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the ambafladors, which yet in private he granted to the
women ; by which means, without healing the breach,
but leaving the grounds of the war ftill to fubfift, he
loft a very favourable opportunity ; nor would he have
withdrawn the forces without the confent of thofe who
had committed them to his conduct, if he had paid a
due regard to the obligations which he was under to the

If without any confideration of the Volfcians he raifed
the flame purely to gratify his own fpleen and refent-
ment, and having fatisfied that he thought fit to put
an end to the war, he ought not to have fpared his
country for the fake of his mother, but to have fpared
it with her, fmce his mother and his wife were only
part of his country 'and of the city he was befieging ;
but to remain inflexible, and inhumanly to reject the
publick fuppli cations, the fubmiflions and petitions of
the priefts and augurs, and afterwards to relent at his
mother's entreaty, and withdraw the forces ; this was
not to honour his mother but difhonour his country,
which he faved only from complaifance to a woman ;
as if he did not think it worthy to be preferved for its
own fake. So that this favour was odious and unac-
ceptable, and claimed the thanks of neither party. He
neither retreated at the inftance of thofe againft whom
he had been engaged in war, nor with the confent of
thofe in whofe behalf he had undertaken it. The caufe
of all which was that aufterity of manners, that arro-
gance and inflexibility of mind, which is always de-
tefled by the people, but when united with ambition
becomes favage and ungovernable; for they who are
poflefled with thefe vices difdain to ingratiate themfelves
with the populace, as if they were above the thoughts
of honours and dignities -, and yet when thefe are de-
VOL. II. N rued

194 -^ Comparifon, &c.

nied to them, they become inconfolable, and are fired
with an implacable refentment. There have been (bme
who could not ftoop to court the favour of the people
by fervile flattery ; fuch were Metelius, Ariftides, Epa-
minondas ; but at the fame time they had a thorough
contempt for every tjking the people could give, or
take from them; and whenever they were banifhed,
had received a repulfe, or been deeply fined, they never
appeared enraged at the ingratitude of their fellow-
citizens, but knew how to pardon the moment the others
confefled they had offended. That man who will not
condefcend to flatter the people, ought never to entertain
a fpirit of revenge againft them 5 for that furious tran-
fport can proceed from nothing but an exceflive ambiti-
on. As for Alcibiades, he ingenioufly confefled that he
loved honours, and was fenfibly touched when they
were refufed to him; for which reafon he fludicd to
get the good- will of every one by his complaifance and
affability. Coriolanus was the reverfe of this : his pride
would not fuffer him to ingratiate himfelf with the
people, who alone were able to confer honours upon
him, and yet when he was refufed thofe honours, his
ambition tilled him with rage and indignation. This
is the only blot to be found in his character ; in every
thing elfe he was without a blemifh. For temperance
and a contempt of riches he may fland a companion
with the mod illuftrious examples of Greece ; furely
then he is much to be preferred to Alcibiades, who in
that refpeft was the moll profligate of men, and broke
through all the obligations of honour and decency.

/ M o~

[ '95 1

T I M O L O N.

TH E affairs of the Syracufans, before Tirnoleon
was fent into Sicily, were in this pofture. Soon
after Dion had driven out (i) Dionyfms the ty-
rant, he was (2) flain by treachery ; thofe who had
aflifled him in delivering Syracufe were divided among
themfelves- and the city, by a continual change of
governors, and a train of mifchiefs that fucceeded each
other, became almoft defolate. As for the reft of Sicily,
part thereof was now utterly ruined through a long
continuance of the wars, and molt of the cities that had
been left {landing were feized upon by a mixt company


(i) This was Dionyfws the in the life of Dion,
younger. The Hiftory of this (2) He was murdered by the
whole affair is very well written Athenian Oalippus.

N 2 (3) He

196 We LIFE of

of Barbarians and mercenary troops who were fond of
every change of government. Such being the ftate
of things, Dionyfius in the tenth year of his banifhment,
by the help of fome foreign troops he had got toge-
ther, forced out (3) Nyfaeus, then mafter of Syracufe,
recovered all afrefh, ancl again fettled himfelf in his
dominion. And as he had been at firft ftrangely de-
prived of the greateft and moft abfohitse power that
ever was, by a very fmall party ; fo HQW, after a
more wonderful manner, from a poor exile, he became
the fbvereign of thofe who had ejected him. All
therefore who remained in Syracufe were reduced into
fervitude to a tyrant, who at the beft was of an ungentle
nature, and was then exaiperated to a greater degree
of favagenefs, by the late misfortunes he had fuffered.
But thofe of the better fort, having timely retired to
Icetes, Prince of the Leontines, put themfelves under his
protection, and chofe him for their General in the war ;
not becaufe they efteemed him preferable to any of thofe
who were open and avowed tyrants ; but becaufe they
had no other refuge at prefent ; and it gave them fome
ground of confidence, that he was of a Syracufan fa-
mily, and had an army able to encounter that of Dio-

