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which there were 1000 breaft-plates of exquifite work-
manfhip, and 10,000 bucklers expofed to view. But
the victors being but few to flrip fo many that were
vanquifhed, and meeting too with fo great booty, it
was the third day after the fight before they could erect
the trophy of their conqueft. Timoleon fent tidings of
his victory to Corinth, with the richefl of the arms he
had taken; that he might render his country an object
of emulation to the whole world, when of all the cities
of Greece, men mould there only behold their chief
temples adorned, not with Grecian fpoils, nor offerings
that were got by the bloodfhed and plunder of their own
countrymen and kindred, (which muft needs create very
unpleafmg reflections) but with the fpoils of barbarians,
which bore this honourable inscription, proclaiming the
jufticeas well as fortitude of the conquerors, " That the
" people of Corinth, and Timoleon their General, having
" redeemed the Grecians that dwelt in Sicily, from Car-
" thaginian bondage, made -this offering as a grateful
acknowledgment to the Gods." Having done this, he
left his hired foldiers in the enemies country, to ravage
the Carthaginian territory, and marched with the reft of
his army to Syracufe, where he made an edict for bamm-
ing i ooo mercenaries, who hadbafely deferted him be-
fore the battle, and obliged them to quit the city be-
fore funfet. Upon their palling over into Italy, they
were all treacherouily murdered by the Brutians ; thus re-
ceiving from heaven the juft reward of their own perfidy.
But Mamercus the tyrant of Catana, and Icetes, either
envying Timoleon the glory of his exploits, or fearing
him as one who would upon no terms be reconciled to
tyrants, made a league with the Carthaginians, and
preifed them very much to fend a new army and com-
mander into Sicily, unlefs they were content to be wholly
driven out of that ifland. Whereupon they difpatched
Gifco with a navy of feventy fail ; he took feveral
Grecians into pay, that being the firft time they had eve*

P 2 been

228 The L I F E of

been lifted for the Punick fervice ; but then it feems the
Carthaginians began to admire them, as the mofl refo-
lute and invincible of mankind. The inhabitants of
Medina entering now with one accord into a general
confpiracy, flew 430 of thofe ftrangers whom Timoleon
had fent to their afliftance ; and within the dependencies
of Carthage ; at a place called (6) Hiersc, the mercena-
ries that ferved under Euthymus the Leueadian were all,
cut off by an ambufh that was laid far them. From
thefe accidents, however, the felicity of Timoleon grew
chiefly remarkable ; for thefe were fome of the men
that wrth-Philodemusof Phocis, and Onornarchua, (7-) had
forcibly broke into the temple of Apollo at Delphi, and
were partakers with them in the faerilege- T fo that be-
ing hated and fhunned by all^. as fo many execrable
perfons, they were conftrajned to wander about in Pe-
loponnefus, when for want of others, Timoleon was glad
to entertain them in his expedition to Sicily, where they
happened to be fuccefsful, in whatever enterprize they
engaged under his conduct. But the mofl and greateft
of thofe battles being now ended, he fent them abroad'
for the relief and defence of his party in feveral places,
and here they v/ere loft and confumed at a diftance
from him, not all together, but by degrees ; the ven-
geance then inflicted making Timoleon's profperity an
excufe of its delay, that good men might not fufFer any
harm by the punimmeut of the wicked ; inforrmch that


(6) There is no place in Sicily fine of feveral talents, for having
of this name. For which reafon plundered the country of Cyrrha,
P. Lubin fufpedts the reading in which was dedicated to Apollo,
this place, and thinks it ought to and that people being unable to
be \tTatft; inftead of 'l*p'? ; *' near pay it, their whole country was
" a place called Hietoe." For Ste- judged forfeited to that God. One
phanus de Urbib. fays Hietas is of the chief perfons of Phocis,
the name of a caftle in Sicily ; and whofe name was Philomelis, (not
P. Lubin thinks it to be the fame , Philodemus) thefonofTheotimus,
that is now called Lato, in the called the people together, put
vale of Mazara, thirty miles from himfelf at the head of them, and
Palermo to the South. feizing all the treafure that was in

(7) Thiswas what gave rife to the temple of Delphi, employed it
what is called the " facred war." to raife forces, and fo began a war
The Amphictyons having con- that continued fix years with va-
demned the people of Phocis in a rious fuccefs. Philomelus being


T I M O L E O N. 229

the favour of the Gods towards Timoleon was difcerned
and admired no lefs, from his very mifcarriagfes anddi
afters than from any of thofe former atchievements in
which he had been moft fuccefsful.

