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blades not to engage, though the enemy provoked him.
But he flighted and difregarded the orders to that de-
gree, that having made ready his own galley and ano-
ther, he prefently flood for Ephefus, where the enemy
lay, and as he failed before the heads of their galleys,
ufed the highefl provocations poflible both in words and
deeds. Lyiander at firft fent out a few mips in purfuit
of him ; but all the Athenian mips coming into his aflifl-
ance, Lyfander alfo Brought up his whole fleet, which
gained an entire victory. He flew Antiochus himfelf,
took many men and fhips, and erected a trophy.

As foon as Alcibiades heard this news, he returned to
Samos, and loofmg from thence with his whole fleet, he
came and offered battle to Lyfander. But Lyfander,
content with the victory he had gained, would not flir,
Amongft others in the army who were enemies to Al-
cibiades, was Thrafybulus, the fon of Thrafon, who went
purpofely to Athens to accufe him, and to exafperate his
enemies in the city againft him. In an oration to the
people he reprefented that Alcibiades had ruined their
affairs, and lofl their mips, by infolently abufmg his
authority, and committing the government of the army
in his abfence, to fuch as by their debauchery and fcurri-
lous difcourfes got moft into credit with him, whilfl he
wandered up and down at pleafure to raife money, giv-
ing himfelf up to all luxury and excefs amongft the
Abydenian and Ionian courtezans, at a time when the
enemy's navy rode at anchor fo near his. It was alfo
objected to him, that he had fortified a caflle near Bi-
fantha in Thrace, for a fafe retreat for himfelf, as one
that either could not, or would not live in his own
country. The Athenians gave credit to thefe informa-
tions, and difcovered the refentment and difpleafure
which they had conceived againft him, by chufing other

As foon as Alcibiades heard of this, he immediately
forfook the army, being afraid of what might follow :
and getting many flrangers together, he made war upon


catching for him th quail he had let loofe.

(4) Pin-

138 'The L I F E of

his own account againft thofe Thrafians who pretended
to be free, and acknowledged no King. By this means
lie amafled to himlelf a great treafure out of the ipoils
which he took, and at the fame time fecured the bor-
dering Grecians from the incurfions of the Barbarians.

(4) Tydeus, Menander and Adimar.tus, the new-made
generals, were then at /Egos Potamos, with ail the mips
which the Athenians had left : from whence they ufed to
go out to fea every morning, and offer battle to Lyfan-
der, who lay at anchor near Lampfacus ; and when they
had done fo, returning back again, they lay all the reft
of the day carelefsly and without order, as men who de-
fpifed the enemy. Alcibiades, who was not iar oft did
not think fb fiightly of their danger, nor neglected to
let them know it, but mounting his horfe, he came to
the generals, and reprefented to them, that they had
chofen a very inconvenient flation, as ^anting a fafe
harbour, and far diflant from any town ; fo that they
were conftrained ^o fe id for their neceflary pYovifions as
far as Seftofs. H ; aifo reproved them for their carelefs-
ijefs, in fuffering the foldiers when they went afhore, to
diiperfe themfelves, and wander up and down at their
pleafure, when the enemy's fleet; which was under the
command of one General, and ftridtly obedient to dif-
cipline, lay fovery near them. But the Athenian admi-
rals disregarded thefe admonitions of Alcibiades, and his
advice to remove the fleet to Seftcs , and Tydeus with
great infolence commanded him tobt g;:ae, faying, " That
cc now not he, but others had the comma .id of the forces."
Whereupon Alcibiades fufpe&ingfomething of treachery in
them, departed. But he told his friends who accompanied
him out of the camp, "that if the generals had not ufed him
" with fuchinfupportable contempt, he would within a few
"days have forced the Lacedaemonianc, however unv/il-
** ling, either to have fought the Athenians at fea, or to


(4) Plutarch omits almoft three year of the Peloponnefian war ;
years, and takes no notice of what and the twenty fixth, in which the
was performed by the ten gene- Athenians obtained the victory at
rtls that fucceeded Alcibiades. Arginufae ; and almoft the whole
He paJTes over the twentj-fifth twenty- feventh, towards the end


A L C I B I A D E S. 139

" havedeferted their mips." Some looked upon this as a
piece of oftentation only, but others faid, the thing was
probable, for that he might have embarked great num-
bers of the Thracian cavalry and archers, to aflault and
diforder them in their camp. The event foon made it
evident, how very rightly he judged of the errors which
the Athenians had committed : for Lyfander fell upon
them on a fudden, when they leafl iufpeded it, with
flich fury, that Gonon with (5) eight galleys only efcaped
him, all the reft (which were about two hundred) he
took and carried away, [together with three thoufand
prifoners, whom he afterwards put to death. And
within a fhort time after he took Athens itfelf, burnt all
the fhips which he found there, and demblimed their
long walls.

