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which they call Epipolx. And for five cities.

O 4 (i) There

4x6 *&' LIFE of

with perfuafion and force together, made good their
paflage through thofe barbarians to the city of Rhegium,
the lea being ftill rough and flormy as before. But
Hanno, not expecYmg the Corinthians would venture out,
and fuppofing it would be in vain to wait there any
longer, bethought himf if, as he imagined, ct a very
deep ftratagem, to delude and infnaie the enemy ; in
pursuance of which he commanded the feamen to crown
themfelves with garlands, and scorning his galleys
with bucklers both of the Greek and Punick form, he
failed to Syracufe ; and rowing up to the citadel with
loud fhouts and laughter caufed it to be proclaimed
that he had juft vanquifhed the Cori thian fuccours,
which he fell upon at fea, as they were patting over
into Sicily, intending hereby to dishearten the garrifon.
While he was employed in thefe trifling artifices be-
fore Syracufe, the Corinthians, now come as far as Rhe-
gium, obferving the coaft clear, and that the wind was
laid as it were by a miracle, to afford them in all ap-
pearance a quiet and fmooth pailage, went immediately
aboard fuch little barks and rimer-boats as were then
at hand, and got over to Sicily with fo much fafety
and in fuch a dead calm, that they drew their horfes by
the reins, fwimming along by the fides of their veflels.
When they were all landed, Timoleon cime to receive
them, and prefently took Medina by their means, from
whence he marched in good order to Syracafe, trufting
more to fortune and his late profperous atchievements,
than his prefent flrength ; for the whole army he had
then with him did not exceed 4000. Mago was ter-
rified at the firft notice of his coming, but his appre-
henfions increafed upon the following occafion. The
rnarfhes (i) about Syracufe, which receive a great deal
of frefh water, as well from fprings and fountains, as
from lakes and rivers difcharging themfelves into the
fea, breed abundance of eels which may be always
taken there in great quantities by any that will fifh for
them. The mercenary foldiers that ferved on both


(i) There is one morafs that called Syraco. From this laft the
it called Lyiunelia, and another city 'took its name. Thefe mo-



fides, ufed to follow that fport together at their vacant
hours, and upon any ceffation of arms. Thefe being
all Greeks, and having no caufe of private enmity to
each other, as they would venture bravely in fight, fo in
time of truce they met and converfed amicably together ;
and at that time happening to be employed about the
common bufmefs of fifhing, they fell into various diC-
courfe, fbme expreffing their admiration of the nature and
fruitfulnefs of that fea, and others faying how much they
were pleafed with the commodious fituation of the ad-
jacent places i this gave a hint to one of the Corinthian
party to fpeak thus to the others : "And is it poilibie
" that you, who are Grecians born, mould be fo for-
" ward to reduce a city of this greatnefs, and which en-
" joys fo many advantages, into a flate of barbarifm ; and
** lend yourafliflance to plant Carthaginians, the worft and
u bloodied of men, fb much nearer to us ? whereas you
*' fhould rather wifh there were many more Sicilies to lie be-
" tween them and Greece. Or can you believe, that they
" come hither with an army from Hercules's Pi liars, and the
" Atlantick fea, to hazard themfelves for the eftablifhment of
** Icetes, who, if he had had the prudence which becomes a
'* General, would never have thrown out his anceftors and
'* founders, to bring in the enemies of his country in the room
" of them, when he might have enjoyed all fui table honour
" and command, with theconfent of Timoleon and the Co-
* rinthians." The Greeks that were in pay with Icetes,
fpreading thefe difcourfes about their camp, gave Mago
(who had long (ought for a pretence to be gone) fbme
ground to fufpeft there was treachery contrived againft
him ; fb that although Icetes entreated him to remain,
and made it appear how much flronger they were than
the enemy ; yet conceiving they came far more fhort
of Timoleon, both as to courage and fortune, than they
furpafled him in number, he prefently embarked, and
fet fail for Africa, letting Sicily efcape out of his hands
in a mofl ignominious and unaccountable manner.
The day after he went away, Timoleon came up before


