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riches may not only be neceflary, but they may be
ranked even among thofe things which we call honour-
able and good. Thus it was with Pericles, who was
enabled by his riches to relieve many of the poor ci-
tizens. And yet it is faid that in the multiplicity of pub-
lick bufmefs he had forgotten and neglected even Anaxa-
goras himfelf, who finding that he was thus deferted in
his old age covered up his head (5), and lay down with
an intention to ftarve himfelf to death. Pciicles hear-
ing this, ran immediately to him, with great emotion,
and earneflly entreated him to change his refolution,
not fo much for his own lake, as that he himfelf might
not be deprived of fo faithful and able a counfelior.
Anaxagoras uncovering his face, replied ; " Ah Pericles!
" thofe who have need of a lamp take care to fupply it
" with oil."

When the Lacedaemonians began todifcoverajealoufy
of the growing power of the Athenians, Pericles, that he
might yet more elevate the fpirit of the people, and
give them a (till higher opinion of their own power and
dignity, propofed a decree, that a council mould be
held at Athens, confiding of deputies from every Grecian
city, great and fmall, whether in Europe or in Afia, to
debate concerning the temples which had been burnt by
the Barbarians, concerning the facrifices which they
had vowed to the Gods when they fought for the fafety
of Greece,, and likewife concerning the meafures that
were to be taken with regard to their naval affairs, that
navigation might be every where fecure, and peace
maintained amongft them all. Twenty men of above
fifty years of age were fent with this propofal to the
different ftates of Greece. Five of them went to the
lonians and Dorians who lived in Afia, and to the inha-
bitants of the iflands as far as Lefbos and Rhodes five


(5) It was cuftomary for a ed by the Decii, when they fo-

perfon who was determined to lemnJy devoted themfelves to

put an end to his life, to cover death. Thus Horace fays,
up his head. Livy mentions this Nam male re gejla, cum velletn
as part of the ceremony perform- mittere tyerto.


to thofe who lived about the Hellefpont and in Thrace as
far as Byzantium ; five to the inhabitants of Baeotia,
Phocis and Peloponnefus, and thence through Locris to
the adjoining continent as far as Acarnania and Ambra-
cia. The reft went to the Euboeans, Oetaeans, Malienfes,
Phthiotae, Achaeans (6) and ThefTalians, inviting them
to join in the confutation, and to unite their endeavours
to promote the general peace and welfare of Greece
Their folicitations were, however, ineffectual, and there
was no council held ; the reafon of which is (aid to be
the oppofition of the Lacedaemonians, for it was in Pelo-
ponnefus that the propofal was firft rejected. I have
juft mentioned this fad as a proof of his high fpirit,
and his difpofition to form great and magnificerA pro-

As a military commander his chief excellence was
prudence and caution, he never willingly came to an
engagement, when the danger was confiderable and
the fuccefs very uncertain ; nor did he envy the glory
or imitate the conduct of thofe Generals, who are ad-
mired and applauded becaufe their rafti enterprizes have
been attended with fuccefs. He often faid to the citi-
zens, " that as far as it depended upon him they fhould
" be all immortal." When Tolmidas the fon of Toi-
mseus elated with his former fucceffes, and the reputa-
tion he had acquired in war, was preparing very unfea-
fonably to make an incurlion into Baeotia, and befides
his other forces had collected a thoufand of the beft
and braved of the youth whom he had perfuaded' to
enlift as volunteers, Pericles ufed his utmoft endeavours
to divert him from the attempt, and faid to him in
the publick aflembly thofe well-known words, " If you
" do not regard the advice of Pericles, at leaf! wait till
" time fhall advife you, who is the beft of all counfellors."
This faying was not highly applauded then ; but a few days


Me capita in flumen- Peloponnefus; but neither of thefe

- i Lib. ii. Sat. 8. can be the meaning in this place.

(6) Achaea is fometimes ufed We muft here underftand a peo-
for Greece in general j fcmetimes pie of Thefialy called Achaeans.
it fignifies a particular diftricl in Vid, Steph. Byz. in voce <fro^a.

(7) For

L I F E of

after, when news was brought that the Athenians
were defeated at Coronea, and that Tolmidas was kil-
led together with many of the braveft citizens, it pro-
cured Pericles great refpect and love from the people,
who confidered it as a proof not only of his fagacity but
alfb of his affection to his countrymen.