In the mean time the Carthaginians appeared before
Sicily, with a great navy, watching how they might make
the moft advantage of the prefent calamitous and difor-
dered ftate of the ifland. The terror of this fleet made
" the Sicilians fend an embaiTy into Greece, to demand fuc-
cours from the Corinthians, whom they confided in ra-
ther than any others, (4) not only upon account of their
near kindred, and the fervices they had often received
from them before, but becaufe Corinth had ever mown
herfelf a friend to liberty and a foe to tyranny, by th<-
many expenfive wars me had ergaged in, not from ambi-
tion or avarice, but to maintain the liberty of Greece. But


(3) He was a man of great pru - of his forces , with which he made
dence and valour. Dionyfius the himfelf mailer of Syracufe, but
younger h^d made him General kept ic for himfelf.

f AU

T I M O L E O N. 197

Icetes, whofe intention in Accepting the command, was
npt fo much to deliver the Syracu fans from other tyrants,
as to enflave them himfelf, carried on a correfpondence
with the Carthaginians in fecret, while in publick he
commended the defign of the Syracufans, and difpatched
ambafladors from himfelf, together with thofe whom
they fent into Pelqponneius -, not that he really defired
there ihould come any relief from thence, but, in cafe
ibe Corinthians (as it was likely enough) fhould, by rea-
fon of the troubles of Greece, and by having furricient
employment at home, refufe their ailiftance, 'he hoped
then he fhould be able with lefs difficulty to difpofe
things in favour of the Carthaginians, and make ufe of
them as instruments and auxiliaries for himfelf, either
againft tl>e Syracufans, or Dionyfius, asoc.cafion ferved;
and that this was what he had in view came to be known
foon after.

When the ambafladors arrived, and their requeft was
known, the Corinthians, who were wont to have a par-
ticular concern for all their colonies, but efpecially for
that of Syracufe, fmce by good fortune there was nothing
to moleil them in their own country, but they enjoyed
peace and leiiure at that time, readily paffed a vote for
their alliitance. The next thing to be considered, was
the choice of a General for that expedition, and whilft
the magiftrates were nominating feveral perfons who
had made i,t their care and ftudy to diftinguifh thcm-
felves in die city, one of the plebeians {landing up,
happened to name Timoleon the fon of Ti mod emus, who
had not till then concerned himfelf in publick bufinefs,
and had neither any hopes of, nor inclination to an em-
ployment of that nature ; fo that the thing appeared to
be the effect of a divine infpiration ; -and fuch indul-
gence of fortune did then immediately appear at his
elec'tion, and fo much cf her favour accompanied
his following actions, as if every thing had contpired


(4) All the Sicilians were not a Archias the Corinthian, in the fe-
colony from Coiinth, but only the cond year of the eleventh Oiyrn-
Syracufans,.who were founded by piad, 733 years before the birth

N ; of

The LIFE of

to illuflrate and fignalize his virtue. As to his paren-
tage, both (5) Timodemus his father, and his mother
Demarifte, were of a noble rank in that city. He had a
great love for his country, and was of a remarkably
mild difpofition, excepting that he bore an extreme hatred
to tyrants and wicked men. His natural abilities for
war were fo happily tempered, that, as an extraordinary
prudence might be feen in all the enterprizes of his
younger years, fo an undaunted courage attended him
even in his declining age. He had an elder brother
xvhofe name was Timophanes, one of a different character
from him, being indifcreet and rafh, and corrupted
\vith a love of monarchy, by the fuggeflion of fome
profligate friends, and foreign foldiers, whom he kept
always about him. In war he feerned impetuous and
daring ; by which he gained the favour of the people
who fo highly efleemed his courage and activity, that
they frequently entrufled him with the command of the
army ; and in obtaining thefe honours Timoleon very
much aflifted him, by wholly concealing, or at leaft
extenuating his faults, and by magnifying and extolling
his good qualities. It happened once in a battle be-
tween the Corinthians and the people of Argos and Cleone,
that Timoleon ferved among the infantry, when Timo-
phanes, commanding their cavalry, was brought into
extraordinary danger, for his horfe being wounded fell
forward, and threw him headlong amidft the enemies ;
\vhereupon part of his companions were prefently di-
perfed through fear and the fmall number that remained,
bearing up againft a great multitude, were hardly able
to maintain the fight. As foon as Timoleon faw his
brother's danger, he ran haftily in to his refcue, and
covering the fallen Timophanes with his buckler, after
having received abundance of darts, and feveral ftrokes
by the fwords into his body and his armour, he at length