But that which vexed and provoked the Syracufans
moft, was their being affronted by the infolent behavir.
our of thefe tyrants- for Mamercus in particular valuing
himfelf much upon the faculty he had of writing poems
,and tragedies, and being very vain of the advantage he
had lately obtained, when he -prefented to the Gods the
bucklers that were taken from the mercenaries who had
been flain by him accompanied the offering with this
infulting infcription.

(8) htfe fljields with purple, gold, and ivory- wrought^
IVere won by us who with plain bucklers fought.
Afterwards whileTimoleon marched to Calauria, Icetes
made an inroad into the territory of the Syracufans, where
he met with confiderable booty ; and having made great
havock, he returned back even 'by Calauria itfelf, in con-
tempt of Timolecn, and the Render force he had then
with him. He fuffering Icetes to pafs by, purfued him
with his horfemen and light infantry, which Icetes per-
ceiving, eroded the river Daroyrias, and then flood in
a poflure to receive him ; for the difficulty of that pa-
fage, and the height and fleepnefs of the bank on each
fide, gave advantage enough to make him thus confi-

defeated, in his flight fell head- wore the ornaments their huf-

^ong down a precipice ; and Ono- bands had brought out of the tern-

.marchus who fucceeded in his pie, died miferably. One of them

place, was flain by his own foldi- who had worn Helena's neck-lace,

,crs, and his body was expofed on died fhamefully in the very aft of

a crofs. Phayllus his brother who proftitution : and another who had

fucceeded him, feil at once into a worn a necklace of Heriphila's,

confumption, that foon killed him. was burnt to death in her own

After him, the command fell to houfe, which her fon in a fit of

Phalecus the ion of Onomarchus, madnefs fet on fire. Thi war

but he was quickly deprived of it, begun the laft year of the ip;th<

and died afterwards in Crete. Of Olympiad, aad rtided the full

all thofe perfons that had been year of the loSth.
guilty of facrilege, there was (8) They were bucklers that

fcarce one but died of a violent had been taken out of the temple

death. Kay, their very wives who at Delphi.

P 3 (9) This

The LIFE of

dent. Bat there happened a remarkable contention and
emulation among the officers of Timoleon, which a little
retarded the battle ; for there was none of them that
would let another pafs over before him to engage the
enemy, but every one challenged it as his right, to
venture firfl, and begin the attack ; fo that their ford-
ing over was like to be tumultuous and without order,
by their juftling each other and preffing to be foremofl.
Timoleon therefore defiring this controv'erfy might be de-
cided by lot, took a ring from each of the pretenders,
which he call into his own robe, and having fhaked
them together, the firfl he drew out and expofed to
view, had by good fortune the figure of a trophy en-
graven on the feal of it ; which when the younger cap-
tains faw, they all fhouted for joy, and without wait-
ing any longer to fee how chance would determine it
for the reft, every man took his way through the river,
with all the fpeed he could make, and fell upon the
enemies, who were not able to bear up againft the vio-
lence of their attack, but all of them throwing away
their arms, betook themfelves to flight, leaving 1000
of their men dead upon the place. Not long after Ti-
moleon marching to the city of Lepntium, took Icetes
ahve ; and his fon Eupolemus, and Euthymus the com-
mander of his horfe, were bound and brought to him
by the foldiers. Icetes and his fon, were then executed
as tyrants and traitors ; and Euthymus, though a brave
man, and one of fmgular courage, was flain without
mercy, being charged with fome contemptuous lan-
guage that had been ufed by him, jn difparagement of
the Corinthians ; for it is (aid, that when they firft fent
their forces into Sicily, he told the people of Leontium,


(9) This is a parody of a verfe of it pleafantly enough. Of Ropi-
er two of Euripides in his tragedy Sia >iar*??, which is the voca-
of Medea, in which that Princefs tive cafcin Euripides, ''Ye women
fays, v. 24. " of Corinth," he makes a nomi-
v i a ~ >-, a *. native ; " the women of" Co-

jvopfKrtflM yvrstiiti;, i^r,},*} 1 ** ?.*>, / i_ A r i _i - -

,,V ' nnth.' And ofthe word E^?.S^,

MJIJA-H tt u.ta.^icf^ij. ,. , . . - r -

which is the firft perfon Angular,

"Ye women of Corinth, if I leave "I leave," he makes the third
4 my houfe, do not reproach me perfon plural, ' had left."
''fo: it.' 1 Euthymus turns the fenie (i) From

T I M O L E O N. 23!