rifles make the air of Syracufe very wowhplefome,

2i8 ?he LIFE of

the city with his army drawn up in order of battle ; but
when he and his company both heard of this fudden
flight, and faw the haven empty, they could not for-
bear laughing at the cowardice of Mago, and by way of
mockery caufed proclamation to be made, that he
fhould be well rewarded for his intelligence, who could
bring them tidings whither it was that the Carthaginian
fleet had conveyed itfelf from them. However Icetes
refolving to fight it out alone, and not quitting his
hold of the city, but -flicking clofe to thofe quarters
he was in pofleilion of, as places that were well forti-
fied, and not eafy to be attacked, Timoleon divided his
forces into three parts, and fell upon that fide himfeif
where the river Anapus runs, and which was mofl ftrong
and difficult of accefs, commanding others that were
led by Ifius, a Corinthian captain, to make their affault
from the poft of Achradina, while Dinarchus and Dema-
retus, who brought him the laft fupply from Corinth,
mould with the third divifion attempt that quarter
which is called Epipolac. So that a forcible impreffion
being made from every fide at once, the foldiers of
Icetes were overpowered and put to flight. Now that
the city was taken by florm, and fell fuddenly into
tbeir hands, upon the defeat of the enemy, is juftly to
be afcribed to the valour of the combatants, and the wife
conduct of their General ; but that not fo much as a
man of the Corinthians was either (lain or wounded in
the adlion, this the good fortune of Timoleon feems to
challenge for her own work, as if fhe drove to exceed
and obfcure his fortitude by her extraordinary favours ;
that thofe who fhould hear him commended for his
exploits might rather admire the happinefs than the
merit of them. The report of this event did not only
fpread immediately through all Sicily and Italy, but
even Greece itlelf after a few days refounded with the
fame of his fuccefs; infomuch that the people of -Co-
rinth, who could hardly believe their auxiliaries were
yet landed on the iile, had tidings brought them at the
lame time that they were both fafe and victorious ; in fb
profperous a courfe did affairs run, while fortune added


T I M O L E O N.

fpeedinefs in the execution of every enterprize as a new
ornament, to fet off the native luftre of Timolepn's at-
chieveraents. Timoleon being mailer of thecitadel, avoided
the error whichDion had been guilty of before for he
did not fpare that place for the beauty and fumptuouf-
nefs of its fabrick ; but avoiding the caufes of that fufl
picion, which firft flandered, and then deflroyed 'him,
he made a publick cryer give notice, "that all the Syracu-
" fans who were willing to have a hand in the work,
* c mould bring proper inftruments, and help him to de-
" molifh that fortrefs of tyranny." When they all came
up with one accord, looking upon that order and that day
as the certain commencement of their liberty, they not only
pulled down the citadel, but overturned the palaces and
monuments of the former tyrants. Having foon le-
velled and cleared the place, he immediately caufed a
common-hall to be built there for the feat of judicature,
gratifying the citizens by this means, and erecting a
popular government on the ruins of tyranny. Though
the city was thus recovered, yet it was defiitute of in-
habitants, many of whom had perifhed in the courfe
of the civil wars and feditions, and others had with-
drawn to efcape the tyrants; fo that the market-place
was overgrown with liich quantity of rank herbage,
that it became a pafture for their horfes, the grooms
lying along in the grafs as they fed by them. Moft of
the other towns v/ere likewife defolate, ahd became har-
bours for flags [and wild boars ; infomuch that they
who had leifure went frequently a hunting, and found
game enough in the fuburbs, and under the walls;
whilft none of thofe, who had pofleffed themfelves of
caftles, or eftablifhed garrifons in the country, could
be perfuaded to quit their flrong holds, or liften to
any invitation of returning back into the city ; fo much
did they all dread the very name of afTemblies, corpo-
rations and tribunals, which they looked on as fo many
nurferies of tyranny. Hereupon Timoleon, and the Sy-
racufans determined to write to the Corinthians, and de-
fire them to fend a colony out of Greece, to re-people
fryracufe for elfe the land about it would lie totally

uncultivated ;