of our Saviour. This ifland had ther Timaenetus, which I think

been inhabited by the Phoenicians ought ro be corrected by this place

and other barbarous people above of Plutarch.
300 years before the Gietks ar- (6) The authors Plutarch fol-

jived there. lows heie, differ from Diodoru.^

(jjDigdorusSicuIuscallshisfa- Sicuius, who writes that Timoleon

T I M O L E O N. i 99

much difficulty obliged the enemies to retire, and
brought off his brother iafe. Not long after this the
Corinthians, for fear of lofing their city a fecond time,
as they had done once before by means of their allies,
made a decree to entertain 400 flrangers for the fecu-
rity of it, and gave Timophanes the command over them.
He, without any regard to honour and equity, made
:ufe of this power fo as to render himfelf abfolute, and
bring^ the place under fubjection ; and having for that
purpofe cut off many principal citizens, uncondemned,
and without trial, he declared himfelf King of Corinth.
This procedure extremely afflicted Timoleon, who reck-
oned the wickednefs of his brother to be his own re-
proach and calamity. He therefore at firft .endeavoured
to perfuade him by hisdifeourfe to renounce thofe mad
and defperate defigns, and bethink himfelf how to make
the Corinthians fome .amends for the injury he had done
them. But when his fmgle admonition was rejected
with contempt, after waiting a few days he returned,
taking with him one ^Lfchylus his kinfman, brother to
the wife of Timophanes, and a certain foothfoyer that
was his friend, whom Theopompus in his hiflory calls
Satyrus, but Ephorus and TimaEus mention by the name
-of Orthagoras. They all furrounded him and earneftly
intreated him to liften to reafon, and change his pur-
pole. Timophanes at firft laughed at them, and after-
wards burfl into a violent rage. (6) Then Timoleon
ftepped afide from him, and flood weeping, with his
face covered, while the other two, d rawing their fwords,
difpatched him in a moment. The rumour of this
fact being foon fpread abroad, the .principal men among
the Corinthians highly applauded Timoleon for hisdetei-
tation of wickednefs, and extolled the greatnefs of his
foul, that notvvithflanding the natural -gentlenefs of his
difpofition, and his .affection -to his family, he mould


flew his brother with his awn and takes oft* fomewhat from the
hands in the open ftreet. The barbarity of the action. This hap-
account which Plutarch gives, pened twenty years before Timo-
and which I fuppofe is the fame Icon was appointed General of
with that of Theopompus and die forces which the Corinthians
Epherus, appears more probable, fent to Syraryie.

N 4 (7) Diodorus

200 Tfo L I F E of

however think the obligations to his country much
ftronger than the ties of confanguinity, and prefer that
which is honourable and juft, before his own pleafure
and advantage : for the fame brother, who with fo much
bravery had been faved by him, when he fought in de-
fence of his country, he had now as nobly facrificed,
for enflaving her afterwards by his bafe and treacherous
ufurpation. But thofe who knew net how to live in a
democracy, and had been ufed to make their court to
men in power, though they openly pretended to rejoice
at the death of the tyrant, yet fecretly reviling Tirro'eon,
as one that had committed the moil impious aid abo-
minable adt, they caft him into a ftrarge melancholy
and dejedlion. And when he came to underftand how
heavily his mother took it, and that (he likewife uttered
the bittereft complaints and mofl terrible imprecations
againfl him, he went to fatisfy and comfort her for
what had been done, but me refufed to fee him, and
fhut her doors againfl him. This fo deeply affected
him, that it difordered his mind, and made him deter-'
mine to put an end to his life, by abftaining from all
manner of fuftenance ; till through the care and dili-
gence of his friends, who were every inftant with him,
and added force to their entreaties, he came to refblve
and promife atlaft, that he would endure life, provided
it might be in folitude. So that, quitting all civil
tranfactions, and his former commerce with the' world,
for along time he never came into Corinth, but wandered
up and down the fields, full of anxious and tormenting
thoughts, and fpent his time in the moft defart and'
folitary places. So eafily are our judgments and refo-
lutions changed and unsettled through the cafual com-
mendation or reproof of others, unlefs they are con-
firmed by reafon and philofophy, which give ftrength
and fleadinefs to our undertakings ^ for an action muft
not only be juft and laudable in its own nature, but it
muft proceed likewife from folid motives, and a lafting
principle, fo that we may fully and conftantly approve
it For other wife, when we hr/e executed any defign,
we mail through our own weaknefs, be filled with for-


