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he engaged in a war with the Romans, and for a long
time maintained it. Some of their generals, and thoie
of confular dignity, and at the head of great armies
and fleets, he repulfed, and fome of them he vanquifhed


from Seleucus ; and when his ion fumed to wear a crown, and af-
Demecrius had overthrown Ptole- fumed the title of King,
my's fleet at Cyprus, he, the fir it (?) Dofon fignifies " he that is
of all Alexander's fucceffors, pre- " about to give."

( 7 )Livy

250 The LIFE of

For he overcame (7) Publius Licinius, who was the firft
that invaded Macedonia, in an engagement of the ca-
valry ; in which he flew '2300 of his braved foldiers,
and took 600 prifoners ; and iurprizing the Roman fleet
as it rode at anchor before Oreum, he took twenty fnips
of burden, with all their lading, and funk the reft that
were freighted with corn. Befides, this, he made him-
felf mafter of four galleys with five ranks of oars,
and fought another battle with Hoftilius the CbnfuL
whom he forced to retreat when he was making an in-
road into his country by the way of Elimia ; and when
Hoftilius afterwards ftole a march, and was moving fe-
cretly through Thefialy, he urged him to fight, but the
other vvould not ftand the hazard. Nay more, to (how
his contempt of the Romans, and as if he wanted em-
ployment, he by the by made an expedition againft the
Dardanians, in which he flew 10000 of thoie barbarous
people, and brought a very great fpoil away with him.
He privately alfo iblicited the Gauls who live near the
Danube and are called Baftarnse, a very warlike people,
and particularly formidable for their cavalry ; he alfo
pra&ifed with the Illyrians, by the means of Genthius
their King, and urged them to join with him in this
war. (8) It was likewife reported, that the barbarians
being allured by him through the promife of rewards,
were to make an irruption into Italy, through the
lower parts of Gallia Cifalpina, near the Adriatick fea.

The Romans being advertized of thefe things, thought
it neceffary no longer to chufe their commanders for fa-
vour or felicitation, but to pitch upon one for their
General, who was a man of wifdom, and verfed in the
management of great affairs. And fuch was Paulus
^Imilius ; he was now indeed advanced in years, beir.s
near threefcore -, yet his ftrength was not impaired, and
lie was furrounded with his valiant fons and fons-in-lavv,
befide a great number of very confiderable relations and


(7) Livy has given us a defcrip- qnered upon as eafy conditions as
tion of ibis aftion, at the end of if lie himfelf had been overthrown,
his forty-fecond book. Perfeus hu: the Romans refufed it.
offered peace to thofe he h?d con-

(8) That

P A U L U S JE M I L I U S. 251

friends, who all of them perfnaded him to yield to the
defires of the people, who called him to the Confuifhjp.
At firft he gave no ear to their felicitations, but as one
averfe to govern, refufed both the honour and care that
attended it ; yet when he faw them flocking daily to his
gate, urging him to come forth to the place of election,
and loudly cenfuring him for his refufal, he at laft granted
their requeft. When he appeared amongft the candidates,
he did not look like one liiing for the Confulfhip, but as
one who brought certain victory and fuccefs, by yielding
to come down into the field ; fb great was the joy and
confidence which the people exprefled. They unani-
moufly chofe him a fecond time Conful ; nor would they
fufFer the lots to be caft as was ufual (9), to determine
which province mould fall to his (hare, but immediately
decreed him the command of the Macedonian war. It
is reported, that the very day wherein he was appointed
General in that expedition, and was honourably accom-
panied home by great numbers of people, he found his
daughter Tertia, a very little girl, all in tears ; where-
upon he took her in his arms, and afked her, " Why (he
" cried ?" She catching him about the neck, and killing
him, faid, " O father, know you not that our Perfeus is
" dead ?" meaning a little dog of that name that was a
favourite with her. To which JEmilius replied, " It hap-
" pens fortunately, my daughter, I embrace the cmen."
This Cicero the orator relates in his book of divination.

