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free, yet were very fit to manage a debate, influence the '
populace, and carry whatfoever they defigned by impor-
tunity and noife, he cried out with a loud voice ; " Groan
*' now OPaulus JEmilius! if you have any knowledge in
*' your grave of what is done above, that your fon pre-
" tends to be Cenfor, by the help of^Emilius the crier,
" Licinnius and Philonicus." As for Scipio, he always had
the good will of the people, becaufe he was continually
heaping favours on them ; but ^milius although he flill
took part with the nobles, yet was as much beloved by
the multitude as he that was efleemed moil popular, and
fought by little arts to ingratiate himfelf with them:

J t-*

and this plainly appeared, when amongil other digni-
ties, they thought him worthy of the Cenlbrfhip, an
office accounted moft facred, and of very great autho-
rity, as well in other things as in the Uriel: examination
into mens lives. For the cenfbrs had power to expel
a fenator of a profligate character, and enroll whom
they judged moft fit in his room, and to difgrace fuch
young men of the equeflrian order as lived licentioufly,
by taking away their horfes. Befidesthis, they were to
value and aflefs each man's eftate, and regifter the num-
ber of the people. There were numbered by JEmilius
three hundred and thirty feven thoufand four hundred


(7) It was part of the office of ftyled Princeps Senatus, or Chief
the cenfors to call over the names of the Senate. This diftinclion con-
of the Senators ; and he whofe ferred no power, but was reckon-
name flood firft ip their lift was cd extremely honourable. If the



and fifty two men. He declared Marcus yEmili us Lepidus
chief of the fenate (7), who had already four times ar-
rived at that honour. He removed from their office
only three fenators, and thefe were not of confiderable
note. The fame moderation he and his collegue Mar-
cius Philippus ufed with regard to the Roman knights.
Whilfl he was thus bufy about many important af-
fairs, he fell fick of a difeafe, which at firft feemed
hazardous ; and although after a while it proved with-
out danger, yet it was very troublefome and difficult to
be cured ; fo that by the advice of his phyficians he
failed to Velio, and there dwelt a long time near the fea
in profound retirement. The Romans in the mean while
longed for his return, and oftentimes by their exclama-
tions in the theatres, gave publick teflimonies of their
earneft-defire and impatience to fee him. At lafl JEmi-
lius thinking he had flrength enough to perform the
journey, upon occafion of a folemn facrifice, at which
his attendance was required, came back again to
Rome, and there performed the holy rites with the reft
of the priefts, the people in the mean time crowding
about him, and expreffing their joy for his return. The
next day he facrificed again to the gods for bis reco-
very, and having finifhed the rites, returned to his
houfe, and went to bed , when all on a fudden, and
before any change could be perceived in him, he fell
into a raging fit ; and being quite deprived of his fenfes,
(8) the third day after ended his life, in which he had
enjoyed every thing, which is thought conducive to
human happinefs. His funeral alfo was attended with
fingular pomp and fblemnity, and his virtue graced
with the t>eft and happieft obfequies -, not fuch as -con-
fided in gold and ivory, or the like fumptuous and
fplendid preparations, but in the good-will, honour
and love, not only of his fellow-citizens, but even of


cenfors omitted any fenator's Rome, 158 years before the in-
name, he was by that omiffion carnation, and at fixty-eight yeart
expelled from the fenate. of age.

(8) He died in the 593d year of

(9) Valerius

Comparison of

his enemies. For as many of the Spaniards, Liguvians
and (9) Macedonians as happened to be then at Rome,
and were young and robuft, helped to carry the biei%
tvhilft the aged followed, calling /Emilius their benefac-
tor and the prefer-, er of their countries. He did in-

.1 'not only at the ti-me of his victories treat them
v.-itV: kindnefs and clemency, but continued all the reft

is life ftiil to ferve ana oblige them, as if they had

', his ft lends and relations. They fay his whole

eilate fcarce amounted to three hundred and feventy

thoufand drachms, \vhich he left between his two fons ;

but Scipio the younger, who was adopted into the richer

:ily of Africanus, ^ave it all to his brother. This
r.ccount we have of ths life and character of Paulus

"jTbe Comparifon of Timoleon ixitb Paulus /Emilius.