420 The L I F E of

imcuitivated ; befides that they expected to be involved
in a greater war from Africa, having news brought
them, that Mago had killed himfelf, and that the Car-
thaginians, out of rage for his ill conduct in the late
expedition, had caufed his body to be nailed upon a
crofs, and that they were raifing a very great force,
with defign to make another defce:>t upon Sicily the
next fammer. Thefe letters from Timoleon being deli-
vered to the Corinthians, and the ambaffadors of Syra-
cufe befeeching them at the fame time, that they would
take upon them the care of their city, and once again
become the founders of it, the Corinthians were fo far
from taking advantage of their calamities, or appro-
priating that city to themfelves, that in the firft place
they made proclamation by their heralds at all the fa-
cred games of Greece, and at their fblemn meetings
where there was the grea reft confluence of people, " that
" the Corinthians having deftroyed the ufurpation at Syra-
" cufe, and driven out the tyrant, did thereby call home the
* l Syracufan exiles, and any other Sicilians that would come
" and dwell in the city, to an enjoyment of freedom un-
" der their own laws, with promiie that the land fhould
44 be divided among them in juftand equal proportions."
And after rhis, fending meflengers intoAfia, and thefe-
veral iflands, where they underftood that moft of the fcat-
tered fugitives refided, they made it their requeft, that
they would all repair to Corinth, afluring them that the
Corinthians would afford them vefiels, and commanders,
and a fafe convoy, at their own charges. As foon as this
propofal was known, the Corinthians received from every
one that tribute of honour and applaufe which they fo
juftly deferved for delivering that country from oppref-
fors, faving it from barbarians, and refloring it at
length to the rightful owners. But when they were
aflembied at Corinth, and found how inefficient their
number was, they befought the Corinthians, that they
might have a fupplement of other perfons, as well out
of their city as the reft of Greece, to accompany them;


(.) He defeated Hamilcar who landed in Sicily with three him-


T I M O L E O N. 221

and their number being increafed to ten thoufand, they
iailed together to Syracufe. By this time great mul-
titudes from Italy and Sicily had flocked in to Timcleon,
ib that, as Athanis the hiilorian reports, they amounted
to fixty thoufand men ; among tliefe he divided the
land, but fold the houfes for a thoufand talents ; by
which contrivance he both left it in the power of the
old Syracufans to redeem their own, and made that an
occafion too of raifmg a ftock for the community,
which had been ib much impoverifhed of late, and
was unable to defray other expences, ard efpecially
thofeof a war, that they expofed their very ftatues to
fale, a kind of regular judicial procefs being formed
and fentence of auction pafied upon each of them
by a majority of voices, as if they had been fo many
criminals. But it is faid, the Syracufans agreed to ex-
empt the flatue of Gelo, one of their ancient Kings,
when all the reft were doomed to fuffer a common
fale, in admiration and honour of the man, and (2) for
the fake of that victory he obtained over the Carthagi-
nian forces at Himera.

Syracufe being thus happily revived, and replenifhed
again by a general concourfe of inhabitants from all
parts, Timoleon was defirous now to refcue the other
cities from the like bondage, and once for all to extir-
pate arbitrary government out of Sicily. For this pur-
pofe, marching into the territories of thofe whoexercifed
it, he compelled Icetes firfl to renounce the Carthaginian
intereft, and further toconfentto dcmclim the fortreiles
which were held by him, and to live among the Leon-
tines as a private perfbn. Leptines alfo, the tyrant of
Apollonia, and of feveral other little towns, after fome
refiftance made, feeing the danger he was in of being
taken by force, made a voluntary furrender of himfelf;
whereupon Timoleon fpared his life, and lent him away
to Corinth, accounting it a very glorious thing for the
city of Corinth to expofe to the view of the other Greci-
ans, thofe Sicilian tyrants living now in an exiled aod


Jred thoufand men, in fbe fccond year of the 7cth Oivmpiad.

(3) There

222 The LIFE of

defpicable condition. After this he returned to Syra-
cufe, in order to provide for the civil government of
that city, and make the moil wholfome and neceffary
laws in conjunction with Cephalus and Dionyfms, two
lawyers who had been fent thither from Corinth for that
purpofe. In the mean while, having a mind that his
hired foldiers mould not want action, but rather enrich
themfelves by fome plunder from the enemy, he dif-
patched Dinarchus and Demaretus with them, into a cer-
tain province that belonged to the Carthaginians ; they
by recovering feveral cities from the barbarians, did not
only live in great abundance themfelves, but raifed
money from their plunder to carry on the war. But
while thefe matters were tranfacting, the Carthaginians
.landed at Lilybaeum, bringing with them an army of
70,000 men, and 200 galleys, befides 1000 other vef-
fels laden with military machines and chariots, a great
quantity of corn, and other provifions, as if they in-
tended not to manage the war in a partial manner as
before, but to drive the Grecians altogether and at once
out of Sicily. And indeed it was a force fufficient to
fubdue the Sicilians, even if they had been perfectly
united among themfelves, and much more when they
were ib enfeebled through their own divifions and ani-
mofities. The Carthaginians therefore hearing that a
territory of their dependance was laid wafte, prefently
marched towards the Corinthians, with great fury, having
Afdrubal and Hamilcar for their generals. The re-
port of their opproach foon reached Syracufe, where the
people were fo terrified at the greatnefs of fuch a power,
that hardly 3000, among fo many myriads of them,
had the courrge to take up arms and join themfelves
withTimoleon. The flrangers whoferved for pay were
not above 4000 in all, and about 1000 of thofe, their
courage failing, forfook Timoleon in his march towards
the enemy looking on him as a frantic and diffracted
perfon, deflitute of that fenfe and confideration, which
might have been expected from one of his age, for
venturing out againfl an army of 70,000 men with no
more than 5000 foot, and 1000 horfe, and chnfmg