Of his military expeditions, that to the Cherfonefus
was rnoft applauded, becaufe it contributed fo much
to the fafety of the Greeks who lived there. For
he not only ftrengthened their cities by a colony of a
thoufand Athenians ; but by raifmg fortifications acrofs
the Ifthmus from fea to fea, he fecured them from the
incurfions of theThracians who furrounded them, and
delivered them from a grievous and oppreflive war in
which they had been continually engaged before, with
the neighbouring nations of the Barbarians, and nu-
merous bands of robbers who lived on the borders, or
were inhabitants of the country. He like wife acquired
great reputation among ftrangers by the voyage which
he made round Peloponnefus with a fleet of an hundred
mips with which he fet fail from Pegae a port of Mega-
ns. For he not only ravaged the towns upon the fea-
coaft, but landing with the foldiers whom he had on
board, he advanced far into the country, and obliged
moft of the inhabitants through fear to fhelter them-
felves within their walls ; and at Nemea entirely routed
the Sicyonians who flood their ground and came to an
engagement with him. Having erected a trophy of
this victory, and put on board his fleet fome foldiers
that were furnifhed him by the Achaeans who v/ere al-
lies of the Athenians, he failed to the oppofite continent,
and palling by the mouth of the Acheloiis, he made a
defcent in Acarnania, (hut up the Oeneadae within their
walls, and having laid wade the country returned
home. By this expedition he rendered himfelf formi-
dable to the enemy, and gave his fellow-citizens a
proof both of his refolution and prudence ; for no

mi fear ri age

(7) For the Athenians had been were driven out of it by Megaby-
- mailers of Egypt as we read in fus, Artaxerxes'slieutenant, in the
the zd book of fhucyd ides. They fiift year of the Both Olympiad.

(8) It


mifcarriage was committed, nor did even any unfortu-
nate accident happen during the whole time.

He failed to Pontus with a fleet that was very nume-
rous and well equipped ; he treated the Grecian cities
there with great kindnefs, and granted them every
thing that they demanded. Befide this, by failing
wherever he pleafed and maintaining the dominion of
the fea, he taught the Barbarians of thofe countries, to-
gether with their Kings and Governors, to refped both
the power and the courage of the Athenians. He left
thirteen mips under the command of Lamachus and a
number of foldiers with the inhabitants of Sinope, to
enable them to oppofe the tyrant Timefilaus ; and after
the tyrant and his party were expelled, he caufed a
decree to pafs that fix hundred volunteers mould be
fent from Athens to Sinope, and that the houfes and lands
which had formerly belonged to the tyrants fhould be
diftributed among them. He was, however, far from
countenancing all the wild and extravagant projects of
the people, nor would he indulge them, when elated with
their power and fucceffes, they were defirous to attempt
the recovery of Egypt (7), and to invade the maritime
provinces of the King of Perfia. Many of them were at
this time pofleiled with that unfortunate and fatal paflion
for Sicily, which was afterwards more inflamed by the
orators of Alcibiades's party. Some of them dreamed
of the conquefl of Hetruria (8) and Carthage, which
they thought was no vain and impracticable enterprize,
confidering the great extent of their dominions and the
profperous courfe of their affairs.

But Pericles checked this eager, refdefs and ambiti-
ous fpirit ; and employed the greateft part of their
ftrength in fecuring what they had already acquired - t
for he thought it no inconsiderable thing to reftrain
the power of the Lacedaemonians, againfl whom he had
a particular enmity, which appeared on many occa-


(8) It is not eafy to conceive cibiades it is faid that " he dream-
why Hetruria fhouid be joined " ed of the conqueft of" Carthage
with Carthage. In the life of Al- and Libya.'

(?) This

3 o The L I F E of

lions, and efpecially in the facred war. For the Pho-
cians having taken pofleflion of the temple at Delphi,
the Lacedaemonians fending an army thither reftored it
to the inhabitants ; but Pericles immediately after the
departure of the Lacedaemonians, marched thither with
another army, and again put it into the hands of the
Phocians. And as the Lacedaemonians had engraved
upon the forehead of the brazen wolf, (9) the privilege
which the people of Delphi had granted them of firil
confulting the Oracle ; Pericles obtained the fame privi-
lege for the Athenians, and engraved it on the right fide
of the fame image.

