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vote of the Syracufans to be a fignal testimony of their
value for him, " That whenever they mould hap-
" pen to be at war with any foreign nation, they mould
" make ufe of none but a Corinthian General." And
the method of their proceeding in their aflemblies,
was a demonftration of their refpecl: for him ; for though
they determined matters of lefs confequence them-
felves, they always confulted him in more difficult and
important cafes. On thefe occafions he was carried
through the market-place in a litter, which was brought
into the theatre, he ftill fitting in it ; the people then
with one voice faluted him ; and after he had returned
their civility, he paufed for a time, till the noife of
their gratulations and applaufe began to ceafe ; he
then heard the bufmefs in debate and delivered his o-
pinion, which being confirmed by a general fuffrage, his
fervants went back with the litter through the midft
of the aflembly ; and the people after waiting on him
out with loud acclamations returned to confider of fuch


that it is fent as a punifliment for Plutarch reprefents fortune ai a

fome heinous crime they have drunken perfon that is apt to ufe

been guilty of. his belt friends ill.

(0 By the word rap9ij9tff (2) The

The LIFE of

publick caufeSj as they ufed to difpatch in hisabfence.
Thus was he cherifhed by them in his old age, with
the fame honour and benevolence as if he had
been their common father. At lafl he was feized with
an indifpofaion, which was but flight in itfelf, but
being joined with old age it put a period to his life.
As foon as he was dead the Syracufans had a cer-
tain time allowed them wherein they were to provide
whate/ver mould be neceflary for his burial ; and all the
neighbouring inhabitants and ftrangers were to make
their appearance in a body. The funeral pomp was ce-
lebrated with great fplendor and magnificence in all
other refpedts, and the bier being decked with rich or-
naments, was borne by a felect number of young gen-
tlemen over that ground where the palace and cattle of
Dionyfms flood, before they were demolifhed by Timo-
leon. There attended on the folemnity feveral thoufands
of men and women all crowned with flowers, and drefled
in white, which made it look like the proceflion at a
publick feftival. Their lamentations and tears mingled
with the praifes of the deceafed, manifeflly mowed that
it was not any fuperficial honour, or forced homage,
v/hich they then paid him, but the teftimony of a juft
forrow for his death, and the expreffion of real love
and gratitude. The bier at length being placed upon
the pile of wood that was kindled to confume his corpfe,
Demetrius one of their criers, who had a louder voice
than any of the reft, began to read a written edict to

thispurpofe : " The people of Syracufe has decreed

*' to interr Timoleon the Corinthian, the fon of Timo-
" demus, at the common expence of 200 minx, and to
" honour his memory for ever by an appointment of an-
" nual games, to be celebrated by mufick, and horfe-
" races, and all forts of gymnaflick exercifes ; and that
" becaufe he deftroyed tyrants, overthrew the barbarians,
" repeopled many great cities that were ruinous and
" defolate before, and then reftored to the Sicilians
" the priviledge of living under their own laws." Be-
fide this, they made a tomb for him in the market-
place, which they afterwards furrounded with a porti-

T I M O L E O N. 239

to, and joining other buildings to it, made it a place of
exerciie for their youth, and gave it the namecf Timo-
Iconteum; and by maintaining that form of civil policy,
and obferving thofe laws (2) which he .left them, they
lived themfeives a long time in gr^at profperity.

(z) The Sicilians bad laws writ- the Grecian cuftoms ; but he

ten by Diocles, which Timoleon changed all that related to the

only amended. All the laws re- civil government, becaufe everv

la ling to wills and contracts he thing had been fubverted by ty-

left unaltered, becaufe in thofe rann/.
matters they probably followed


[ 240 ]


IFirft undertook to write thefe lives, that I might be
ferviceable to others, but I perfevere in my defign
for my own advantage ; the virtues of thefe great
men being a fort of mirrour, from which I learn to ad-
jufl and regulate my own conduft. For by this means,
I, as it were, live and converfe with them, and each of
them by turns feems to be my gueft ; thus they afford


(i) Thefe words In the origi- " Priam in his turn furveyed A-

nal "Ocra-oi; iw oTo? ft, are taken " chilles j he confidered how

from a paflage in the 24th book " great, how wonderful he was ;

of Homer's Iliad. ' for indeed he looked a God."

