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700 Ligurians were immediately detached, and that re-
lief coming ftill from both armies, the main bodies
were at laft engaged. /Emilius, like a wife pilot, fore-
feeing by the preieat agitation of the armies, the great-
nefs of the impending ftorm, came out of his tent, went
through the legions, and encouraged his fbldiers. Na-
fica, in the mean time, who was advanced to the place
where. the fkirmifh began, faw the whole force of the
enemy preparing to engage. Firft marched the Thra-
cians, who he himfelf tells us, were very terrible to be-
hold, for they were men of great ftature, their ibields


upon the accoiaplilhment of his thought him fon*ething more thaa
prcdi&ioa, the Romaa ibldicrs man. "RonianismilitibusGallifa-

" pienlia

P A U L U S JE M I L I U S. 261

were bright and glittering, their veft were black, thei r
legs were armed with greaves, and as they moved, their
weighty long fpears (hook on their fhoulders. Next
the Thracians, marched the mercenary foldiers, armed
after the different fafhions of their countries, and with
thefe the Paeonians were mingled. Thefe were followed
by a Third body of the Macedonians, all chofen men, of
known courage, and all in the prime of their age, min-
ing in their gilt armour, and new purple vefts. Behind
thefe the fquadrons of the Chalcafpides advanced from
the camp ; the whole plain glittered with the brightnefs -
of their arms and brazen fhields, and the mountains
rang with their fhouts, by which they animated each
other. In this order they marched, and that with fuch bold-
neis and fpeed, that thofe that were firft flain, fell with-
in two furlongs diftance from the Roman camp. The
battle being begun, ./Emilias came in, and found that the
foremoft of the Macedonians had already ftruck the end
of their fpears into the fhields of the Romans, fo that it
was impoflible to come near them with their fwords.
But when the reft of the Macedonians took the fhields
that hung on their backs, and brought them before them,
and all at once levelled their pikes againil their enemies
bucklers ; the great ftrength of their united targets, and
the dreadful appearance of a front fo armed, ftruck him
with amazement and fear, he having never feen any thing
more terrible ; and he would often afterwards fpeak of
the impreflion which that fight made upon him. This
however he then diffembled, and rode through his army
without either breaft-plate or helmet, with a pleafant
and chearful co.untenan.ce.

On the contrary, no iboner was the battle begun,
but the Macedonian King (asPolybius relates) bafely with-
drew to the city ofPydne, under a pretence of facrificing
to Hercules-, a God who is not wont to regard the def-
picable offerings of cowards, or grant fuch requefts as
are unjuft ; it not being reafonable, that he who never
moots, mould carry away the prize, that he mould
triumph who fhuns the battle, that the indolent fhould


*' pientia prope divina videri."

R 3 (7) This

the LIFE of

be fuccefsful, or the v/icked profperous. But to
lius's petition the God liftened, for he prayed for vic\o~
ry with his fword in his hand, and was righting at the
fame time that he implored the Divine afliftance.

But a certain author called (7) Pofidonius, who wrote
the hiftory of Perfeus, and tells us he lived at that time,
and was himfelf in this battle, denies that he left the
field either through fear' or pretence of facrificing, but
that the very day before the fight he received a kick
from a horfe on hisJeg; that though very much indif-
pofed, anc} difluaded by all his friends, he commanded
ne of his horfes to be brought, and entered the field
unarmed ; that amoijgft an infinite number of darts that
flew about on all fides, one of iron lighted on him, and
though not with the point, yet by a glance hit him with
fuch force on his left fide, that it rent his cioaths, and
fo bruifed his flefh, that the mark remained a long time
after. This is what Pofidonius fays in defence of Per-

The Romans not being able to make a breach in the
phalanx, one Salius a commander of the Pelignians
{hatched the eniign of his company, and threw it
amongft the enemies ; which as foon as the Pelignians
perceived, (for the Italians efteem it bafe and difho-
nourable to abandon their ftandard) they rufhed with
great violence towards that place, and the conflict was
very fierce, and the {laughter terrible on both fides.
For the Pelignians endeavoured to cut the fpears afunder
with their iwords, or to beat them back with their
fhields, or put them with by their hands ; on the other
fide, the Macedonians held their pikes in both hands,
and pierced through thofe that came in their way, no
fhield or corflet being able to^refift the force of their
fpears. The Pelignians and Marrucinians were thrown
headlong : to the ground^ who again ft all reafon, and
with a brutal fury, had run upon unavoidable dangers,
and certain death.- Their firft ranks being (lain, thole