After this Alcibiades {landing in dread of the Lacedae-
monians, who were now mafters both at fea and land,
retired into Bithynia. He fent thither great treafure
before him, took much with him, but left much more
in the cattle where he had before refided. But he loft
great part of his wealth in Bithynia, being robbed by
ibme Thracians who lived in thofe parts ; and thereupon
he determined to go to the court of Artaxerxes, not
doubting but that the King, if he would make trial of
his abilities, would find him not inferior to Themiftocles;
and befides, he was recommended by a more honour-
able caufe. For he went not, as Themiftocles did, to
offer his fervice againft his fellow-citizens, but againft
their enemies, and to implore the King's aid for the de-
fence of his country. He concluded that Pharnabazus
would mofl readily procure him a fafe conduct, and
therefore went into Phrygia to him, and continued therfe
fome time, paying him great refpec~t, and being ho-
nourably treated by him. The Athenians in the mean
time were miferably afflicted at their lofs of empire ; but


of which the A'' enians failed to Paralus, which efcaped, and car-

JEgos Potamos, where they re- ried the news of their defeat to

ceived the blow that is fpoken of Athens. Conon himfelf retired to

in this place. Cyprus.
(5) There was a ninth called

(6) This

140 The LIFE of

\vhen they were deprived of liberty alto, and Ly&nder
had impofed thirty governors upon the city, and their
Hate was finally ruined, then they began to reflect on
thofe things, which they would never confider whilft
they were in a prpfperous condition : then they acknow-
ledged and bewailed their former errors and follies, and
judged the fecond ill ufage of Alcibiades to be of all
others the mofl inexcufable : for he was rejected with-
out any fault committed by himfelf; and only becaufe
they were incenfed againft his Lieutenant for having
fhamefully loft a few fhips, they much more fhamefuliy
deprived the commonwealth of a moft valiant and moft
accomplifhed General Yet in this fad flate of affairs
they had ftill fbme faint hopes left them, nor would
they utterly defpair of the Athenian commonwealth,
while Alcibiades lived. For they perfuaded themfelves
that fmce, when he was an exile before, he could not
content himfelf to live idle and at eafe, much lefs now
(if he could find any favourable opportunity) would he
endure the infolence of the Lacedaemonians, and the out-
rages of the thirty tyrants. Nor was it an abfurd thing
in the people to entertain fuch imaginations, when the
thirty tyrants themfelves were fo very folicitous to ob-
ferve, and to get intelligence of all his actions and de-
figns. In fine, Critias reprefented to Lyfander, that the
Lacedaemonians could never fecurely enjoy the dominion
of Greece, till the Athenian democracy was abfolutely
deftroyed. And though now the people of Athens
feemed patiently to fubmit to fo fmali a number of
governors, yet Alcibiades, whilfl he lived would never
fuffer them to acquiefce in their prefent circurn-

But Lyfander would not be prevailed upon by thefe
difcourfes, till at laft he received fecret letters from the
magiftrates of Lacedsemon, exprefsly requiring him to get
Alcibiades difpatched : whether it was that they flood in


(6) This circumftance mani- attired him in her own habit, and
feftlj relates to Alcibiades's dream, that he lay in her bofom.
and the accomplifliment of it. (7) She buried him in the town
Re dreamed that his miftrefshad of Melifla. Atbenaeus writes, that