The event foon proved, with how much prudence
he had confined the force of the Athenians within the
limits of Greece. For firft of all, the Euboeans revolted,
and he tranfported an army into their iiland in order
to reduce them. Immediately after this, news was
brought that the Megarenfians were in arms, and that
the Lacedaemonians were advanced to the borders of
Attica, under the conduct of Pliftonax their King (i). He
therefore inftantly returned from Euboea, to manage
the war at home. The enemy offered him battle ; he
would not, however, venture to engage an army Ib
numerous and refolute. But finding that Pliftonax was
very young, and that he was chiefly guided by the ad-
vice of Cleandrides, whom the Ephori had appointed as
a director and ailiftant to the King on account of his
youth, he made application privately to this man, and
loon prevailed on him by money to withdraw the Pe-
loponnefians from Attica. The army having retired, and
being difperfed through the feveral cities, the Lacedae-
monians were highly incenfed, and impofed fuch a fine
upon the King, that not being able to pay it, he was
forced to leave the country. Cleandrides fled, but fen-


(9) This wolf is faid to have part of the foreft of mount Par-
been confecrated by theDelphians naflus, where a wolf fell upon him
and placed by the fide of the great and killed him ; after which he
aJtar, upon the following occafion. went every day into the city ,where
A thief having one day robbed he terrified the inhabitants with his
the temple, went and hid hinifelf frightful howlings. The Delphi-
with his booty in the thickeft ans imagining that thefe regular




tence of death was pafled upon him. Gylippus who defeat-
ed the Athenians in Sicily washisfon ^ he was likewifein-
fedted with the fame vice of avarice, which he feemed
to have derived like a natural and hereditary diftemper
from his father ; and on account of thofe criminal prac-
tices to which this difpofition prompted him, he was ba-
nifhed with ignominy from Sparta, as we have already
related in the life of Lyfander.

Percles in his account of theexpences of this expedition
had fet down one article of ten talents " for a neceflary pur-
" pofe ;" this the people allowed to pafs without examina-
tion and without enquiring into the myftery. But fome
writers, among whom is Theophraftus the philosopher,
fay thatPericles ufed to fend annually ten talents to Sparta,
by which he gained the men in power, and prevailed on
them to defer all ads of hoftility not that he intended
hereby to purchafe peace, but only to gain time, that
he might have leifure to make preparations for carry-
ing on the war afterwards with greater advantage.

Immediately after the retreat of the Lacedaemonians,
Pericles turned his arms againft the revolters ; and
patting over into Eubcea with fifty mips, and five thou-
fand foldiers he reduced all the cities there. He ex-
pelled the Hippobotae who were the principal men for
.wealth and authority among the Chalcidenfes, and drove
the inhabitants of Heftiaea out of the country, fupplying
their place with Athenians. The caufe of this feverity
was, that they having taken an Athenian fhip, had mur-
dered the whole crew.

Soon after this, a truce being made for thirty years
between the Athenians and Lacedaemonians, he procured
a decree to be pafled for an expedition againft Samos ;
the ground of which was, that the Samians had refufed
to obey the orders which they had received from the


returns muft be owing to fbrne brafs mentioned here by Plutarch,

fupernatural caufe, followed the (i) Thucydides places this expe-

wolf, who conduced them to the dition four teen years before the

place where the carcafe lay, near full Peloponr.efian war, of which

which they likewife found the mention will be made hereafter.-

treafure belonging to the tern- Jt happened therefore in the zJ

pie ; and in .memory of the mi- year of the 8jd Oiy.-r.picd.'