IF we confider t-hefe two heroes, as hiilorians have
reprefented them to us, very little difference will be
found between them in the comparifon. They made
war with two powerful enemies ; the one againft the
.oedonians, and the other againft the Carthaginians ;
and the fuccefs of both was equally glorious. One of
them conquered Macedon, and fub verted the kingdom and
family of Antigonus, which had flourifhed in a fuccellion
i'even kings; the other expelled tyranny out of Sicily,
rind refrored that ifland to its ancient liberty. It may
be urged in favour of /Emilius, that he engaged with
Perfeus, when that King was in the height of his power


(9) Valerius Maximus tells us, "cognofcat leti illius frontem thofe Macedonians who per- " Mactcionicis triumphis fuiile a-

jormed this iail ofuce to Emilius, " dornatam. Quantum enini Paulo

vverefome of the beil quality in " tribuerant, propter quern Gentis

that country, and who refided " fuoe cladium indicia per ora Vul-

then at Rome, in the character of " gi ferrenonexhorruerunt? Quod

amhafladors j upon which he " fpcQaculum funeri fpeciem alte-

makes this reflection. " Quod ali- " rius trumphi adjecic. The beha-

' quanto majus videbitur fi quis " vior

Timoteon with Paul us JEmiiius.

and had often fought with fuccefs againft the Romans :
\vhereas Timoieon found Dionylius in a dcfpaii l^g condi-
tion, and reduced to the lafl extremity. On the other
hand, this may be fajd in favour of Timoieon, that he
vanquifhed ieveral tyrants and a powerful Carthaginian
army, with an inconfiderable number of men gathered
together from all parts -, not with fuch an army us /Emi
lius had, of well-difcipiined ibldiers, experienced in war,
and accuftomed to obey ; but with an army of merce-
naries, unexperienced, iindifciplined, and ungovern-
able. And when actions are equally glorious, and the
means to compafs them unequal, the greateft praife is
certainly due to that General, who conquers with the
frnaller power.

Both had the reputation of behaving with an un-
corrupted integrity, in all affairs they managed : but
yEmilius was from his infancy, by the laws and cuf-
toms of his country, trained up and habituated to juftice
and difmtereilednefs ; which advantage Timoieon wanted -,
he learned virtue by himfelf. And this appears from
hence, that in that age all the Romans were educated
with the greatefl modefty and temperance, and taught
to reverence and obferve the laws of their country ;
whereas not one of the Grecian generals who commanded
in Sicily, could keep himfelf uncormpted, except Dion,
and of him they entertained a jealoufy, that he \vc;
eftablifh a monarchy thereafter the Lacedsemonian man-
ner. Timaeas writes, that the Syracu'ans fent Gylippus
home loaden with infamy, for his infatiabie covetouf-
nefs and rapacity when he commanded the army. Di-
vers hiftorians mention, that Pharax the Spartan, and
Calippus the Athenian, committed feveral wicked and
treacherous actions, defigning to make themfeives kings


' viour of the Macedonians on 'when their refpect to his memory

' this occafion will appear ftiil was fo great, that without any

' more extraordinary, if we confi- relu&ance they coti!d tiicmfelves

' dcr that the fore part of the bier ' bear in proceiiionand in the vie\v

' was adorned with pictures re- of all the people, the memor'ais

' prefenting the triumphs of die ' of the conqueil of their nation !

' deceafed, for the conqueft of ' this fight turned even the ib-

' their country. What veneration ' lenmity of his inner 1 rites into

" nauft they have had for that man, ' the glory of a fecund triumph."

(I) Tie

286 The Comparifon, &c,

of Sicily. But what were thefe men, and what ftrength
had they to nourish ib vain a thought ? For the firft of
them was a follower of Dionyfms, when he was expelled
Syracufe, and the other an officer in the foreign troops
which were hired by Dion. But Timoleon, at the rcqueft
of the Syrac^ifans, was fent to be their General ; he was
not left to collect troops himfelf, but found an army
already formed, which they chearfully fubmitted to his
command ; yet he employed this power for no other end
than the deftruction f ufurpers.

This is truly worthy our admiration in JEmilius, that
though he conquered fo great and ib rich a realm, as
that of Macedon, yet he did not in the leaft encreafe his
own wealth by it, nor would he touch or even fee any
of the money himfelf, though he was very liberal of it
to others. This is not mentioned to reflect on Timo-
leon, for accepting of a handfome houfe and eftate in
the country, with which the Syracufans prefented him ;
for on that occafion it was not difhonourable to receive
them. But yet there is greater glory in a refufal ; and
that is the moft confummate virtue, which refufes all
gifts, how well foever it may have deferved them.