S. 141

fear of his active enterprifing difpofition, of whether it
was done to gratify King Agis. Upon receipt of this
order, Lyfander fent away a meiTenger to Pharnabazus,
defiringhim to put it in execution. Pharnabazus com-
mitted the affair to Magasus his brother, and to his uncle
Sufamithres. Alcibiades refided at that time in a fmall
village in Phrygia, together with Timandra, a miflrefs
of his. One night he dreamed that he was attired in
his miftrefs's habit, and that me, holding him in her
arms, drefied his head, and painted his face, as if he
had been a woman. Others fay, he dreamed that Ma-
gseus cutoff his head, and burnt his body ; and it is
faid, that it was but a little while before his death that
he had thefe vifions. They who were fent to aflaflinate
him, had jaot courage enough to enter the houfe ; but
furrounding it firft, they fet it on fire. Alcibiades as
foon as he perceived it, getting together great quanti-
ties of cloaths and furniture, threw them upon the fire,
with a defign to choak it ; and having wrapped his robe
about his left arm, and holding his naked jfword in his
right, he cafl himfelf into the middle of the fire, and
efcaped fecurely through it, before it had time to take
thoroughly the furniture and other materials he had
thrown into it. The Barbarians, as foon as they faw
him, retreated, none of them daring to wait for him,
or to engage with him ; but {landing at a diftance,
they flew him with their darts and arrows. When he
was dead, the Barbarians departed, and Timandra took
his body, and wrapping it up (6) in her own robes,
(7) buried it as decently and as honourably as her pre-
fent circumftances would allow. It is faid, that the
famous Lais, (who was called the Corinthian, though
fhe was a native of Hycarae, a fmall town in Sicily,
from whence (he was brought a captive) was the daugh-
ter of this Timandra. There are fome who agree in this


as he was travelling that way he carved in Parian marble to be
faw Alcibiades's monument, up- ere&ed, and ordained that a bull
on which Adrian the Emperor fhould be fagrificed there annu-
caufed the fl.atue of the deceafed ally.



account of Alcibiades's death in all things, except only
that they do not impute it either to Pharnabazus, Lyfan-
der, or the Lacedaemonians, but lay that he kept a
young lady of a noble houfe, whom he had debauched ;
and that her brothers not being able to endure the in-
dignity, by night fet fire to the houfe where he dwelt,
and as he endeavoured to fave himfelf from the flames,
flew him with their darts, in the manner before re-


[ 143 1


TH E houfe of the Marcii in Rome produced
many eminent patricians ; and among the reft
Ancus Marcius, who was grandfon to Numa by
his daughter Pomponia, and reigned there after Tullus
Hoftilius. Of the fame family were alfo Publius and
Quintus Marcius, (which two brought into the city the
greateft part of the beft water in Rome) as alfo Cenfo-
rinus, who after he had been twice chofen cenfor by
the people, perfuaded them himfelf to make a perpe-
tual decree, that no body mould bear that office a fe-
cond time. Caius Marcius, of whom I now write, be-
ing left an orphan, and brought up under his mother
in her widowhood, has mown that the early lofs of
a father, though attended with other di fad vantages,
yet can prove no hindrance to a man's being virtu-

I 44 The L I F E of

cms, or eminent in the world ; notwithftanding bad
men fometimes alledgc it in excufe for their cor-
rupt and debauched lives. This fame perfon alib was
a remarkable evidence of the truth of their opinion,
who think that a generous and good nature without
difcipline (like a rich foil without culture) muft pro-
duce plenty of bad and good intermixed. For his un-
daunted courage and firm conflancy fpurred him on,
and carried him through many glorious actions; but
his ungoverned paflion and inflexible obflinacy made
him appear harm and difagreeable among his friends,
and wholly unfit for the eafe and freedom of conver-
fation. So that thofe who faw with admiration his
foul unfhaken either by pleafures, toils, or the temp-
tations of money, and allowed that he poflefTed the
virtues of temperance, juftice and fortitude : yet in
civil intercourfe and affairs of ftate, could not but be
difgufted at his rough imperious temper, too haughty
for a republick. And indeed the advantages of a li- '
beral education are in nothing more apparent than this,
that it foftens and polifhes a rugged temper by the
rules of prudence and the precepts of morality, teach-
ing men to moderate their defires, to chufe the fober
mean, and avoid extremes.

In thofe times, that fort of virtue, which exerted
itfelf in military arts and martial exploits was mofl en
couraged and efteemed at Rome ; which is evident from
hence, that the Latin word for virtue came then to fig-
nify valour, and the general term was applied to that
particular excellence, which is properly called forti-
tude. Marcius having a more than ordinary inclina-
tion for military exercifes, began to handle arms from
his very childhood but thought that external inflru-
ments, and artificial arms would be of fmall fervice to
them who had not their natural weapons ready, and at
command ; therefore he exercifed and prepared his body
for all manned of engagements ; he acquired a great


(i) This crown was the foun- right to wear it always. When
dation of many privileges. He he appeared at the publick fpec-
who had once obtained it had a tacles the fenate rofe in honour


Caius Marcius Coriolanlis. 145

fwiftnefs to purfue, and fuch a flrength and firmnefe
to grapple and wreftle with the enemy, that none could
eafiiy get clear of him ; Ib that all who tried their abi-
lities with him and were worried in the engagement,
excufed their own weaknefs by pleading his invincible
ftrength, hardened againfl all oppofition, and proof
againfl all fatigue.