in a fpeech, " That the news did not found terrible, nor
" was any great danger to be feared (9) if the Corinthian
"dames were come abroad." So true is it that the gene-
rality of men are more affected by contemptuous words,
than hoftile actions ; and bear diidain and reproach with
lefs patience than real mifchief -, for to hurt another by
adtions is in an enemy, becaufe it is necef
fary , whereas the virulence of the tongue is an argu-
ment of exceflive hatred and malignity. When Timo-
leon cams back toSyracufe, the citizens brought the wife
and daughters of Jcetes to a publick trial, who being
there condemned to die, did all fuffer accord ingly.
This feems to have been the mod exceptionable action
of Timoleon's life; for if he had interpofed his autho-
rity, thefe women would not have been put to death ;
but he probably connived at it, and gave them up to
the incenfed multitude, who thus revenged the injuries
which Dion fuffered, who expel led Dionyfius; for it was
this very Icetes who took Arete the wife, and Ariftomache
the fifter of Dion, with a fbn of his who was yet a
child, and tlirew them all together into the fea alive j
as (i) I have related in the life of Dion. After thisTi-
moleon marched towards Catana againft Mamercus, who
giving him battle near the river (2) Abolus, was over-
thrown and put to flight, with the lois of above 2000
men, a confiderabls part of which were the Punick
troops that Gifco fent to his afliftance.

Upon this defeat, the Carthagimar.s befought him to
make a peace with them, which he contented to, upon
thefe conditions : " That they mould confine themfeives to
*' that part of the country which lies within the river (3) Ly-
" cus ; that fuch as v/ere dcfirous to remove from thence to


(i) From this paffage, and ano- according to the different Older

t'her before, it feems as if the life in which thefe lives w<?ie placed,
of Dion was written before this. (2) Bv Ptolemy and others it is

And yet in Dion's life Plutarch cnlleJ Aiabus, Alabis, cr Alabon.

fpeaks as if this was written firft. It is a river near Hybla, between

For he fays, " as we have wrir- Catana and Syrac&fe.
" ten in the life of Timoleon." (3)Diodoius8;ives this river the

It is poffible that in both, thofe fame name. But it is a qnelh'on

words have been added fmce, and whether botli in Diodorus and

I 1 4 Plutarch

232 $bc LIFE of

" the Syracufans, fliould have the liberty of doing it with
"their whole family and fortune; and that the Carthagi-
" nians fliould renounce all friendfhip and alliance with the
"Sicilian tyrants." Mamercus, forfaken now, and deC-
pairing of fuccefs, embarked for Italy, with a defign to bring
in the Lucanions againfl Timoleon and the people of Syra-
cufe. But when 'his companions tacked about with their
gallies, and landing again at Sicily, delivered up Catana to
Timoleon, he was forced to make his efcape to Meflina,
which was under the tyranny of Hippo, Timoleon then
coming up againfl them, and befieging the city both by
fea and land, Hippo endeavoured to make his efcape in a
fhip, but was taken by the people of Meflina, who fend-
ing for their children from fchool into the theatre, to be
entertained as it were with a moft agreeable fpeclacle
the punimment of a tyrant, they firfl publicly fcourged
him, and then put him to death. Whereupon Mamer-
cus furrendered himfelf to Timoleon, with this provifo,
that he fhould be tiied at Syracufe, and Timoleon have
no hand in his accufation. When he was brought thither,
and appeared before the people, he attempted to pro-
nounce an oration he had long before prepared ; but
finding himfelf interrupted by noife and clamour, and
that the whole affembly was inexorable, he threw off his
upper garment, and running acrofs the theatre with all
his force, violently dafhed his head againfl one of the
fleps with intention to kill himfelf; but he had not the
fortune to perifh, as he defigned, for he was taken up
alive, and hurried to execution, which was fuch as is
ufually inflicted on thieves and common malefactors.

After this manner did Timoleon extirpate tyranny, and
put a period to their wars ; for whereas at his firfl arrival
in Sicily, the ifland was favage and defolate, and hateful
to the very natives, from the calamities it had fuffered,
he fo civilized and reformed the country, and rendered
it fo defirable to all men, that even flrangers now came
to inhabit thofe towns which their own citizens had for-


Plutarch we ought not to alter it poet who lived in the days of So-

for Halycus. crates and Plato. He was theau-

(4) Antimachus was an ep'ck thor-of a poem called Thebais.