As that body, is without doubt, the moft ftrong and
healthy, which can beft fupport extreme cold and ex-
ceffive heat, in the change of feafons ; fo that is the
moft firm and vigorous mind, which is not puffed up
with profperity, nor dejected in adverfity. And in this
refpect the virtue of /Emilius appears more compleat ;
for his countenance and carriage was the fame upon
the lofs of two beloved fons, as in the height of his
profperity. But Timoleon, after he had juftly pumfhed
his brother, which was a truly heroick action, fufFered
his reafon to give way to his paffion, and dejected with
grief and remorfe, forbore for twenty years together to
appear in publick and to engage in any affairs of the
commonwealth. It is certainly right to fear and avoid
whatever is bafe and difhonourable ; but to ftand fo
much in fear of all cenfure and reproach, may argue a
harmlefs and peaceable difpofition, but never a great
and truly heroick mind.



A T O the elder one day hearing fome pcrfons
extol a man who had mown a thoughtlefs te-
merity in battle, made this juft obfervation,
" that there was a great deal of difference between the
" love of virtue and the contempt of life." It is related,
that there was in King Antigonus's army a foldier of a
very unhealthy complexion, but of uncommon bravery ;
the King enquiring what was the caufe of his pale and
fickly look, and learning from him that it was owing to
fome fecret difeafe, gave ftri6t order to his phyficiajos
to take all poflible care of him and to fpare no pains
for his cure. In a fhort time this brave foldier was
cured ; after which he never appeared fo fond of (.lar-
ger, nor Ib daring in battle ; the King, very much
furprifed at fuch a change, reproached him with it


288 The L I F E of

the foldier, far from concealing the true reafbn, faid ?
" Sir, You only are the caufe that I am lefs bold and
" defperate than heretofore, by delivering me from that
" miiery which made life a burden to me." And to this
purpofe is the laying of a certain Sybarite concerning the
u Spartans, that it was no merit in them that they were
" forward to expofe themfelves in battle, and feemed to
" court death, fmce it was a deliverance to them from all
" the hardfhipsand fever i ties they fufferedin life." But it
is no wonder that(i) the Sybarites, who were diflblvcd in
luxury and pleafure, mould imagine that they who defpifed
death, did it not out of a love of virtue and honour, but.
from a wearinefs and abhorrence of life. But the Lace-
daemonians were of a different opinion ; they thought
that virtue rendered both life and death p eafant, ac-
cording to the old epitaph ;

'They dy'd, but not as lavijh of their blood,
Or thinking death iff elf -was fimply good ;
Both life and death the Jiritteft virtue tried.
And as that call'd they gladly liv'd, or died.

For neither is an endeavour to avoid death blameable,
when life may be defired without fhame or difhonour ;
nor is there any virtue in fuffering death with con-
flancy and refolution, when it proceeds only from an
averfion to life. Hence it is that Homer always re-
prefents hisbraveft warriors going to battle well armed;
and the Grecian legislators puniihed any one who threw
away His fhield, though they excufed the lofs of afword
or fpear ; intimating thereby, that a man's care in pre-
ferving himfelf is preferable to his hurting the enemy,
efpecially in the Governor of a city, or the General of
an army. And indeed, to make ufe of 1 's
comparilbn, if we compare the light-armed ibldiers to


(i) The luxury and effeminacy that were noify, was forbidden,

of this people exceeded all ima- and even the crowing of cocks',

gination. They ufed to boaft, Whenever they invited their wo-

that they had never feen the fun men to any folemn feaft, they al-

either rife or fet. And that no- ways gave them a year's notice,

thing might dillurb their deep, that they might have time to gtt

the exercife of all kind of arts ready their finecloaths, arid other


P E L O P I D A S. 289

the hands, the cavalry to the feet, the main body to the
breads, and the General to the head, that General who
ilifFers himfelf to be carried too far by his martial ardor,
does not only hazard his own perfon, but the lives of
all thofe whofe fafety depends on him. And therefore
Callicratides, though in other refpeds a great man, did
not anfwer the Augur well, who befought him not to
expofe himfelf to danger, becaufe the entrails of the
victim boded ill to him, and threatened his life, "Spar-
" ta, faid he, is not bound up in one man." It is true
indeed, that Callicratides, fighting under the command
of another perfon, whether by fea or land, was no more
than one man ; but being General of an army, he con-
tained in himfelf the whole ftrength and power of all
thofe who were under his command ; fo that he, on-
whofe life the fafety of fo many thoufands depended,
was no longer a fmgle perfon. Old Antigonus, juft be-
fore a great fea-fight near the ifland of Andros, anfwered
much better to one who told him that the enemy was
far fuperior to him in number of mips ; " For how ma-
" ny then, faid he, dofl thou reckon me ?" thereby lay-
ing a proper ftrefs upon the importance of- a chief com-
mander, if he be a man of experience and valour ; and
the firft care of fach a one mould be to preferve himfelf
fince he is the fafety and fecurity of all the reft. There-
fore when Chares was mowing the Athenians the wounds
he had received while he was their General, and his fhield
pierced by a fpear, Timotheus well replied, " For my
" part when I befieged Samos, feeing an arrow fall very
" near me, how much was I athamed for having needlefly
" expofed myfelf like a ram young man, and further than
" became the commander of fo great an army!" Indeed
where fuccefs in a great meafure depends on the General's
expofing himfelf, in fuch a cafe he ought not to ipare