(7) This could not be Pofidonius hiftorian, whowroteacontinuati-
of Aparaea, the philofopher and on of Polibius's hiftory; for that


P A U L U S & M I L I U S. 263

t- hat were behind were forced to give back ; it cannot
be faid they fled, but they retreated towards mount
Olocrus. When ^milius fa w thi s, (as Pofidonius relates)
he rent his cloaths ; for fome of his men were ready to
fjy, and the reft were not willing to engage with a pha-
'lanx, which feemed altogether impenetrable, and as
fecure as if entrenched, whilft guarded with fuch great
numbers of pikes, which on all fides threatened the af-
failers. But at length as the unevennefs of the ground,
and the large extent of the enemies front made it impof-
fible for them to preferve that hedge or rampart of
fhields and pikes every where intire and unbroken, JEmi-
Ijus perceived a great many interfaces and breaches in
the Macedonian phalanx-, as it ufually happens in all
great armies, according to the different efforts of the
combatants, whilft in one part they pref&'d forward with
eagernefs, and in another are forced to give back.
Wherefore with all fpeed he divided his men into fmall
companies, and ordered them to fall into the intervals,
and void places of the enemies body, and to make their
attack not all together in any one place, but to engage,
in feparate parties, and attack them in feveral places at
the fame time. Thefe commands ./Emilius gave to his
captains, and they to their foldiers ; who had no fooner
entered the fpaces, and feparated their enemies, but
Come charged them in flank, where they were naked
and expofed, others fetching a compafs, fet on them in
the rear, fo that in a moment this terrible phalanx,
whofe whole force confifted in its union and the impref-
ilon it made when clofely joined together, was diflblved
and broken. And when they came to fight hand to
hand, the Macedonians fmote in vain upon the large fb-
lid fhields of the Romans with their little fwords-, whilft
their flight fhields were not able to fuftain the weight and
force of the Roman fwords, which pierced through all
their armour to their bodies, fo that they with difficulty
maintained- their ground, and were at length entirely


Pofidonius went to Rome during years after this battle. Ttmuftcer-
she Confulihip of Marcellus, 1 i 8 tainly be fome counterfeit writer,

R 4 who


It was here the greatdl efforts were made on both
fides. Marcus the ion of Cato, and fon-in-law of /Emi-
lius, a r ter having given many proofs of a moft undaunted
courage and refo^ution, unhappily loft his fword, which
dropt out of his hand as he was fighting. As he was a
youth, who had acquired all the advantages of a gene-
rous education, as he was the fon of fo illuftrious a fa-
ther, to whom he thought himfelf anfwerable for all
his adlions, and was perfuadeti that he had better die
than fufFer fuch a fpoil to remain in the har>ls of his
enemies, he flew through ail the ranks, and where-
ever he met with a friend, or companion, he acquainted
him with his misfortune, and implored his afliftance.
In a moment he found himfelf furrounded with a troop
of the moft hardy and determined, who followed their
leader, and fell with a defperate bravery upon the Ma-
cedonians, whom after a fharp conflict, many wounds,
and much ilaughter, they repulfed, poflefTed the place
that was now deferted and free, and fet themfelves to
fearch for the fword, which at laft they found covered
with a great heap of arms and dead carcafles. Tranf-
ported and exulting with this fuccefs, they with more
eagernefs than ever charged the foes that yet remained
firm and unbroken. At laft three thoufand of the
chofen men, who kept their ftations, and fought vali-
antly to the laft, were cut in pieces, and very great
was the Daughter of fuch as fled, infomuch that the
plains a:^d the hills were filled with dead bodies, and
the water of the river Leucus, which the Romans did
not pafs till the next day after the battle, was then
mingled with blood ; for it is faid, there fell more than
twenty-five thouiand of the enemy ; of the Romans, as
Pofidonius relates, an hundred ; as Nafica, only four-
fcore. This battle, though fo great, was very quickly
decided, it being the ninth (8) hour when they firft
engaged, and the enemy being routed before the tenth.


\vho ignoiant in chronology took " tells us lie lived at that time"
upon him the name of Pofidonius. (8) i.e. Three in the afternoon.
Plutarch feems to fufpedl him, (9) This was a cuftom among
when he fays, " Pofidonius, who the Romans. Casfar in his third


P A U L U S M M I L I U S. 265

The reft of the day was fpent in the purfuit of fuch as
fled, whom they followed a hundred and twenty furlongs,
fo that it was far in the night v/hen they returned.