It was the cuftom for fuch as were chofen confuls, to
addrefsthe people in an obliging manner from the Roftrum,
and return them thanks for their favour. /Emilius there-
fore having fummoned an aflembly, told them, " That he
" fued for the firft Confulfhip, becaufe he himfelf flood in
" need of fuch honour ; but for the lecond, becaufe he
"knew they wanted fuch a General ^ upon which account
" he thought there were no thanks due from him to them :
" if they judged they could manage the war by any other


(S) That report proved ver7 who demanded 300 talents of the
true. Polybius, a contemporary Macedonians.
author, telis us what pall in the ( ) Livy fr.ys the contrary.
Per feus Cent toG, ;rhius,

(r) Livy

2 5 z fife LIFE of

" to more advantage, he would willingly yield up to his
" charge -, but if they confided in him, they mufl not in-
" terfere with him in his office, cr prefcribe what was to
" be done, but filently and fubmiilively furnifh him with
" every thing neceffary to the carrying on of the war : for
" if they endeavoured to govern him who was to command,
" they would render this expedition more ridiculous than
" the former." By this fpeech he infpired the citizens with
reverence for him, and great expectations of future fuc-
cefs ; they being all well pleafed, that they had paf&d by
fuch as fought to be preferred by flattery, and pitched upon
a commander of fuch noble fentiments, and who had the
courage to tell them the truth. Thus 'the people of Rome
were lervants to reafon and virtue, that they might one
day rule, and make themfelves matters of the world.

That ^milius, when he fet out for the war had a
profperous voyage and journey, and arrived with fpeed
and fafety at his camp, I attribute to -good fortune ;
but when I confider the conduct of the war itfelf, and
that his own courage, activity and prudence, the zeal
of his friends, his refolution and prefence of mind in the
midfl of danger, all contributed to his fuccefs, I cannot
afcribe any of his remarkable actions (as I can thofe of
other commanders) to his fo much celebrated good for-
tune ; unlefs it may be faid, that the coveteufnefs of
Perfeus was the good fortune of ^milius. And indeed
the fear of fpending his money, was the deftruction and
utter ruin of all thofe fplendid and great preparations,
by the help of which the Macedonians were in hopes to
carry on the war with fuccefs. For he had prevailed


(i) Livy has very well defcribed " ed, and went into theranks. They

this horfeman.and his foot foldier. are the fame with thofe defcribed

Veniebant decem millia equi- by Caefar in the firft book of his

'turn, par numerus peditum & commentaries, where he is giving

' ipforum jungentium curfum e- an account of Arioviftus's army.

1 quis, & in vicem prolapforuni (2) The original in this place is

equitum vacuos capfenrium ad extremely corrupt. Mr. Dacier

pugnam equos. There came ten corrects it from a manufcript, and

thoufandhorfemenand as many tranflates it thus, in which he a-

foot, who kept pace with the grees with the Latin tranflation ;

horfe, and when any of the ca- " Though he ought to have teamed

valrv were unhorfl, they mouju- " bettev from the example of the



with the Baftarnae to fend to his afliftance a body of ten
(i) thoufand horfe, who had each, a foot foldier by his
fide, all of them mercenaries, a people neither (killed
ia tilling of land, or merchandize, or feeding of cattle,
but whofe only bufmefs and perpetual ftudy it was to
fight and conquer. When thefe came near Medica, and
were encamped and mixed with the King's foldiers
being men of great ilature, dexterous in their exercifes,
great boaflers, and loud in their threats againft their
enemies, they added courage to the Macedonians, who
fancied the Romans would not be able to fland againft
them, but would be frighted at their very looks and
motions, which were fo ftranga and terrible. When
Perfeus had thus encouraged his men, and puffed them
up with thefe great hopes, as foon as a thoufand pieces
of gold were demanded for each Captain, according to
agreement, he was fo aflonifhed and diftracled at the
vaftnefs of the fum, that his covetoufhefs made hint
lend them back, and refufe their afliftance, as if he had
been the fteward, not tlie enemy of the Romans, and
was to give an exact account of the expenccs of the
war, to thofe with whom he waged it. (2) For though,
he had made fuch vaft preparations, though he had
money in his treafury fufiicient to pay an hundred
thoufand men, and though he was to engage againfl
fo confiderbale force, and in fuch a war, whofe necei-
fary expences muft needs be very great ; yet he weighed
and- fealed up his money, as if he feared or had no right
to touch it. And all this was done by one, not de-
icended from the Lydiansor Phaenicians, but who chal-

" Romans themfeives, who befide under ^Emiiius. It is impoilihlc,

''their other preparation-s had as the paffage ftands, todetetmine

" i 00,000 men collected and rea- the meaning of it with certainty ;

" dy for fervice. ' But this enien- but the tranflation here given of it

tlation cannot be true ; for, not to is at leaft more likely, to be the

mention other objections, it is not true one than the other, as it per-

pnly improbable in itfelf that the fectly agrees with what Plutarch

Romans fliould fend fuch an army has laid before, p. 249. that Per-

intd Macedonia, but it is inconfjf- feus's father befide his other pre-

rent with the account which both parations, had money fufficient to

I, ivy and Plutarch himfelfgives of maintain 10,000 men for ten

the number of the Roman forces years.