T I M O L E O N. 201

row and remorfe, and the fplendid ideas of honour and
virtue, which at firft accompanied the adtion will totally
vanifh ; as it happens to thofe greedy perfons who
feizing on the more delicious morfels of any dim with
a keen appetite, are prefently cloyed and di'fgufted : for
repentance makes even the beft actions appear bafe and
faulty ; whereas thofe purpofes which are founded
upon knowledge and reafon never change by cjifap-
pointment. And therefore Phocion of Athens, having
vigoroufly oppofed the enterprize of (7) Leofthenes, which
however fucceeded contrary to his opinion ; when he
faw the Athenians facrificing, and exulting upon a vic-
tory that was gotten by him, faid, " I am glad of this fuc-
" cefs, but I mufl {till approve of my own advice." AriC
tides the Locrian, one of Plato's companions, made a more
fharp and fevere reply to Dionyfius the elder, who de-
manded one of his daughters in marriage ; I had rather,
fays he to him, " fee the virgin in her" grave, than in the
" palace of a tyrant." And when Dionyfius, enraged at the
affront, put his fons to death a while after, and then
again infultingly afked, " Whether he wereftill in the fame
" mind as to the difpofal of his daughter ?" His anfwer
was, " I am forry for what you have done, but I am
" not forry for what I faid." But fuch expreilions as thefe
are perhaps the effects of a more fublime and accomplim-
ed virtue, which every man cannot attain to.

As for the dejection of Timoleon upon the late fad,
whether it arofe from a deep commiferation of his bro-
ther's fate, or the reverence he bore his mother, it fb
mattered and impaired his fpirits, that for the fpace
ofalmofl twenty years he did not concern himfelf in any
confiderable or publick a&ion. When therefore he was
pitched upon for General, and joyfully accepted as fuch
by the fuffrages of the people, Teleclides, a man of
thegreatefl power and reputation in Corinth, rofe up and
exhorted him to adt on this cccafion with refolution and
integrity ; " If," faid he, " you now behave well, we
" (hall look upon you as the deftroyer of a tyrant ; if not,

" you

(7) See the life of Phocion-

202 The L I F E of

" you will be confidered as the murderer of your brother.'*
While he was preparing to fet fail, and lifting foldiers to
embark with him, there came letters to the Corinthians
from Icetes, that plainly difcovered his revolt and treache-
ry ; for his ambafladors were no fboner fet out for Corinth,
but he openly joined the Carthaginians, and furthered
them in their defigns, that they likewife might affifthim
to throw out Dionyfius, and to become mafter of Syracufe
in his room. And fearing he might be difappointedofhis
aim, if the Corinthian forces mould arrive with a General
of their own before this was effected, he fent a" letter to
the people of Corinth, telling them, " they need not be
*' at any cofb and trouble upon his account, or run the
** hazard of a Sicilian^expcdition, efpeciaily lince the Car-
" thaginians would difpute their pafTage, and lay in wait
*' to attack them with a numerous fleet, which he had
** himfelf now engaged, (being forced thereto by the
" flownefs of their motions) to lend him all necefiary af-
(iftance againft Dionyfius." This letter being publickly
read, if any had been cold and indifferent before, as to"
the expedition in hand, yet the indignation they con-
ceived againft Icetes, now exafperated and inflamed
them all, mfomuch that they willingly contributed to
(apply Timoleon, and jointly endeavoured to his

When the vcflels were equipped, and his foldiers
every way provided for, the priefcefies of Proferpine had
a dream, wherein fhe and her mother Ceres appeared to
ihem in a travelling garb, and faid, that they would
fail with Tirnolcon into Sicily ; whereupon the Corinthi-
ans (8) built a fac red galley, which they called the "gal-
" ley of the Goddedes." Timoleon went in perfon to Delphi,
where he facrificed to Apollo, and defcending into the
place of prophecy, he was furprized with this marvel-

(8) DiodorusSiculus fays, which thofe ancient times, the bride-
is more probable) that they gave groom made a prefect to the
the name above mentioned to one bride $ which cuftoni is particu-
jof the fined and beft ot'thofevef- larly taken notice of in Homer,
fels which they had equipped be- This prefent was made the third
^bre. day after the wedding, when the
(9) According to the cuftom of biide appeared without her vei! ;