All the reft were met by their fervants with torches,
and brought back with joy and great triumph to their
tents, which were fet out with lights, and decked v. ith
wreaths of (9) ivy and laurel. But the General hirnfelf
was overwhelmed with grief ; for of the two fons that
ferved under him in the war, the youngeft was miffing,
:whom he chiefly loved, and who was more happily
formed for virtue than any of his brethern ; as he was
full of courage and ambitious of honour, but withal
unexperienced by reafon of his youth (i), he concluded
he was loft by inconfiderately engaging too far amongft
his enemies in the heat of adtion. The whole army
were foon informed of his d ejection and forrow, and
quitting their fuppers, ran about with lights, fome to
jEmilius's tent, fome out of the trenches to feek him
amongft fuch as were (lain in the firft onfet. There was
nothing but grief in the camp, and the valley was filled
with the cries of fuch as called out for Scipio ; for he
was admired and beloved by all ; his difpofition being fo
admirably tempered that from his early youth he feem-
ed beyond any of his equals formed to excel in the arts
both of v/arand of civil government. At length, when
it was late, and they almoft defpaired of him, he re-
turned from the purfuit, with only two or three of his
companions, all covered with the frefh blood of his ene-
mies, having, like a hound keen for the fport, followed
thechace with two eager a pleafure. This was that Scipio,
who afterwards deftroyed Carthage and Numantium ; he
was without difpute the valianteft of the Romans, and
had the greateft authority amongft them. Thus fortune
deferring the execution of her vengeance for this fuc-
cels, to fome other time, fuffered ^Emilius at prefent to
enjoy this vidory with full fatisfaclion.


book of the civil wars, fays that " tuli, & nonnullorum tabernacu-
in Pompey's camp lie found the " la protects edera."
tents of Lentulus and fome others (i) Livy fays that he was then
covered with ivy. L etiam Len- in his feventeeoth year.

(2) Livy

266 tte L I F E of

As for Perfeus, hefted from Pydne to Pella, with his
cavalry which remained almoft entire. But when the
foot overtook them, they upbraided them as cowards
and traitors, threw them off their horfes, and even
wounded many of them. Perfeus fearing the confev
quences of the tumult, forfook the common road, and
left he mould be known, pulled off his purple robe,
and carried it before him ; he took his diadem in his
hand ; and that he might the better converfe with his
friends, alighted from his horfe and led him. Moft of
his attendants left him by degrees, one pretending to
tie his ihoe that was loofe, another to water his horfe, a
third to drink himfelf ; thrswas not fo much fromfear of
their enemies, as of his cruelty ; for he was grown wild
at this misfortune, and endeavoured to clear himfelf by
laying the blame upon others. He arrrived at Pella in
the night, where Euctus and Eudaeus, two of his trea-
furers came to him, and by their reflecting on his former
mifcarriages, apd their free and unfeafonable admoni-
tions upon the prefent -fituation of his affairs, fo exaf-
perated him, that he killed them both with his dagger.
After this no bodv ftuck to him but Evander the Cre-


tan, Archedamus the /Etolian, and Neo the Boeotian :
and of the common foldiers there followed him only thofe
from Crete, and they not out of any good-will to his
peri'on but for the fake'of his riches, to which they ftuck
as clofe as bees to their honey. For he carried an im-
menfe treafure about with him, (2) out of which he fuffered
them to take cups, bowls, and other veiTels of filver
and gold, to the value of fifty talents. But when he
was come to Amphipolis, and afterwards to Galepfus,and
his fears were a little abated, he relapfed into his old
and natural difeafe of covetoufnefs, and bewailed to his
friends that he had through inadvertency diftributed the
gold plate belonging to Alexander the Great, amongft


(2) Livy fays he differed them
to plunder it, becaufe if he had
made a diftribution of it among
them it would not h? 'e raifed him
to many friends as enemies.

Cretenfes fpem pecuniae fecuti,
& quoniaui in dividendo plus
offenfionum quam gratis erat,
quinquaginta talenta iis pofita
funt in ripadiripienda. xliv. 45."


the Cretans, and befought thofe that had it, with tears
in his eyes, to exchange it with him again for money.
Thofe who underflood him thoroughly, knew very well *
he only (3) plaid the Cretan with the Cretans, but they
that believed him, and reftored what they had, were
cheated ; for he not only did not pay the money, but by
craft got thirty talents more of his friends into his hands,
(which in a fhort time after fell to the enemy) and failing
into Samothracia, fled to the temple of Caftor and Pollux
for refuge.