(3) J-'vjr

L, I F E of

lenged to himfelf the virtues of Alexander and Philip,
from his alliance to them, men who conquered the world
by judging, that " empire was to be purchafed by mo-
" ney, not money by empire." For it was commonly faid,
" That' not Philip but his gold took the cities of Greece."
And Alexander when he undertook an expedition againft
the Indians, and found that his Macedonians were encum-
bered, and marched heavily with their Perfian fpoiis,.
firft let fire to his own carriages, and then perfuaded
the reft to imitate his example ; that thus freed, they
might proceed to the war without hindrance. Whereas
Perieus, though himfelf, his children, and his whole
kingdom abounded in wealth, would not purchafe his
prefervation, at the expence of a fmall part of it ; but
chofe rather to appear as a rich captive, and to be led
in triumph with ail his treafure ; as if he was defirous
to fhow the Romans what a provident ceconomift he had
been for them. For he not only broke his word with
the Gauls, and difmift them, but likewife defrauded
Genthius King oflllyria, whom by promifing to pay him
qoo talents, he had perfuaded to join in the war againft
the Romans. Some perfons being Cent to receive the
money, it was paid, and fealed up. Genthius now
thinking himfelf fecure of the fum he had demanded,
in violation of all the laws of honour and juftice, im-
priibned the" Roman ambailadors who were with him.
Perfeus, informed of what Genthius had done, concluded
that there was now no further need of money, to make
him an enemy to the Romans, he having given fuch an
earned of his enmity, and by this fcandalous action tho-
roughly involved himfelf in the war ; he therefore de-
frauded the unfortunate King of his 300 talents, and
without any concern beheld him, his wife and children,
in a fhort time after, dragged out of their kingdom, as
from their neft, by Lucius Anicius, who was fent againft
him with an arrny.

(3) Livy fays without their them, refting upon their pike, and
buckler, and gives us this reafon reclining their heads upon the
for the order j that when they buckler, they might fleep (lami-
held their buckler right before ing. Livy adds, that on this oc-


P A U L U S M M- 1 L I U S. 255

.^Emilius coming againft fuch an adverfary, made light
of his pcrfon, but admired his preparations and force :
for he had 4000 horfe, and not much fewer than
40,000 Macedonian foot. ; and encamping by the fea-
fide, at the foot of mount Olympus, in a place im-
poilible to be approached, and on all fides fortified with
fences and bulwarks of wood, he remained there in
great fecurity, thinking to weary out j^Emilius, by pro-
trading the time and putting him to a great expence.
But he, in the meantime, wholly intent on his b'ufinefs,
weighed every expedient, and method of attack ; and
perceiving his foldiers, from their former v/ant of difci-
pline, to be impatient of delay, and ready on all occafi-
ons to teach their General his duty, he fnarply reproved
them, and commanded them not to intermeddle with
what was rot their concern, but only to take care that
they and their arms were in readinefs, and to ufe their
fwords like Romans when their commanders fhould
think fit to employ them. Further, he ordered that
the centinels by night fhould watch without their jave-
lins (3), that thus they might be more careful and able
to refill deep, having nothing proper to withfland the
aifaults of their enemies.

That which moft infefled the army, was the want of
water, for only a Httle T and that foul, flowed out, or
rather came by drop? from fome fprings near the lea.
Bat /Emilius conficlering that he was at the foot of the
high and woody mountain Olympus, and conjecturing
by the fburiming of the trees, that there were fprings
that had their courfe under ground, dug a great mam
holes and wells in the fide of the mountain, which
were prefently filled with clear water, which b;
into thefe openings with the more force, as it had
then been under preflure and confinement. Some in-
deed deny that there are any fources of water rea'dv
provided and concealed in the places from whence tin y


ihTs introduced the cuf- but he ordered that they who
torn of relieving the guard; till came on in the morning fiiouid be
then they were upon duty all day; relieved at noon,