racle they eonfecrated the wolf of (2) Th-cr

32 The LIFE of

Athenians, to make peace with the Mlefians. It having
been thought that Pericles engaged in this war merely
to gratify Afpafia, it may not be improper in this place
to give tome account (of this woman, and to confider
what were thofe arts, arid thofe powers of allurement,
.by which me captivated the greateft men of the ftate,
and procured fuch frequent yet not difhonourable men-
tion to be made of her even by philofophers. It is
agreed by all that (he was by birth a Milefian, and the
daughter of Axiochus. It is (aid that me imitated the
.conduct of Thargelia a courtezan who was defcended
from the ancient lonians (2), and that from her ex-
ample me learned to court the friendfhip only of the
moil powerful men in the republick. This Thargelia
was a woman of remarkable beauty, and of great un-
derflanding and wit ; me had many lovers among the
Greeks, all of whom (he brought over to the King of
Perfia's interefl ; and as they were men of the greateil
eminence and authority, the feeds of the Median fadion
were by their means ibwn in many cities of Greece.
Some fay that Pericles vifited Afpafia only on account of
her extraordinary wifdom, and her (kill in political
affairs. For even Socrates frequently went with (bme
of his friends to fee her ; and thofe who were intimately
acquainted with her ufed to carry their wives to hear
her converfation, though her occupation was not a de-
cent and reputable one ; for (he kept a number of loofe
women in her houfe. /Efchines fays that Lyficles (3),
who was a grazier, and naturally of a low grovelling
difpofition, by converting with Afpafia after the" death
of Pericles, became the mod confiderable man in Athens.
And it appears from the Menexenus of Plato, that many


(/) That is from the colony murdered by one of her lovers,

fent to inhabit that part of Afia (3) I know of but two of that

Minor, which wasafterwards cal- name, who made any confidera-

led Ionia, from that Ionic migra- ble figure among the Athenians.

tion. This Thargelia was fo fine The firft was fent with twelve

a woman that by means of her veflels under his command to levy

beauty (he obtained the fovereign- the money that was neceffary to?

ty in Theflaly. However (he came carryon thefiege of Mitylene,and

to an untimely end, for Ihe was was flain by the Carians in that



of the Athenians reforted to her for the fake of improv-
ing themfelves in the art of fpeaking, in which (he was
confummately fkilled ; for though the beginning of that
dialogue is written in a ludicrous manner, yet this cir-
cumftance is hiftorically true. But the attachment, of
Pericles to her, is moft probably to be afcribed to an
amorous motive. His firft wife was his relaton : the
rich Call i as was her fon by Hipponicus a former hufband ;
me like wife had two fons by Pericles, Xantippus and
Paralus ; but growing difagreeable to each other, they
parted by conlent ; he difpofed of her to another huf-
band, and himfelf married Afpafia, 'whom he loved fb
affectionately that when he went from his houfe to the
Forum, and when he returned home, he conftantly fa-
luted her with great tendernefs. In the comedies me
is called a fecond Omphale, fometimes Deianira and
fometimes Juno. Cratinus plainly calls her a whore in
thefe verfes ;

She, this Afpafia, this our Juno, bore,
AJhamelefs, lovelefs, odious, filthy whore.

It is probable that he had a natural fon hy her ; for
Eupolis in his play called Demi, introduces Pericles afk-
ing this queftion,

'Tell me ; Jlill lives my bajlard ?
To which Pironides replies :

Still he lives ;

And longs to prove f be joys which wedlock gives ;
But in a wife, alas ! he fears to find
As rank a whore as fate to thee has joirfd.


expedition. But that could not dul in the battle of Chzronea,

be theLyficles meant here by Plu- which happened in the third year

tarch, for he was flain the year 'of the i lothOlympiad, more than

after Pericles's death, too fhort a ninety years after the death of

time for him to frame a corre- Pericles. And if this was the Ly-

fpondence with Afpafia fo as to ficles here mentioned, Afpafia

make himfelf confiderable there- mud have furvived. Pericles a long

by. The fecond was put to death time indeed. I do not remember

by the Athenians for hi? mifcqn- that he is mentioned in any of the


34 We L I F E of

Such was the fame of Afpafia, that Cyrus who ccn
tended with Artaxerxes for the kingdom of Perfia, i&
laid to have given the name of Afpafia to his favourite
concubine, who was before called Mil to. This woman
was born in Phocis, and was the daughter of Hermotimus ;
when Cyrus was killed in battle, (he was carried to the
King, and had afterwards great influence with him.
As thefe particulars occurred to my memory while I was
writing this hiftory, I thought I fhould be too morofc
if -I omitted to mention them.