T I M O L E O N. 233

faken. For Agrigentum and Gela, two famous cities that
had been ruined and laid wade by the Carthaginians after
the Attick war, were then peopled again, the one by
Magellus and Pheriflus, who came from Elea * the other
by Gorgus from the ifland of Ceos, who having picked
up feme of the old inhabitants among other company,
brought them back with the reft to their former dwell-
ings. Timoleon did not only afford them a fecure and
peaceable abode in their new fettlement, after fo obfti-
nate a war, but kindly and chearfully fupplied them
with every thing neceflary, fo that he had the fame love
and refped from them, as if he had been their founder.
And this affection and efteem for him was common to
all the reft of the Sicilians ; fo that there was no treaty
of peace, no new law, no divifion of lands, nor politi-
cal regulation which they could acquiefce in, or think
well of, unlefs he affifted in it ; as the mailer-workman
puts the finifhing hand to the productions of other ar-
tifts, and gives them that truly divine beauty and per-
fedtion ; which alone renders them worthy of admira-
tion. For although Greece produced at that time feveral
perfons of extraordinary worth, and much renowned
for their atchievements, fuch as Timotheus, Agefilaus,
Pelopidas, and Epaminondas, the laft of whom Timoleon
chiefly admired, and endeavoured to imitate ; yet in
their moft fplendid actions we may difcern a certain
violence and laborious effort, which ^iminifhes their
luftre -, and fome of them have even] afforded ground
for cenfure, and have been followed with repentance ;
whereas there is not any one adtion of Timoleon (fetting
afide the extremity he was carried to in reference to his
brother) to which, as Timaeus obferves, we may not fitly
apply thofe lines of Sophocles ;

The hand of Venus'/^ we here may trace,
Which o'er this work basfpread a mat chiefs grace.

(4) For as the poetry of Antimachus, and the portraits


The ancients charged his ftyle with "Onthecontrary,in Antimachus.
being harfli and bombaft. Quintili- " there is force and folidity, and
anx. i. gives this character of him. < the elevation of his ftyledefeivet

" commenda-

234 72" LIFE of

(5) of Dionyfius, both natives of Colophon, have force
and vigour enough in them, but yet appear to be {train-
ed and elaborate pieces ; while the pictures of (6) Nico-
machus, and the verfes of Homer, befides other advan-
tages of flrength and beauty, have this peculiar excel-
lence, that they feem to be produced with eafe ; fo
Jikewife if with the expeditions of Epaminondas, or Ao-e-
filaus, which were full of toils and ftruggles, we compare
that of Timoleon, there appears fuch facility as well as
greatnefs in his exploits, that all men of found judcr-
ment muftconfider them as the effeds, not indeed of for-
tune, 'but of fortunate virtue. He himfelf, it is true af-
cribed his great fuccefs to fortune alone ; for both in the
letters which he wrote to his friends at Corinth, and in
tiiofe fpeeches he made to the people of Syracufe, he fre-
quently faid, " That he was very thankful to fortune,
" who (defigning to preferve Sicily) was pleafed to ho-
" nourhim with the name and title of its deliverer." And
having built a chappel in his houfe, he there facrifked to
Chame, and confecrated the houfe itfelf to Fortune (7).
This houfe the Syracufans built for him as a rev/ard and
monument of his brave exploits ; and they gave him an
eftate befides in the mod pleafant and beautiful part of
the country ; and here he chiefly refided with his wife
and children, who came to him from Corinth -, for he re-
turned thither no more, being unwilling to be concerned


' commendation ; but though die Ariftoderaus. People gave vail
4 grammarians generally allow him prices for his works. " Tabulc (in-
'the next place to Homer, it is ^'gulseoppidorumyenibantopibus,"
' certain that in his works, there fays Pliny,. What Plutarch fays
' is neither paffion, fweetnefs, or- here, that his paintings feemedeafy,
' der, nor any art at all ; from and not to havecoft him much la-
' whence we fee the vaft diffe- hour is agreeable to what Pliny
' rence between coming n^-ar, and writes, " that no body painted fo
'having the next place that " iaft as he did; a proof of whichis
' great poet." as follows. Ariftratus the tyrant
(;) Dionyfius wasa painter who of Sicyonia having made choice of
only drew portraits, and no other him to paint a monument he de-
kind of paintings ; for which rea- fignedto erett to thepoetTeleflus,
fon he was called Anthropogra- and having agreed with him for
j>hus, Man-painter. Plin. xxxv. i o, the price, on condition that it
(6)Nicomachus wasa verygreat fhould be finifhed by a certain
painter; the fon and dilciple of day ;and Nicomachus not appear-