magnificent ornaments. They of- forbidden to all other coots to

fered rewards to fuch cooks as make the fame for the fpace of

invented the moft elegant diihes a year, that fo the author might

of meat and higheft fauces. And enjoy the benefit of his invention

when any cook had invented any during that time. A certain Syba-

thing of that kind that was ex- rite feeing a man digging, cried

ccllent, it was by a law exprefly our, that it had given him a rup-
VOL. II, T uire ;

?bs LIFE of

his perfon, but exert bimfelf to the utmoft, without any
regard to their maxims, who fay that a General ought
to die of age, or at lead, in old man. But where the
advantage of his victory will not be great, and the con-
fequence of a defeat will be deftrudtive, no one would
delire him to perform the part of a common foldier, by
hazarding the lofs of a General.

This is what I judged proper to premife before the
lives of Peiopidas and Marcellus, who were both great
men, but both periftied by their rafhnefs. For being
very brave and daring, and having done honour to
their country by their glorious exploits performed againil
very formidable enemies, (the one having vanquished
Hannibal, till then invincible ; and the other defeated
the Lacedaemonians, who were mailers both at fea and
land, in a pitched battle) they ventured too far, and
inconiiderably threw away their lives, when their coun-
tries flood moil in need of fuch valiant men, and fuch
ikilful commanders. And therefore from the fimili-
tude there was between them we have drawn their
parallel. *

Peiopidas, the fon of Hippoclus, was defcended, as E-
paminondas likewife. was, from a noble family in The-
bes. He was brought up from his infancy in plenty and
opulence, and coming early to the poiTeilion of a great
eilate, made it his bufmefs to relieve fuch as were indi-
gent and deferving; that he might make it appear
he was truly the mailer of, and not a fiave to, his
riches. For as to the bulk of mankind, as Ariilotic
fays, fome of th.m through avarice make no ufe at
all of their wealth, while others abufe it to debauchery
and excefs ; the latter live perpetual flaves to their
pleasures, the former to care and toil. But though
others made ufe of Pelopidas's generofity, and thank-
fully received his favours ; Epaminondas alone of all his
friends could never be prevailed on to partake of his
wealth. Peiopidas however condefcended to floop to
his poverty ; and, after his example, took a pleafure


ture j and another to whom lie very hearing it had given him a

re!d what he had feen, laid, the pain in his fide. Athen. lib. i z.

cap. 3. (/) In

P E L O P I D A S. 291

In ordinary apparel^ a frugal table, unwearied labour,
and in appearing plain and open in the higheft pofts and
employments (2) ; like Capaneus in Euripides,

wealth was ne'er by folly mifapplied^
ferve his pleafure, or indulge his pride.

For Pelopidas thought it a fname to fpend more upori
himfelf, than the pooreft Theban.

As for Epaminondas, though poverty was familiar and
hereditary to him, yet he made it fcill more light and
eafy by philofophy, and by chufmg from the beginning
a fimple and uniform manner of life. But Pelopidas
married into a good family^ and had a great many
children -, yet, notwithstanding the increafe of his ex-
peaces, he was flill indifferent to wealth ; and by beftow-
ing all his time upon the publick, he at lafl very much
impaired his eflate. And when fome of his friends one
day reprefented it to him, and told him, " that money
*' which he neglected was a very neeeifary thing : It
" is very neceflary, replied he, for Nicodemus there,"
pointing to a man of that name, who was both lame and
blind. Epaminondas and he were both born with -the
fame difpofition to all kind of virtues ; but Pelopidas
took more pleafure in the exercifes of the body, and Epa*
minondas in the improvements of the mind ; fo that
they fpent all their leifure tiuie, the one in hunting, and
the Palseftra, the other in learned converfation, and the
ftudy of philofophy. But of all the things for which
they are fo much celebrated, the judicious part of man-
kind reckon none fo great and glorious as that ftrict
friendmip which they inviolably preferved through the
.whole courfe of their lives, in all the high pofls they
held both military and civil. For whoever reflects
upon the diflenfion, jealoufy and envy that always
reigned between Ariftides and Themiflocles, Cimon and
Pericles, Nicias and Alcibiades, during their admini-
flration of affairs, and then confiders that affection and
refpect which Pelopidas and Epaminondas conftantly had