His firfl expedition he made when he was very
youqg, when Tarquin (who had been King of Rome
but afterwards banifhed) after many fkirmifhes and de-
feats, made his lad pufh, and ventured all at a fingle
throw. A great number of the Latins, and other peo-
ple of Italy, had joined forces with him, and were
marching' to wards the city, though not fo much out of
defire to ferve and reflore Tarquin, as fear and envy of
the Roman greatnefs, the increafe of which they were
defirous to prevent. The armies engaged in a decifive
battle which had various turns. Marcius fighting bravely
in the Didtator's prefence, faw a Roman foldier fall nign
him ; inflead of deferting him in that extremity, he
ftept immediately to his refcue, beat of and flew
the aggreflbr. The General having got the victory,
crowned him one of the firfl with a garland of oak ;
for this was the reward given to a foldier who had faved
the life of any Roman citizen ; (i) whether the law in-
tended fome fpecial honour to the oak, in memory of
the Arcadians, whom the Oracle had celebrated by the
name of Acorn-caters ; or becaufe they could eafiiy meet
with plenty of it, wherever they fought ; or becaufe, the
oaken wreath being facred to Jupiter the great guardian
of their city, they might therefore think it the mofl
proper ornament for him who preferved a citizen. Be-
fides, the oak is a tree that bears the moil and fairefl
fruit of any that grows wild, and is flronger than any
that are dreffed and improved by art ; its acorns alfb
were the principal diet of the firft ages ; and the ho-
ney which was commonly found there, afforded them a


to him. He was placed near the were intitlcd to the fame privi-
fenators; and his father, and leges and immunities/
grandfather by the father's fide,

VOL. II. K (2) Liv/

I4 6 7k LIFE of

very pleafant liquor -, it fupplied them too even with
fowl and other creatures for dainties, as it produced
miffelto, for birdlime, by which they are entangled.

It is reported that Caftor and Pollux appeared in the
battle before mentioned, and immediately after it were
feen at Rome in the Forum, jud by the fountain where
their temple now (lands, upon horfes all foaming with
fweat, as if they had rid poft thither to bring news of
the victory , on which account the i fth of July (being
the day on which this battle was fought) was dedicated
to the twin-gods.

We may obferve in general, that when young
men meet with applaufe, and an early reputation, if
they have fouls but (lightly touched with ambition, all
their third for glory is foon extinguished, and their de-
fires fatiated ; whereas honours conferred on a more
firm and folid mind, animate and improve it, and like
a brifk gale drive it on in purfuit of further glory,
Such a man looks upon fame, not as a reward of his
prefent virtue, but as an earned he has given of his
future performances ; and is afhamed to underlive the
credit he has won, and not to outfhine his pad illuftri-
ous actions. Marcius had a foul of this frame. He
was always endeavouring to excel himielf, and conti-
nually engaged in fome new exploit. He added one
great action to another, and heaped trophies upon tro-
phies, till he became the fubjeft of a glorious conteft
among the generals, the latter of them dill driving;
with his predeceflbr, which (hould pay him the greated
refpeft, and fpeak mod highly in his commendation.
For the Romans having many wars in thofe times, and
frequent battles, Marcius never returned from any of
them without honours or rewards : And whereas others
made glory the end of their valour, the end of his glory
was to give pleafure to his mother. The delight (he
took to hear him praifed, and to fee him crowned,
and her weeping -for joy in his embraces, made him in
his own thoughts, the mod honourable and happy per-