(2) Democritus held that fight
was formed after the following
manner: that the vifible cbjefts
produced their image or refern-


P A U L U S ^E M I L I U S. 241

rue an opportunity of feeing " how great and wonderful
" they were," (r) and felecting fuch of their actions as
are moft memorable and illuftrious. And

greater bleffing can the Gods beftoiv,

than fo powerful an incitement to virtue ? (2) Demo-
critus laid it down as a principle in his philofophy,
(though utterly falie, and tending to endleis fuperfti-
tion) that there were phantafms appearing in the air,
and tells us that we ought to pray, that fuch may pre-
fent themfelves as are propitious, and that we may fee
thofe that are aoreeble to our natures, and will inftruct


us in that which is good, rather than fuch as are unfor-
tunate, and will lead us into vice. But my method is,
by daily converfing with hi (lory, and by a diligent col-
lection of what I read, to fill my mind with the ima-
ges of the befl and greatefl men -, and by ferioully and
fedately considering fuch noble examples, I am enabled
to free myfelf from that contagion of idlenefs and vice,
which I may have contracted from the ill company I
am fometimes forced to converfe with. The lives I
have now undertaken to write are thofe of Timoleon
die Corinthian, and Paulus /Emilius, men not only equal-
ly famous for their virtues, but fuccefs ; infomuch that
they have left it doubtful, whether they owed their
greatefl atchievements to good fortune, or to their own
prudence and conduct.

Almofl all hiftorians agree, that the family of the
/Emilii was one of the moft ancient among the Rcrraii
nobility ; and thofe authors who affirm that Numa was
pupil to Pythagoras, tell us, that the firft who gave this
name to his pofterity was Mamercus, (3) thefon of that


blance in the ambient air, which images ftruck upon the imagina-

image produced a fecond, and tion; that of thefe there were

that fecond a third ftill lefs than fume good, and fome evil ; that

the former, and that finally the the good produced virtuous

laft produced its counterpart in thoughts in us, and the evil the

the eye. This was not all ; he contrary.

maintained further that thought (2) See the life of Numn. v i

was formed after the fame man- p. 166.
uer, according as thofe forms or

VOL. II. Q r:o.ii

242 rhs LIFE cf

philofbpher, who for his peculiar elegance LV.K! graceful^
nefs in fpeaking, was called ^milius. Thole of this
family who have been much celebrated, have in gene-
ral been as remarkable for their fuccefs as tor their vir-
tue. (4) Lucius Paulus was indeed unfortunate at the bat-
tle of Cannae, though he gave ample teftimony of his wif-
dom and valour. For not being able todiffuade his col-
legue from hazarding the battle, he, though againfl his
judgment, joined with him in the engagement, but was
no companion in his flight ; on the contrary, when he
was deferted by him who had brought him into the
danger, he flill kept the field, and died fighting. This
/Emiiius had a daughter named /Emilia, who was mar-
ried to Scipio the great, and a fon called Paulus, v/ho is
the fubjecT: of my prefent hiftory.

His firft appearance in the world was at a time when
Rome abounded with men renowned for their virtues
and other excellent accomplifhrnents, (5) and even a-
mong thefe /Emilius in his youth made a diftinguifhed
figure, though he did not follow the ordinary fludies of
the young men of quality of that age, nor tread the
fame paths to fame. For he did not exercife himfelf in
pleading caufes, nor would he (loop to falute, embrace,
and carefs the vulgar, which were the ufual infinuating
arts by which many grew popular. Not that he was in-
capable of either, but he chofe to purfue the nobler
fame of valour, juflice, and integrity ; and in thefe vir-
tues he foon furpaiTed all his equals.

The firft confiderable office for which he was a can-
didate was that of >dile, which he carried againft


(4) From Lucius ^Emilius, who illuflrious men fhould take notice

was conful in the year of Rome of any of them but of this iaft,

270, and overcame the Volfcians, r.nd of his fon, whofe life is now

to Lucius Paulus, the father of before us.

Paulus /Emi'ius, who fell in the (;) The Scmpronii, the Albini,

battle at Cannae in the year ^37. the Fabii Maximi, the MarceiH,

there had been many of thofe the Scipios, the Fulvii, Sulpiti:,

/Emiiii renowned for their vi&o- Cethegi, Merelli, and other iiiuf-

ries and triumphs ; fo that it is trions patriots,
furprizing that none of thofe who (6) AH the youth of quality,