(2) In the original it is XKTO, fcure and probably corrupt.
wbich is very ob-

T z (j) We

292 The LIFE of

for each other ; muft confefs that thefe more truly de-
ierved to be filled companions and collegues in govern-
ment and in military command, than thoie others, whofe
mutual enmity exceeded even that they bore the ene-
mies of their country, and who made it the bufmefs of
their whole lives to fupplant and ruin one another. The
true caufe of this was the virtue of Epaminondas and
Pelopidas, which kept them, in all their actions, from
aiming at wealth and fame, the purfuit of which is
always attended with ilrife and envy for being both
equally inflamed with a divine ardour to raake their
country profperous and happy by their adminiilra'aon,
they looked upon each other's {uccefs as their own.

Moft authors indeed write that this ftricl friendfhip
between them did not begin till (3) the battle of Man-
tinea, when the Thebans fent fuccours to the Lacedae-
monians, w r ho were at that time their friends and allies.
For being both in that battle near one another, in the
infantry, and righting againft the Arcadians, that wing
of the Lacedaemonians in which they were, gave way
and was broken ; which Pelopidas and Epaminondas
perceiving, they joined their fhields, and keeping clofe
together, bravely repulfed all that attacked them ; till
at lait Pelopidas, after receiving feven large wounds, fell
upon a heap of friends and enemies who lay dead to-
gether. Epaminondas, though he believed him ilain, ad-
vanced before him to defend his body and arms, and
for a long time maintained his ground againfl great
numbers of the Arcadians, being refolved to die rather
than defert his companion, and leave him in the ene-
my's power ; but being wounded in his breaft by a fpear,
and in his arm by a fword, he was quite difabled and


(3) We mud take care not to nians who were then their allies,

confound this with the famous It was before the banifhment of

b;ittle of Mantineain which Epa- Pelopidas, about the third year of

minondas was flain. For that did the ninety-eighth Olympiad,
not happen till after the death of

Peiopidas, and was fought againft (4) The Lacedzmonians had

the Lacedaemonians ; whereas in ordered ten thoufand men to be

this that Plutarch mentions, the raifed, tomarch againftOlynthus j

Thebang affifted the Lacedsmo- while thefe were getting re"ady



ready to fall, when Agefipolis, King of the Spartans,
came from the other wing to his relief, and, beyond all
expectation, faved both their lives.

After this battle the 1 ,acedaemonians behaved towards
the Thebans, in all outward appearance, as friends and
allies, though they were in reality jealous of the grow-
ing power and grandeur of their city. But above all,
they had conceived a particular hatred againft the party
of Ifmenias and Androclides, (in which Peiopidas was an
aflbciate) looking upon them as too zealous for liberty
and a popular government. Therefore Archias, Leon-
tidas and Philip, who were all three very rich, immo-
derately ambitious, and violently bent upon an oligar-
chical government, propofed to Phcebidas the Lacedae-
monian, (4) who was marching by Thebes with a body
of troops, to feize the caflle called Cadmea, to drive
away all the oppofite party, to make the city fubjectto
the Lacedaemonians, and to put the government into the
hands of the nobility. Phcebidas approved their propo-
fal, and during the feftival of Ceres, when the Thebans
little expected any act of hoilility, put his defign in
execution, and made himfelf mailer of the caflle. Ifme-
nius was taken and carried away (5) to Lacedaemon,
where he was in a fhort time put to death ; but Peio-
pidas, Pherenicus, Androclides, and many more that fled,
were fentenced to perpetual banishment. As for Epa-
minondas, he remained at Thebes unmolefled, and dif-
regarded, as a man who from his philofophy was difin-
clined to attempt, and from his poverty was unable to
profecute any great undertaking.

When the Lacedaemonians heard v/hatPhoebidas had
done, they deprived him of his command, and lined


they fent Eudamidas before with made the forementioned propo-

about two thoufund ; he begged fa I to him.

the Lacedaemonians to put the (^) He was not fent to Lace-
other eight thoufand under the daemon, but impriioned in the ca-
comrnandof his brother Phojbi- ftle, whither conmiiiuoners were
das, which they did ; and in his fent to try him ; three from

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