(4) Livy

25 6 The LIFE of

flow, and afiert that a flream when it i flues out of the
earth, is then immediately formed by the condenfation
of vapours, and that by the coidnefs and preffure of the
earth, a moid vapour is rendered fluid. For as womens
breads are not like vetTels full of milk always prepared
and ready to flow from them ; but the nourifhment in
their b'reafts, is changed into milk ; and drained from
thence; in like manner the places of the earth that are
cold and {lored with fountains, do not contain any hid-
den receptacles of water which are capable, as from a
fource always ready and full, to fupply fo many brooks,
and great rivers but by prelfing and condenfing the
vapours and air, they turn them into that fubftance.
For which reafon thofe places that are opened afford
more plenty of water, (as the breads of women do milk
from their being fucked) by compreding and lique-
fying the vapour, whereas the earth that remains idle
and undug, is not capable of producing any water,
becaufe it wants that motion which is the truecaufe of
it. But thofe who aflert this opinion, give occafion to
the fceptical to argue, that for the fame reafon there
mould be no blood in living creatures, but that it mud
be formed by a wound, fome fort of fpirit or flefh be-,
ing changed into fluid matter.' Befides, this opinion
is refuted by fuch, who digging deep in the earth to
undermine fome fortification, or to fearch for metals,
meet with rivers, which are not collected by little and
little, (which mud neceffarily be, if they were produced
at the very indant the earth was opened) but break out
at once with violence. And upon the cutting through
a rock, there often gufhesout a great quantity of water,
which asfuddenly ceafes. But of this enough.

./Emilius lay dill for fome days, and it is faid, that
there were never two great armies fo nigh, that enjoyed
fo much quiet. When he had tried and confidered all
things, and was informed that there was yet one palfage


(4) Livy tells us quite the con- (0 Plutarch ought not to ha'<e
trary j he fays thatpafs was eafy omitted in this place that ^Emilius
enough, but that a guard was fta- had ordered O&avius the Prstor
tioned in it. to fail with a fleet to .Hcradeum,



left unguarded (4) through Perrhseibia, by rytmiim and
Petra, he hoped more from the condition of the place,
which was left defencelefs, than he feared from the
roughnefs and difficulty of the paflage, and ordered
the matter to be confidered in council. Amongd thofe
that wereprefent at the council, Scipio, furnamedNafica,
fon-in-law to Scipio Africantis, who afterwards bore
fuch great fway in the fenate-houfe, flood up firft, and
offered to command thofe who fhould be fent to encorri-
pafs the enemy. Then Fabius MaXimus, eldcil fon of
./Emilius, although yet very young, ardently requeued
to be employed in this enterprize. /Emiliiis rejoicing at
this noble emulation in his ion, appointed them a de-
tachment not fo large as Polybius relates, but confiding
of as many as Nafica himfelf telis us he took with him,
in that fhort epiftle he wrote to a certain King concern-
ing this expedition. For he had 3000 Italians that
were not Romans, and his left wing confided of 5000 ;
to thefe Scipio joined laohorfemen, and 200 Thracians
and Cretans intermixed, who had been fent by Harpalus.
With this detachment he began his march towards the
fea, and encamped near Heracleum, (5) as if he dehgned
to embark, and fo to fail round and environ the enemy.
But when the foldievs had flipped, and it was dark, he
made the captains acquainted with his real intentions,
and marching all night a quite contrary way to that of
the fea, till he came to Pythium, he there reded his ar-
my. In this place mount Olympus dretches itfclf in
height more than ten furlongs, as appears by this epi
gram made by him that meaiilred it.

Olympus' top, where ftands the Pythian fane
More than ten furlongs rifes from tbe plain,
^he height Eumelus'yow Xenag'ras took ;
Regard him Phoebus with a gracious hok,

Geometricians indeed afnrm, that no mountain iri
height, or fea in depth, exceeds ten furlongs ; yet it


on purpofe to make Per feus be- lige him. to decamp; for other-

Heve his defign was to ravage the wife how could Scipio preund to

maritime coalls thereby to ob- embark ?

VOL II. R (6) Livy

258 ne LIFE of

feems probable that Xenagoras did not take the meafure
careleily, but according to the rules of art, and with in-
ftruments fit for that purpofe. Here it was that Nafica
pa{fed the night.

A. Cretan deferter who fled to the enemy in the march,
difcovered to Perieus the defign which the Romans had
to encompafs him; who feeing ^milius remain quiet
with his army, miftrufted no fuch rttempt. He was
ilartled at the news ; however he did not remove his
camp, but fent 10,000 foreign mercenaries, and 2000
Macedonians, under the command of Milo, ordering
them to march with all diligence, and poflefs themfelves
of the ftraits. Polybius relates, that the Romans fet up-
on them whilft they were afleep -, but Nafica fays that
there was a (harp and dangerous conflict on the top of
the mountain ^ that he himfelf encountered a mercenary
Thracian, pierced him through with his dart, and flew
him ; and that the enemy being forced to retreat, and
Milo flript to his coat fhamefully flying without his ar-
mour, he followed without danger, and all the army
marched down into the country.