unJertook to write the lives of who had thoughts of advancing


P A U L U S JE M I L I U S. 243
twelve competitors of fuch merit and quality, that ail
of them in procefs of time were coniuls. Being after-
wards chofen one of the (6) Augurs, who arnongft the
Romans were to obferve and regifler fuch divinations as
were made by the flight of birds, or prodigies in the
air, he with fuch attention fludied the ancient cufccms
of his country, and the religion of his anceflors, that
this office, which was before only fought after btcaufe
it conferred a title of honour (7), was by him made to
confift in the exercife of one of the moil fubiirne aits.
And he proved that definition of religion to be true
which is given by fome philofophers, that it is the
knowing how we ought to worfhip the Gods. When
he performed any part of his duty he did it with great
{kill and the utmofl care, making it his only .buftnefs,
not omitting any one ceremony, nor adding the leaft
circumftance, but always contending with his collegues
about things that might feem inconHderable, and tel-
ling them, that though they might think the Deity was
eafily pacified, and ready to forgive faults of inadver-
tency and negligence, yet fuch favour and pardon would
be dangerous for a commonwealth to grant be-
caufe no man ever began to diilurb his country's
peace, by a notorious breach of its laws; but men by
degrees grow negligent in things of greateft concern,
by giving themfeives liberty in matters of lefs moment.
Nor was he lefs fevere, in requiring and oblerving the
ancient Roman difcipline in military affairs; not endea-
vouring, when he had the command, to ingratiate
himfelf with his foldiers by popular flattery ; though


themfeives in the government, ail was at a Uop. 7' could

were admitted into this foaety oHige the confnis tr> quit their

(7) Nothing was more abfo- office ; and hud a ;;.-';: ro confer

lute than the power and autho- with the prcp;r to or rc-

rity of thefe Augurs. They had fufe whatever they , and

the privilege of difmiffing aiTem- abrogate the laws r!;at hscl been

blies, though fummoned by or- cnadted. Jn fi;.vrt, ncihing dcrc

der of the chief iragiftrates, and bv the ma i it rites, either \vitiiin

to annul whatever liad been trail f- the vvalls, or without, could Ke

a died in them. An Augur need ;s;i!ict! \vithont their authority,

only pronounce another day, and Cic. 2. Lib. de Leqib;:.".

02 (?) Thij

244 ?k -LIFE of

this cuftorn prevailed at that time amongft many, \vho
by making their court to thofe that were under them
in their firil employment, fought to be promoted to a
fecond. But TEmilius by inftruting them in the laws
of military difcipline, with the fame care and exactnefs
which a pried would obferve in teaching his ceremonies
and facred myfteries, and by being fevere to fuch as tranf-
grefTed and contemned thofe laws, re-eflablifhed his coun-
try in its former glory ^ efteerning victory the neceffary
confequence of good difciplir.e.

Whilft the Romans were engaged in war with (8) An-
tiochus the great, againft whom (9) their mod experi-
enced commanders were employed, there arofe another
war in the weft, there bsing great commotions in (i)
Spain. Thither they fent /Emilius, in the quality of Pras-
tor, -not with fix axes, which number other Praetors
were accuftomed to have carried before them, but with
twelve, fo that in his praet&fhip he was honoured with
the dignity of a Gonful. Twice he overcame the Ba.r-
barians in battle, and flew thirty thoufand of them. This
victory is chiefly to be afcribed to the wifdom and con-
duct of the commander, who by his great fkill in chu-
fmg the advantage of the ground, and making the on-
fet at the pafiage of a river, led his foldiers to an eafy
conqueft. Having made himfelf matter of 250 cities,
\vhofe inhabitants voluntarily yielded, and obliged thern-
ielves by oath to fidelity, hs left the province in peace,
and returned to Rome, not enriching himfelf a drachma
by the war. The truth is, he was always indifferent
to riches, but lived fplendidly and generoufly on his
own eftate, which was (o far from being great, that af-
ter his death there was fcarce enough left to anfwer his
wife's dowry.

His firft wife was Papiria, the daughter of Mafo who
had formerly been Conful, with whom he lived a Icr.g
while in wedlock, and afterwards divorced her, though