T I M O L E O N. 203

Ions occurence , a wreath, or garland embroidered with
crowns and images of victory, flipped off from among
the gifts that were there hung up, and fell directly upon
his head; fo that Apollo feemed already to crown him,
and fend him thence to conquer and triumph in that en~
terprize. He put to fea with only feven fhips of Corinth,
two of Corcyra, and a tenth which was furnimed by the
Leucadians. Having fet fail by night, with a profperous
gale, the heavens feemed all on a fudden to be rent in
funder, and a bright fpreading flame iiFued from the di-
vifion, and hovered over the (hip wherein he was ; then
forming itfelf into a torch, not unlike thofe which are
ufed in the religious myfteries, it kept the fame courfe
with them, guiding them by its light to that quarter of
Italy to which they defigned to fleer. The foothfayers
affirmed that this apparition agreed with the dream of
the prieflefies, fmce the Goddefles did now vifibly join
in the expedition, and fet up that heavenly lamp to con-
duel: them in their voyage ; for Sicily was thought fa-
cred to Proferpine, becaufe the poets feign, that the rape
was committed there, and that the ifland was given her
(9) as a prefent when (lie was married to Pluto. Thefe
early demonftrations of Divine favour much encourag-
ed his whole army ; fo that making all the fail they were
able, and crofling the fea with great expedition, they were
foon brought upon the coafc of Italy. But the tidings that
came from Sicily very much perplexed Timokon, and
difheartened his fold iers ; for (i) Icetes having already
beaten Dionyfms out of the field, and reduced the greater
part of Syracufe itfelf, was befieging him in the citadel,
and that remnant which is called the lile ; while the Car-
thaginians, by agreement, were to make it their bufmefs
to hinder Timoleon from landing in Sicily ; fo that he be-
ing driven back, they might at their own leifure, divide


for which reafon Plutarch calls it fius marclied out, purfued him,

jraAW?r*pK. and attacked his rear ; but Icetes

( i ) Icetes having lain fome time facing about to make good his re-

before Syracufe, began to want treat, defeated him, killed 3000

provifions, which Obliged him to of his men, and purfuing him into

retire with his army towards his the city, kept pofieffion of it j

pwn country ,< whereupon Dionj- while Dionyfius was forced to


204 The L I F E of

the ifland among themfelves. In purfuance of which de-
fign, the Carthaginians fent away twenty of their galleys
to Rhegium, having on board certain ambafladors from
Icetes to Timoleon, who carried inftrudions fuitable to
thefe proceedings, being nothing elfe but artful fpecious
propofitions to colour and conceal his treacherous defigns ;
for they were ordered to propofe, " That Timoleon him-
" felf (if he liked the offer) mould come to advife with
*' Icetes, and partake of all his conquefls, but that he
" might fend back his mips and forces to Corinth, fmce
" the war was in a manner fmifhed, and the Carthaginians
" had refolved to repel force with force, and oppofe them
" if they mould prefs towards the more." When there-
fore the Corinthians met with thefe envoys at Rhegium,
and received their meffage, and faw the Punick veiTels
riding at anchor near them, they became deeply fenfible
of the abufe that was put upon them, and had a general
indignation againft Icetes, and great apprehenfions for the
Sicilians, whom they now plainly perceived to be as it
v/ere a prize and recompence of the falfhood of Icetes on
one fide, and the ambition of Carthage on the other ; for
ijt feemed utterly impoflible to overpower the Carthagi-
nian (hips that lay before them, and were double their
number, as alfo to vanquifh the troops of Icetes, which
they had expedted would join with them, and put them-
felves under their command. The cafe being thus, Ti-
moleon after fome conference with the legates of Icetes,
and the Carthaginian captains, told them, " he mould rea-
*' dily fubmit to their propofals, (for it would be to no
" purpofe to refufe compliance ; ) he wasdefirous only be-
*' fore his return to Corinth, that what pafled between
" them in private, might befolemnly declared before the
%c people of Rhegium, which was a Grecian city, and a
" common friend to both parties ^ for this was necefiary
" in order to fecure him from any reproach ; and they
" likewife would more flridly obierve fuch articles of a-
&t greement, on behalf of the Syracufans, which they had


content himfelf with that part of fered them to pafs by, believing

It called the Ifle. this to be done by agreement with

(2) The Carthaginian fhipsfuf- their officers who were in the

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