(2) Livy and JDyonifujs fay that his wife was caikd Voiumnia


CaiuS Marcius Coriolanus. 147

fon in the world. This fentiment was not unlike that
of Epaminondas, who is faid to have profefied that he
reckoned it the greateft Felicity of his whole life, that
his father and mother (till furvived to behold his con-
duit and victory at Leuctra. He had the fatisfaclion
indeed to fee both his parents partake with him, and
enjoy the pleafure of his good fortune ; but Marcius
holding himfelf obliged to pay his mother Volumnia
(2) all that duty and gratitude which would have be-
longed to his father, could never fatisfy his mind, or
think he did enough in all the refpe6t and tendernefs
which he mewed her, but took a wife alfo at her mo-
tion and entreaty -, and after me had borne him chil-
dren, he lived flill with his mother. The repute of
his integrity and courage had by this time gained him
a confiderable intereft and authority at Rome, when the
fenate favouring the richer fort of citizens were at dif-
ference with the common people, who made grievous
complaints againft the intolerable feverity of their cre-
ditors. For thofe who had any confiderable flock, were
dripped of their goods which were either fold or de-
tained for a fecurity ; and thofe who were already re-
duced, were carried to prifon, and their bodies kept
under confinement, though they fhewed upon them the
fears and wounds which they had received in the fer-
vice of their country, in feveral expeditions, particu-
larly ir; the laft againft the Sabines, which they under-
took upon a promiie made by the rich creditors, that
they woukl ufe them more mildly for the. future, Mar-
cus Valerius the conful having in confequence of a decree
of the fenate engaged alfo for the performance of it.
But when they had fought there with alacrity and cou-*
rage, and returned home victors, no abatement of their
debts was made ; the fenate too pretended to remem-
ber nothing of that agreement, and beheld them with-
out any concern dragged away like flaves, and their
goods feized upon as formerly. This caufed frequent
tumults, and open mutinies in the city , and the enemy


and his mother Vetxiria. Plutarch calls his wife Vergilia.

K 2 (3) This

148 .The LIFE of

perceiving thele diftradions among the people, began
to invade and lay wafte the country. Upon this the
confuls gave notice that all who were of age fhould ap-
pear in arms ; but no body obeyed the fummons. This
let the magiftrates themfelves at variance. Some thought

tJ O

it moft advifeable to comply a little with the poor,
and remit fomething of the find rigour of the law.
Others declared againft that propofal, and particularly
Mara us He thought the bufmefs of the money was
not the main thing to be regarded , but looked upon
thefe diforderly proceedings as an attempt to fubverf
the eftablifhed laws, and a proof of the growing info-
lenceof the people, which it became a wife government
to reftrain and fupprefs.

There had been frequent meetings of the fenatc
within the fpace of a few days about this affair, but no
fatisfactory conclufion could be agreed on. The com-
monalty perceiving no redrefs, on a fudden rofe all in
a body, and encouraging one another, left the city,
and marching up that afcent which is now called the
Holy Mount, they fat down by the river Anio. They
committed no act of hoftility in their march, only
they made heavy outcries as they pafled along, com-
plaining, " that the rich men had expelled them out of
" the city ; that Italy would every where afford them
" the benefit of air and water, and a place of burial when
" they died, which was all they had to expect if they ftaid
" in Rome, except being killed and wounded in time of
" war for the defence of their opprefibrs." The fenatc
dreading the confequence ojf this rupture, fent fbme of
their order, fuch as were mofl moderate, and beft
beloved by the people, to treat with them.

Menenius Agrippa, their chief fpokefman, after ufing
much entreaty to the people, and no lefs freedom in
defence of the fenate, at length concluded hu iifcourfe
with this celebrated fable. " It once happened, fays he,
" that all the other members of the body mutinied againft

" the

(3) This was a very turbulent words. His true name wasLu-
and feditious perfon. He was a cius Junius : and becaufe he who
man of wit, and had a flow of had expelled the Tarquins was,


Caius Marcius Coriolanus. 149

** the ftomach, which they accufed as the only idle uncon-
*' tributing part in the whole, while the reft were put to
"" mighty hardfhips, and the expence of much labour to fup-
*' ply that, and minifter to its appetites. But the ftomach
* 4 laughed at their folly in not knowing that though (he re-
" ceives all the nourifhment, yet (lie does not retain it,
" but diftributes it again to all the other parts. Now this
" is exactly the cafe betwixt you and the fenate, O citizens;
" for their counfeU and determinations on the affairs of
" the common wealth, all tend to your welfare, and difpenfe
** ftrengthand happinefs to the whole people."

This difcourfe pacified the people ; fo they only de-
fired the choice of five men to protect fuch as mould
need afliftance ; which officers are now called tribunes
of the people. This was granted by the fenate ; and
the two firft they chofe were (3) Junius Brutus and Sici-
rjius Vellutus, the ring-leaders of that fedition. The city
being thus re-united, the commons prefently took up
arms, and readily lifted themfelves under their com-
manders- for the war. As for Marcius, though he was
not a little difpleafed at thefe incroachments of the
populace, and the declining power of the fenate, and
-pbferved many other patricians were of the fame mind ;
yet he entreated them not to yield to the people in this
?,eal for the fervice of their country, but to mow them-
felves fuperior to them, not fo much in power and
riches, as in virtue.

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