(S) This \var vitb Antiochus ofC'anrs:.
the great, King of Syria, began

about the year of Rome $6ij (()} The conful Glabn'o, and

tventv four years after the ba Me afra hirii the two Scipios, the el-

P A U L U S JE M I L I U ?. ~ 45

fhe bare him a very illuftrious offspring, for fhe was mo-
ther to the famous Scipio, and Fabius Maximus. The
reaibn of this reparation is not come to our knowledge ;
but what was faid by another Roman who had been di-
vorced from his wife, feems to be veryjuft. This per-
fon being highly blamed for it by his friends, who de-
manded, " Was fhe not chafte ? Was me not fair ? Was
u fhe not fruitful ?" holding out his fhoe, alked them,
"" Whether it was not new, and well made ? Yet,'' added
he, u none of you can tell where it wrings me." Certain
it is, that great and open faults are the ufual occafions
of mens putting away their wives, yet little jarrings and
private diltaftes, which frequently recur and arife from
the difagreeablenefs of their tempers, and peevifhnefs of
their diipofitions, though they may be concealed from o-
thers, often caufe fo great an eflrangement and alteration
in affection, that it is not polTible for them to live toge-
ther, with any content. /Emilius having thus put away
Papiria, married a fecond wife-, by her he had two
ions, whom he brought up in his own houfe, adopt-
ing the two former into the greateit and mofl noble
families of Rome. The elder was adopted by the ion
of Fabius 'Vlaximus, who had been five times Ccnful ;
and the younger by the ton of Scipio Africanus, his
coufm german, and was by him named Scipio. One of
Emilius's daughters was married to the fon of Cato the
Cenfor, the other to ./Eli us Tubero, a man of an excel-
lent character, and who above all the Romans knew
how to fupport poverty with fortitude. For there were
fixteen near relations, all of them of the family of the
Alii, who were pofleffed of but one farm, which fuf-
ficed them all, whilft a fmall houlb contained them,
their numerous offspring, and their wives ; amongft
whom was the daughter of our ^Erniiius; who, although
her father had been twice Conful, and had twice tri-
umphed, was not afhamed of her hufband's poverty, but


tier of whom was content to ferve book of L'vy.

as lieutenant under his brother. (i) Spain had teen reduced by

The reader may find an account Scipio Nafica.

of this war in the thirty-feventh

0.3 C') ThU

246 The LIFE of

admired his virtue, to which his poverty was owing. Fa*
otherwife it is with the brothers and relations of this
age, who if different countries, or at leall waiis and
rivers, part not their inheritances, live at variance, and
never ceafe from mutual quarrels. Thcfe are ufeful in-
ftrucYions which hiflory fuggefls to fuch as read with at-
tention, and endeavour to profit by reading.

./Emilius being chofen Conful, marched againfl the
Ligurians, or Liguftines, a people dwelling near the Alps.
They were a valiant and warlike nation, and from their
neighbourhood to the Romans, well {killed in the fame
difcipline and arts of war. For they pofleiled the ut-
moft bounds of Italy, which border upon the Alps, and
that part of the fame mountains which is v.alhed by the
Tufcan fea, over-againft Africa, and were mingled with
the Gauls and Spaniards, who inhabited the coaft. Be-
fides, at that time they were ftrong at fea, and failing
as far as Hercules's pillars in light veffels fitted for that
purpofe, robbed and deftroyed all that trafficked in
thofe parts. They waited the coming of Aimilius with
an army of 40,000 men; he brought with him not
above eight, fo that the enemy were five to one when
they engaged notwithstanding which he routed them
and forced them to retire into their walled towns, and
in this condition gave them hopes of an accommoda-
tion ; it being the policy of the Romans not utterly to
deftroy the Ligurians, becaufe they were a guard and
bulwark againit the Gauls, who made fuch fre i
attempts to over-run Italy. Trufling wholly therefore
to /Emilhis, they delivered up their towns and fhippir/j;
into his hands. He only razed the fortifications, and
delivered their towns to them again; but all their fhip-
ping he took away with him, leaving them no vefiels
bigger than thofe of three ranks of oars, and fet at li-
berty great numbers of prifoners they had taken both


(2) The fecond Macedonian Licinus CrafTus, after him A. Ho-
war with Perfeus began in the flilius Mancinus, anil at la ft Q._
year of Rome 582, 169 years be- Martius Philippus, who fpusi out
fore the birth of our Saviour. the war during the three yen:" of

(3) Thofe generals were P. their confulfhip.

(4) This

P A U L U S M M I L I U S.

by fea and land, ftrangers as well as Romans. Thefe
were the mod remarkable things he did in his firfl ccn-

Afterwards he frequently declared his defire of being
a fecond time Conful, and was once candidate ; but
meeting with a repulfe, he folicited for it no more, but
was wholly intent upon his office of Augur ; and the
education of Iris children, whom he not only brought
up as he himfdf had been in the Roman difcipline, but
alfo in that of Greece, which war, efteerned more genteel
and honourable. To this purpofe he not only enter-
tained mafters to teach them grammar, logick, and
rherorick, but fculpture alfo, and painting, together
with fuch as were feilful in breeding horfes and doss,

O ^ O '

and could inftrii'ft them in hunting and riding. And
if he was not hindered by pubiick affairs, he himfelf
would be with them at their iludies, and fee them per-
form their exercifes, being the mod indulgent of fa-
thers amongft the Romans.