in the broils and tumults of Greece, or to expofe himfelf
to the publick. envy, that fa'tal rock which many great
commanders run upon, from an infatiable appetite of
honour and power. He therefore chofe to fpend the
remainder of his days in Sicily, and there to partake of
thofe bleflings of which he was the author -, the greateft
whereof was, to behold fo many cities flourifb, and fb
many thoufands of people l.iye happy through his means.
But fmce, according to the cornparifon of Sirnonides,
every republick mufl have fome impudent flanderer,
juft as every lark (8) muft have a creft on his head, thus
"it happened at Syracufe ; where two of their popular o-
rators, Laphyflius and Demoenetus attacked Timoleon ;
the former of whom requiring him to put in fureties,
that he would anfwer to a certain indictment which was
to be brought againft him, Timoleon would not fuflfer
the citizens, who were incenfed at his demand, to op-
pofe the man, and hinder him from proceeding, fmce
he of his own accord had been at fo much trouble, and
run fo many rilks for this very end, that every one of
them who had a mind to try rnatters by law, mould
freely have recourfe to it. And when Demoenetus, in a
full audience of the people, laid feveral things to his
charge, which he had done while he was General, he made
no other reply to him, but only faid, " He was much in-
*' debted to the Gods, for granting the requefl he had fo

" often

ing till a few days before that on human or divine : that there arc

which he had agreed to deliver fuch events, feems to have been

the picture ; the tyrant was fo the opinion of fome modern as

much provoked that he was go- well as ancient philofophers. But

ing to punifh him ; but the paint- when the ancients afcribed any

ter made goad his agreement, and event to Fortune, they did not

in thofe few days that were left mean to deny the operation of

performed his work with " no the Deity in it, but only to ex-

" lefs furprizing maftery than elude all human contrivance and

li fpeed. Celeritate & arte mira." power from any lhare in the pro-

Plin. duction of it.

(7) The diftinction between

Chance and Fortune is this. Thofe (S) The original fignifies that

events are to be afcribed to fpecies of larks called in Latin,

Chance, which are produced with- Caflicse or Galeritse.
out any defign or agency either

(9) PI""

236 Tbt L I F E of

" often made them, that he might live to fee the Syra-
" cufans enjoy that liberty of fpeech which they now
" feemed to be maflers of."

Timoleon, having by the confeflion of all, performed
the greateft and nobleft actions of any Grecian of his age j
having alone obtained the pre-eminence in thofe things,
to which their orators always exhorted the Greeks in
the harangues which they uiually made at their folemn
national aiTemblies ; being by the favour of fortune re-
moved, unfpotted with the blood of his countrymen,
from the calamities of civil war, wherein Greece was
foon after involved ; having fufficiently manifefted his
conduct and courage to the barbarians and tyrants, and
his juftice and humanity to the Greeks, and all his friends
in general ^ having moreover raifed the greater part of
thofe trophies he won in battle, without any tears fhed,
or any mourning worn by the citizens either of Syra-
cufe or Corinth ; and having within lefe than eight years
fpace delivered Sicily from its inteftme calamities and
diflempers, and reftored it to the native inhabitants, his
eyes began to fail him as he grew in years, and in time
he became perfectly blind ; (9) not that he had done
any thing himfelf that might occauon this defect, or
was deprived of his fight (i) by any outrage or caprice
of fortune, but it feems to have been owing to fbme in-
bred and constitutional weaknefs, which by degrees
cameto difcover itfelf; foritisfaid, that feveral of his
family were fubject to the like gradual decay, and
loft all ufe of their eyes, as he did, in their declining
years. But Athanis the hiftorian tells us, that even
during the war againft Hippo and Mamercus, while he
was in his camp at Mylae, there appeared a white fpeck
within his eye, which was a plain indication of the total
blindnefs that was coming on him. However this did
not hinder him then from continuing the fiege and pro-
fccuting that war, till he got both the tyrants into his
power. But upon his coming back to Syracufe, he pre-


(9) Plutarch adds this to pre- that when any remarkable inif-
yent the fuperftitious fancies of fortune happens, and efpecially to
the common people, who imagine perfonsof diftinguiflied eminence,


T I M O L E O N. 237

fently refigned the authority of fole commander, and
befought the citizens to excufe him from any further
fervice, feeing things were already brought to fo happy
a conclufion. It is not fo much to be wondered at, that
he himfelf mould bear the misfortune patiently ; but
that refpecl and gratitude which the Syracufans mowed
him during his blindnefs, may juftly defer ve our admi-
ration. They not only vifited him frequently themfelves,
but brought all the Grangers that travelled through
their country to his houfe in the city, and to his Villa,
that they alfo might have the pleafure to fee their bene-
fador ; making it the great matter of their joy and ex-
ultation, that when, after fo many brave and fuccefsful
exploits, he might have returned with fo much fplendor
and triumph into Greece, he fhould defpife the honours
that awaited him there, and chufe rather to end his days
among them. Though many other things were de-
creed and done in honour of Timoleon, I reckon this

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