The Macedonians were always accounted great lovers
of their kings ; but now, as if the chief pillar of their
conftitution was broken, and the whole dififolved, they
fubmitted to ^milius, and in two days time made him
matter of their whole country. This feems to confirm
their opinion who afcribe all his great adtions to good
fortune ; and a further proof of it is the omen that hap-
pened at Amphipolis ; where as ./Emilius was going to
offer facrifice and the rites were begun, afiafh of lightning
fell on the altar, fet the facrifice on fire, and confecrated
it. But the (hare fame had in this affair is next to a
miracle, and far exeeds all they tell us of his good
Fortune, and the favour of the gods towards him. For
the fourth day after Perfeus was vanquifhed at Pydne,
whilft the people were affembled to fee the horfe-races
in the Circus, there fuddenly arofe a report in the upper
part of the theatre, that ^Emilius had overcome Per-
feus, and reduced all Macedonia. This report was im-
mediately fpread among the people, and caufed an uni-
verfal joy ; and fhouts and acclamations filled the city
all that day : but when no certain author of the news
could be found, and every one appeared to have had
it from hearfay, the (lory was dropt for the prefent
and vanifhed ; (4) till in a few days it was confirmed,
and then the former intelligence was looked upon


This happened on the banks of the may be feen in Callimachus.
Strymon in Perfeus's flight from (4) It was confirmed by the ar-
Amphipolis, to Galepfus. rival of Fabius Maximus the fon of

(3) It was an ancient proverb, ./Emilius, L. Lentulus, and Q^
The Cretans are always liars, as Metellus, who had been fent ex-


268 fbe LIFE of

as miraculous, which was by a fiction, had told the real
truth. It is reported alfo that the news of a battle that
was fought in Italy, near the river Sagra, was carried
into Peloponnefus the fame day ; and of that near My-
cale, againft the Medes, to Platse. When the Romans
had defeated the Tarquins who were combined with
the Latins, there appeared immediately after at Rome,
two men of great ftature and a graceful afpedl, who them-
lelves brought the news from the (5) The firft
man that ipoke to them in the market-place near the
fountain, where they were refreshing their horfes which
v/ere foaming with fvveat, much wondered at the report
of the victory, when, it is faid they both fmiled and
gently ftroked his beard with their hands, the hairs of
which from being black, inftantly turned yellow. This
circumftance gave credit to what they faid, and fixed
the name of /Enobarbus or Yellow-beard on th '- man.
But that which happened in our own time, will make
ali thefe credible ; for when (6) Lucius Antonius rebel-
led againft Domitian, and Rome was in a Confirmation,
expecting to fee all Germany up in arms, (7) the peo-
ple on a fudden, fpread abroad a rumour of the victory,
and the news ran through the city, that Antonius him-
ielf was ilain, his whole army deftroyed, and that not
fo much as one man had efcaped ; nay, this report was
fo firmly believed, that many of the offered
up facrifices. But when at length the author of it was
fought and could not be found, it vanifhed by de-
grees ; for every one fhifted it off, from himfelf to an-
ther, and at laft it was loft in the numberlefs crowd,
as in a vaft ocean ; and having no folid ground to fup-
port its credit, was in a fhort time not fo much as named
in the city. Neverthelefs when Domitian marched out
with his forces to the war, he met \vith meflengers and


prefs by yEmilius, and reached Emperor was defcended.

Rome the twentieth da 7 after the (5) ^ L Antom , js ^ gQ .

verhor of" the upper Germany.

(<;) His name was Lucius Do- (7) Suetonius in the life of Do-
mitius j from his family Nero the mitian, chap. vi. relates an inci-



letters, that gave him an account of the victory - t and it
appeared that the fame of this conquefl came the very-
day it was gained, though the diftance of the places was
more than two thoufand five hundred miles. The truth
of this no man amongft us can be ignorant of.

But to proceed : Cneius Octavius, who was joined in
command with ./Emilius, came with his fleet to Samo-
thrace, where out of reverence to the gods, he permit-
ted Perfcus to enjoy the protection of the temple, but
took care that he mould not efcape by fea. Notwith-
ftanding this, Perfeus fecretly practifed with Oroandes
of Crete, who was mafterofa bark, and who promifed
to convey him and his treafure away. He, like a true
Cretan, took in the treafure, and advifed him to come
in the night with his wife, children, and neceflary atten-
dants, to the port called Demetrium ; but as foon as it
grew dark he fet fail without him. The hour appoint-
ed being come, Perfeus with infinite pains and difficul-
ty crept through a ftrait window, and let himfelf down
the wall with his wife and children, who were little
nfed to fuch fatigue. But when a perfon who met him
wandring on the more, told him he had feen Oroandes
put out to fea (for the day then began to dawn) the
difconfolate Prince fetched a doleful figh, and being now
bereft of all hope fled back towards the wall, not in a
clandeftine manner as before, for he faw he was difco-
vered, but endeavoured with all his might to get thi-
ther, if poffible with his wife, before the Romans could
overtake them. He had committed his children to Ion
of Theflalonica, who had been his favourite, but be-
trayed him now in his adverfity, for he delivered
them up to Odavius ; (b that, as beafts do when their
young arc taken, he was compelled to yield himfelf to
thofe, who had his children in their power. His great-