Per feus, quite difpirited at this overthrow, removed
his camp in hafte, and retired in great terror. How-
ever it was neeeflary for him either to ftop before Pydne,
and there run the hazard of a battle, or difperfe his
array into cities, and there expect the enemy, who be-
ing once entered into his country, could not be driven
out without great (laughter and bloodfhed. But it be-
ing reprefented to him by his friends that he was much
iuperior in number, and that his troops, who were to
fight in defence of their wives and children, would exert
their utmoft refolution, efpecially when their King was
a witnefs of their behaviour and a partner in their dan-
ger ; this reprefentation gave him n-ew courage, fo
that pitching his camp, he prepared to fight, viewed
the country, ard gave his commands, as if he defigned
to fet upon the Romans as foon as they approached. In
the place where he encamped there was a field, proper
for the drawing- up a phalanx, which required a plain


C6) Livy fays that this eclipfe was foretold by a tribune of the

* /" 1 I


P A U. L U S R M I L I U S. 259

valley and even ground ; there were alfo divers little
hills joined together, which ferved for a retreat to the
light-armed foldiers, and gave them opportunities to
encompafs the enemy ; through the middle ran the ri-
vers JEfon and Leucus, which. though not very deep, it
being the latter end of fummer, yet were likely to give
the Romans fome trouble.

As foon asyEmilius had joined Nafica, he advanced in
order of battle againft the enemy ; but when he faw the
number and dilpofition of their forces, he was afto-
nifhed, and flood flill, confidering with himfelf what was
proper to be done. But the young officers being eager to
fight, prefled him earneftly not to delay, and moflof all
Nafica, who was flufhed with his late fuccefs on Olympus,
^milius anfwered with a fmile: " I mould be as eager as
" you, were I of your age,but my many victories have taught
" mr the mifcarriages of the conquered, and forbid me to
** engage fuch as are weary with their long march againft
" an army fo well drawn up and prepared for battle."

Then he gave command, that the front of his army,
and fuch as were in fight of the enemy, mould draw up
in order of battle, as if they were ready to engage, and
thofe in the rear mould caft up the trenches, and fortify
the camp ; then the foremofl of his men wheeling oft
by degrees, their whole order was infenfibly changed,
and all his army encamped without noiie.

When it was night, and no man after his fupper
thought of any thing but fleep and reft, all on a fud-
den the moon, which was then at full, and very high,
began to be darkened, and after changing into various
colours, was at length totally eclipfed. The Romans,
according to their cuflom, with the noife of brafs pans,
and lifting up a great many firebrands and torches, en-
deavoured to recover her light : whilfl the Macedonians
behaved themfelves far other wife; for horror and a-
mazement feized their whole army, and a rumour crept
by degrees into their camp, that this eclipfe portened
the downfal of their King, (6) /Emilius was no novice
in thefe things, but very well understood the feeming


foldiers, called Caius Sulpitfus Callus, the night before, and that

R 2 upon

*6o r/v LIFE /

irregularities of eclipfes, and that in a certain revoli?-.
tion of time, the moon in her courfe was obfcured and
hid by the fhadow of the earth, till pafllng that region
of darknefs me became again enlightened by the fun ;
yet being very devout, a religious obferver of facrifices,
and well (killed in the art of dtvnation, as (bon as he
perceived the moon had regained her former luftie, he
offered up to her eleven heifers. At the break of day
he facrificed to Hercules, and had offered up twenty
oxen before he received any token that his offering was
accepted; but at the one-and-twentieth the figns pro-
mifed victory to fuch as fought only to defend them-
felves. Then he vowed a hecatomb and folemn fports
to Hercules and commanded his officers to make ready
for battle, flaying only till the fun fhould decline, and
come about to the Weft, left being in their faces in the
morning it fhould dazzle the eyes of his fbldiers. In
the mean time he waited in his tent which was open
towards the valley where the enemies were encamped.
When it grew towards evening, fome tell us jEmilius
himfelf laid the following defign, that the enemy might
firft begin the fight: he turned loofe a horfe without a
bridle, and fent fome of the Romans to catch him, upon
whofe following the beaft, .the battle begun. Others
relate, that the Thracians, under the command of one
Alexander, fet upon the Roman carriages that brought
forage to the camp ; that to oppofe thefe a party of

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