As to pubiick affairs, the Romans were at that time
engaged in a war with (2) Per feus, King of the Mace-
donians, and highly blamed their (3) commanders, who
through want of fkill and courage, had fo abfurdly and
Iliamefuliy conducted the expedition, that they did lefs
hurt to the enemy than they received from him. For
they who not long before had forced Antiochus the great
to quit the reft of Afia, and driving him beyond mount
Taurus, confined him to Syria, sjaa to buy his peace
with 15000 talents-, they who lately had vanquifhed
(4) King Philip, in ThefTaly, and freed the Greeks from
the Macedonian yoke, nay, had overcome Hannibal him-
felf, a more powerful and courageous enemy than any
King, thought it a reproach, that Perfeus mould con-
tend with them upon equal terms, and be able to carry
on the war againft them fo long, with the remainder


(4) The fervice was performed Toners, and after his vidory can fed
by Quintius Flaminimis, who de- proclamation to be made by an
feated Philip in Theflaly, killed herald at the Ifthmian gair.cs that
eight thoufand of his men upon all the Greets were free.
the foot, took five thoufand pri-

0.4 (S) He

L I F E (?/

only of his father's routed forces. But they did not
coiiiider, that the Macedonian army was become much
more powerful and expert after the overthrow of Phi-
lip. To make which appear, I fhall briefly recount the
ilory from the beginning.

(5) Antigonus, who was the moil potent amongft the
Captains and fuccelfors of Alexander, having obtain-
ed for himfelf and his pofterity the title of King, had
a fon named Demetrius, father to Antigonus called Go-
natas; his fon was called Demetrius, who reigning
fome fliort time, died, and left a young fon called
Philip. The nobility of Macedon fearing great confu-
fions might arife in the minority of their Prince, en-
trufled the government to Antigonus, coufm-german
to the late King, whole widow, the mother of Philip,
he alfo married. At firft they only fliied him Regent
and General , but when they found by experience, that
he governed the kingdom with moderation, and to their
advantage, they gave him the title of King. This was
he that was furnamed Dofon (6), becaufe he was very
ready to promife, but never performed his promifes.
He was fucceeded by Philip, who in his youth gave
great hopes of equalling the beft of kings, and that he
one day would reftore Macedon to its former ftate and
dignity, and be alone able to put a flop to the power
of the Romans, which was now extending itfelt over the
whole world. But being vanquifhed in a pitched bat-
tle by Titus Flamininus, near Scotufa, his reibiution failed,
and he yielded himfelf and all that he had to the mercy
of the Romans, being glad to compound with them
upon payment of a moderate tribute. Yet afterwards
recollecting himfelf, he bore it with great regret, and
thought he lived rather like a (lave who defires nothing
beyond food and eafe, than like a man of fpirit and cou-
rage, whilft he held his kingdom at the will of his con-
querors. This made him refolve upon a war, and pre-

(5) He was the Ton of a Mace- another called Demetrus. Anti-
donian, called Philip, who was of gonus had a command in the army
the race of the Tennenides. He under Philip and Alexander. He
left two fons, this Antigonu?, and killed Eumenes, and took Babylon


P A U L U S JE M ! L I U S. 249

pare himfelf with as much cunning and privacy as poi-
fible. To this end, he left his cities on the high-roads
and fea-coaft ungarrifoned and almofl defoiate, that
they might feem inconfiderable in the mean time he
furnifhed his mid-land caftles, ftrong holds and towns,
with arms, money, and men fit for fervice ; and thus
his military force (like a wreftler trained and exercifed
in fecret) was, without any (how of war, in conftant
readinefs for action. He had in his armory arms for
30000 men ^ in his granaries, eight millions of bufhels
of corn, and in his coffers as much ready money as
would defray the charge of maintaining toooo merce-
nary foldiers, to defend his country for ten years. But
before he could put his deigns in execution, he died
for grief and anguifh of mind, being fenfjble he had
unjuflly put to death Demetrius one of his fons, upon
the calumnies of the other who was far more guilty.
Perfeus, his fon that furvived, inherited his hatred to
the Romans as well as his kingdom, but was very unfit
to carry on his defigns, through his want of courage,
and the vicioufnefs of his manners, efpccially when
amongft the many vices and diforders of his mind, co-
vetoulhefs bore the chief way. There is a report ahb
that he was not legitimate, but that the wife of King
Philip took him as foon as he was born from his mo-
ther Gathrania, a femftrefs of Argos, and brought him
up privately as her own. And this might be the chief
caufe of his contriving the death of Demetrius ; for he
might well fear, that whilft there was a lawful fuc-
eeflbr in the family, his illegitimacy v/ould be difco-
vered. But notwithftanding his fpirit was fo mean and
fordid, yet trufting to the itrength of his preparations,

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