dent which might very well give Domitian, and uttering fuch

occafion to that report ; for he founds as Teemed tokens of joy.

fays that the day on which the This was enough to pofiefs the

battle was fought, an eagle was people with a fuffl belief of the

leen at Rome, embracing as it defeat and death of Aatonius.
were, with us wings the fta:ue of

(8) Plu-

270 rbe LIFE of

eft confidence was in Nafica j he therefore enquired for
him, but he not being there, Perfeus bewailed his misfor-
tune, and feeing there was no poffible remedy, furrendered
himfelf to Octavius. He mowed on this occafion, that
he was poffeffed with a vice more fordid than covetouf-
nefs itfelf, fondnefs for life ; by which he deprived him-
felf even of pity, the only thing that fortune never takes
away from the moft wretched. (8) For being at his
own requeft brought to ^milius, the Conful arofe from
his feat, and accompanied with his friends went to receive
him with tears in his eyes, as a great man fallen by the
fpecial appointment of the gods, and his own ill fortune ;
whilft Perfeus, which was the moft fcandaious of fights,
threw himfelf at his feet, embraced his knees, and ut-
tered fuch unmanly cries and petitions, as /Emilius was
not able to bear or would vouchfafe to hear ; but looking
on him with a countenance of forrow and indignation,
" What ! (fays he) miferable as thou art, doft thou thus
" acquit fortune, of what might feem her greateft crime ?
" For by thefe actions thou fhoweft that thou art worthy
" of thy calamity ; and that it is not thy prefent condi-
" tion, but former happinefs, that was more than thy
" deferts. Why doft thou difgrace my victory, and
" make my conqueft little, by proving thyfelf a coward,
" and a foe below a Roman ? The moil unhappy valour
" challenges a great refpect, even from enemies; but co war-
" dice, even though fo fuccefsful, from the Romans always
" meets withfcorn." Neverthelefs he railed him up, gave
him hi s hand,and delivered him into the cuftody of Tubero.
After this he carried his fons, his fons-in-law, and
others of the principal officers, efpecially thofe of the
younger fort, back with him into his tent, where for a
long time he fatftill without {peaking a word, infomuch
that they all wondered at him. At laft, he began to dif-


(8) Plutarch feems here to be that ftill remained to that unfor-
too concife in his narration ; for tunate Prince, carried him back
he fpeaks as it" ^Emilius himfelf ' to Amphipolis, and ^ from thence
was at that time in Samothracia. fent him to ^milius's camp, hav-
Oclavius put Perfeus on board the ing by letter firft advifed that ge-
admiral gaily with all the wealth neral that he was coming.


courfe of fortune and human affairs. " Is it reafonable,
" (fays he,} for a man to be elated in profperity, and
u grow arrogant upon having conquered nations, taken
" cities, and fubdued kingdoms, when fortune herfelf
" by fuch vifible ma ks of her inftability, and the melan-
" choly i'lilances of human frailty, fo plainly, teaches
" him that he is to expect from her nothing folid and per-
" manent! In what fealon of life can a man think himielf
" fecure, when in the very inftant of victory he is forced
" to dread the almighty power of ioriur.e, and in the
" height of ibcccfs muft be filled with diftruft and anxi-
" ety, if he reflects on the immutable decrees of fate,
" which fpares none, but humbles one man to-day, and to-
" moircw another ? When a moment of time has been
" fufficient to overthrov/ the houfe of Alexander, which
" had exalted itfelf to the higheft pitch of power, and re-
" duced fo great a part of the world into fubjection ; when
" we behold her princes, who fo lately were at the head of
" a formidable army compofed of fo many thoufands, now
" receiving their daily food from the hands of their ene-
" mies ; fhall we, who behold this, prefume to flatter our-
" felves that our profperity is fettled upon a folid founda-
** tion, and is proof againil the attacks of time and fortune?
" Supprefs therefore that pride and infolence which victo-
" ry infpires ; and looking forvard to futurity, be pre-

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