T I M O L E O N. 223


befides to remove them eight days journey from Syracufe,
fo that if they were beaten out of the field, there was
no place of retreat; or, if they happened to die upon
the fpot, there would be none to take care of their bu-
rial. Timoleon however reckoned it fome advantage,
that they had thus 'difcovered themfelves before the
battle, and encouraging the reit, he led them with all
fpeed to the river Crimefus, where it was told him the
Carthaginians were drawn together. As he was march-
ing up an afcent from the top of which they might take
a view of the ftrength and pofture of the enemy, there
met him by chance a company of mules loaden with
partly, which his foldiers conceived to be a bad omen,
becaufe this is the herb wherewith we ufually adorn
the fepulchres of the dead ; which cuftom gave birth to
that proverb, when we pronounce of one who is danger-
oufly fick, " That he has 'need of nothing but parily."
Timoleon that he might free their minds from thefe fu-
perftitious and difcouraging thoughts, caufed his men to
halt, and having alledged many other things in a dif-
courferfuitable to the occafion, he concluded it by faying,
that a garland of triumph was here luckily brought
them, and had fallen into their hands of its own accord,
even before the victory. For the Corinthians crown the
conquerors in their Ifthmian games with chaplets of
parfly, accounting it a facred wreath, and proper to
their country , for parily was then the conquering orna-
ment of the Ifthmian, as it is now of the Nemean fports,
and it is but lately that branches of pine have been made
ufe of for that purpofe. Timoleon therefore, as I faid,
having thus befpoke his foldiers, took part of the parily,
wherewith he made himfelf a chaplet firlt, and then his
captains and their companies all crowned themfelves with
it, in imitation of their leader. The foothfayers then ob-
ferving alfo two eagles on the wing towards them, one of
which bore a ferpent ftruck through with her talons, and
the ot'her, as me flew, made a loud and animating kind of
noife, they prefently fhowed them to the foldiers, who with
one confent fell to fupplicate the Gods, and implore their
afliftance. It was now about the beginning of fummer,


224 The LIFE of

and towards the end of the month Thargelion, near the
folflice ; the river then fending up a thick mifl, all the
adjacent plain was firfl darkened with the fog, fo that
for a while they could difcern nothing of the enemies
camp, only a confufed noife and unextinguifhed mixture
of voices came up to the hill, from the diftant motions
and clamours of fo vaft a multitude. When the Corin-
thians had gained the top of the hill, where they flop-
ped, and laid down their bucklers to take breath and re-
pofe themfelves, the fun drawing up the vapours from
below, the grofs foggy air was now gathered and con-
den fed above, and covered the mountains, but all the
plain beneath being clear, the river Crimefus appeared,
and they could eafily defcry the enemies paffing over it,
and moving in the following order. Firft came their war-
like chariots, terribly armed for the battle ; after thefe
came 10,000 foot foldiers, with white targets on their
arms, whom they guefled to be all Carthaginians, from the
fplendor of their weapons, the flownefs of their motion,
a'id order of their march ; and when feveral other na-
tions, flowing in behind them, thronged for paflage in
-.a tumultuous and irregular manner, Timoleon perceiving
:that the river gave them opportunity to chufe out as
many of their enemies as they had a mind to engage at
o.jce, and bidding his foldiers obferve how their forces
were divided into two feparate bodies by the interven-
tion of the ftream, fome being already got over, and
others preparing to pafs it ; he ordered Demaretus to fall
in upon the Carthaginians with his horfe, and diilurb
their ranks, before they were drawn up in order and
coming down into the plain himfelf, he made up his
right and left wing of other Sicilians, intermingling a
few ftrangers in each, but placed the natives of Syracufe
in the middle with the flouted mercenaries he had
about his own perfon, and then flaid a little to obferve
the fuccefs of his horfe ; but when he faw they were not
only hindered from grapling with the Caithaginians, by
thole armed chariots, that ran to and fro before their
army, but forced continually to wheel about, to avoid
the danger of having their ranks broken, and then to


