arguments in behalf
of Virtue, is lost.]

OF GARRULITY, OR TALKATIVENESS.
BY JOHN PHILIPS, GBNT.

Talkativeness an inveterate disease, 220. Talkative people are very troublesome,
221. They are avoided and are not heard, 222. They never gain belief, 228.
Talkativeness often results from drunkenness, 224. Silence is often a great virtue ;
anecdote of Zeno at a feast, 225. Loquacity shows great want of good breeding,

227. It exposes to great danger, 228. It gave Athens into the power of Sylla,

228. It prolonged the tyranny of Nero, 228, 229. The noble taciturnity of
Leaena, 229, 230. Secrets are not to be revealed, even to our most intimate
friends, 232, 233. Anecdote of a Roman senator and his wife, 233, 234. Mis-
chiefs of a vain curiosity, 236. Loquacious men destroy themselves, 238. Anec-
dote of Dionysius and a barber, 238. Of an Athenian barber, 238, 239. Of one
who robbed the temple of Minerva, 239. Of the murderers of Ibycus, 240. Great
peril of an unbridled tongue, 240. A tell-tale is often a traitor, 241. To cure
ourselves of so vile a habit, consider the mischiefs which arise from it, 242. Study
conciseness of speech : imitate the Spartan brevity, 248. k When hi company
questions are asked, keep silence till all the rest have refused to answer, 245, 246.
Be not hasty to answer questions that are intended to ensnare you, 247. When
the questioner really desires information, let there be a pause between the ques-
tion and the answer, 247. Three sorts of answers to questions, the necessary,



CONTENTS OF VOL. IV. i x

the polite, the superfluous, 248. Beware of the third sort, 249. Beware of talk-
ing on favorite subjects, and of matters relating to your profession, 250, 261. Be-
fore you speak, consider what advantage may arise from speaking, and wiat
mischief from holding your peace, 253.



OF LOVE.
BY THE SAME HAND.

The scene of this discussion is laid near Thespiae, on the slope of Mount Helicon ;
the interlocutors are Plutarch and several of his friends, 254, 255. The occasion
is a match projected between Ismenodora, a chaste, noble, and rich widow, and
Baccho, a beautiful young man, both of Thespiae, 256. There are different
opinions concerning the propriety of the connection, chiefly on account of the
disparity of age and outward condition, 256. A discussion arises as to the true
nature and foundation of love, as it actually exists in the world, 258. Does it
spring from the desire of carnal gratification merely, or from some higher im-
pulse ? 258, 259. One speaker pretends that genuine love is that for beautiful
boys, Tratdepaaria, and condemns the love of women, 259. Another condemns
male converse as contrary to nature, 260. It is of recent origin, nourished by
the scenes of the palaestra, 261, 262. As Venus is not present in such scenes,
there is no real love, 262. The connection of Baccho with Ismenodora is object-
ed to by some of the speakers, on the ground that it would make him dependent
on her, 264, 265. Plutarch advocates the connection, 266. Men have sometimes
married wives who held them in subjection, but came to this result by their own
weakness, 266, 267. There may be a positive advantage in having a wife older
than one's self, arising from her superior wisdom, 268. At this point, the com-
pany receive information that Ismenodora, with some friends, had got Baccho
into her house, and was holding him there, 269. A lady warmly in love, 270.
Is Love a Deity, or only a strong human passion 1 272. Why should we call in
question the deity of Cupid more than that of Jupiter or Minerva ? 273, 274.
Why admit the deity of Mars, the god of war and slaughter, and even of the



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