T I M O L E O N. 225

make frequent careers, in order to return to the attack,
he took his buckler in his hand, and cried out to the
foot, that they fhould follow him with courage and con-
fidence, feeming to fpeak with a more than human
accent, and a voice ftronger than ordinary ; whether it
was that he drained it to that loudnefs, through an ap-
prehenfion of the prefent danger, and from the vehe-
mence and ardour of his mind to aiiault the enemy, or
elfe (as many then were of opinion) that the voice of
fome God was joined with his. When his foldiers
anfwered him with a fhout, and befought him to lead
them on without any further delay, he made a fign to
the horfe, that they mould draw off from the front
where the chariots v/ere placed, and attack their ene-
mies in the flank ^ then making his vanguard firm, by
joining man to man ; and buckler to buckler, he caufed
the trumpet to found, and fb charged the Carthaginians,
who firmly fuftained his firft onfet ; for being armed with
breafl-plates of iron and helmets of brafs, befides great
bucklers to cover and fecure them, they could eafily
repel the force of their javelins. ' But when the bufmefs
came to adecifion by the fword, where mattery depends
no lefs upon art than ftrength, all on a fudden there
broke out terrible thunders and flames of lightning from
the mountain tops ; after which, the black clouds that
hovered upon the hills, dcfcendingto the place of battle,
accompanied with a temped of rain, wind, and hail,
fell upon the backs of the Grecians, but full in the face
of the barbarians ; fo that the ftormy fhowers, and the
flames continually ifluing from the clouds, dazzled and
confounded their fight. Thefe things greatly diftreffed
the barbarians, efpecially their unexperienced men ; but
the very claps of thunder, and the rattling noife of their
weapons, beaten with the violence of rain and hal-
ftones, were not their lead annoyance, as this prevented
them from hearing the commands of their officers. Ee-
fide this, the dirt was a-lfo a great hindrance to the Car-
thaginians, who were lefs nimble and active, being, as
I faid before, encumbred with heavy armour ; befides,
their tunicks drenched through with water in the fold-
VOL. II. P ings

226 The L I F E of

r.ors about their bofom, were a great impediment to
them as they fought, and gave the Greeks an advantage
of overturning them with eafe ; and when they were
once down, it was impollible to di (engage themfelves
from the mire, and rile again with fucli a weight of ar-
mour. Befides, the river Crimefus, fwoln partly by
the rain and partly by the floppage of its courfe from
the multitude of thole that were pafling through, over-
flowed its banks -, and the land en each fide having
(everal cavities and channels in it, the water fettled
there, and the Carthaginians rolling about in them were
mi ferably embar raffed, fo that in fine, the ftorm and
torrent bearing ftill upon them, and the Greeks having
cut in pieces 400 men of their fail ranks, the whole
body of their army began to fly great numbers of them
being overtaken in the plain, were put to the fword
there; and many of them as they fled, falling foul upon
others who were yet coming over the river, they all fell
and perifhed together, being born down by the impe-
tuofity of the ftream ; but the major part attempting to
get up the hills and fo make their eicape, were prevented
and flain by the light-armed foldiers. It is faid, that
of 10,000 who lay dead after the fight, 3000 at leaft
were natives of Carthage, a heavy lofs to that city ; for
tliefe were inferior to none among them, either in birth,
wealth, or reputation : nor do their records mention
that fo many Carthaginians were ever cut off before in
any one battle ; for they ufually employed the Africans.
Spaniards, and Numidians, in their wars, fo that if they
chanced to be defeated, it was ftill at the coflof other
nations. The Greeks eafiiy difcovered the condition
and rank of the ilain, by the richnefs of their fpoils }
for when they came to drip the bodies, there was very
little reckoning made either of brafs or iron ; ib great
was the plenty of filver and gold which fell into their
hands for pafling over the river they became matters
of the camp and baggage. As for the captives, a
great many of them were clandeflinely fold by the Ibl-
diers, but about 5000 were brought in, and delivered
up for the benefit of thepublick ;,they took befideszoo


T I M O L E O N.

of their chariots. The tent of Timolecn made a very
beautiful and magnificent appearance, being furroundcd
with a variety of fpoils and military ornaments, among

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