Pericles.> as we have faid, was accufed of having'at
Afpafia's requeft prevailed on the people to take up
arms againil the Samians, and in defence of the Milefi-

. ans. Thefe two ftates had been at war for the city of
Priene ^ and the advantage being on the fide of the
Samians, they v/ere ordered by the Athenians to lay

. down their arms and to come and plead their caufe be-
fore them. Upon their refufal to comply with this de-
mand, Pericles failed with a fleet to Samos,. and aboiifhed
the oligarchical form of government. He then took
fifty of the principal men, and the fame number of
children as hoflages, whom he fent to Lemnos. It is

. faid that each of the hoftages offered him a talent
for his ranfom, and that many other prefents were
likewife offered him by fuch of the inhabitants as were
enemies to a popular government. Pifluthnes the Per-
fian, who was a friend to the Samians (4), alfo fent him
ten thoufand pieces of gold, in order to mitigate his
feverity towards them. But Pericles would not receive
any of thefe prefents, nor treat the Samians otherwife
than he at firft determined ; and when he had eftablifh-
ed a democracy among them, he returned to Athens (5).
Upon his departure however, they immediately re-
volted, having privately recovered their hoftages by
the affiftance of PiiTuthnes. They made every neceflary
preparation for carrying on the war ; and when Pericles


three orations that remain of^Ef- fpes was Governor of Sardis. The
chines. reafon which induced him to fa-

vour the Samians, was becaufe

(4) Piffuthnes the fon of Hifta- they who had the greateft authority



tame the fecond time with a fleet, in order to reduce
them, he found them not in a negligent or defponding
pofture, but firmly refolved to contend with him for
the dominion of the fea. A fharp engagement enfued
near the ifland Tragia ; and Pericles obtained a glorious
victory, having with forty-four mips defeated ieventy,
twenty of which had foldiers on board. Purfuing his
victory, he made himfelf mailer of the harbour of Samos,
and laid.fiege to the city. The Samians ftill bravely
defended themfelves and made vigorous fallies upon the
enemy. But when another more confiderable fleet ar-
rived from Athens, and they were entirely blocked up,
'Pericles, taking with him fixty mips failed into the open
fea, with a defign, as it is generally faid, to meet a
Phoenician fleet that was coming to the relief of the
Samians, and to engage with it at a diflance from the
ifland. Stefimbrotus, indeed, fays that he intended to
fail to Cyprus, which is very improbable. But what-
ever his defign was, he feems to have been guilty of
an error. For as foon as he was gone, Meliffus the fon
of Ithagenes, a man of great reputation as a philofopher,
and at that time commander of the Samians, defpifmg
the fmall fleet which he left behind him, and the un-
fkilfulnefs of the commanders of it, perfuaded the
citizens to make an attack upon the Athenians. The
Samians v/ere victorious in this engagement, took many
prifoners, deftroyed a confiderable number of mips,
became matters of the fea, and furnifhed themfelves
with all things they wanted neceflary to fupport the
war. Ariftotle fays that Pericles himfelf before this time
had been defeated by MeliiTus in a fea-fight. The Sami-
ans branded the Athenian prifoners in the forehead with
the figure of an owl (6), in return for the infult which
they had received from the Athenians, who had branded
them with the figure of a Samaena, which is a kind of
(hip built low in the forepart, and wide and hollow in


among them were in the istereft Samos.

of the Perfians. (6) We meet with no mention

(0 Plutarch has omitted to of thefe reciprocal barbarities in
mention that he left a garrifon in Thucydides.

Ca (-) ThU

$6 The LIFE of

the fides, which form renders it very light and expe-
ditious in failing ; it was called Samsena becaufe it was
firft invented at Samos by the tyrant Polycrates. Ariilo-
phanes is fuppofed to allude to thefe marks in the fol-
lowing line :

Ibe Samians, are, we know, a lettered race.

Pericles being informed of the misfortune that had
befaln his army, came in all hade to its relief; and
having defeated Meliiiiis in a pitched battle and put the
Samians to flight, he blocked them up by building a
wall round the city, chufing rather to gain the conqueft
at fome expence of time and money, than by the wounds
and danger of his countrymen. But when the Atheni-
ans were tired with the length of the fiege, and were fo
eager to fight that it was difficult to reftrain them, he
divided his whole army into eight parts, which he or-
dered to draw lots ; and that part which drew a white
bean was permitted to fpend the day in eafe and plea-
fure, while the others were employed in fighting. And
hence, it is faid, a day fpent in feafting and merriment
is called a " white day," in allufion to this white bean.

Ephorus relates that Pericles in this fiege made ufe of
battering engines, with the contrivance of which he was
highly pleafed, they being then a new invention ; and
adds that Artimon the engineer was with him, and that
he on account of his lamenefs being carried about in a
litter to direct fuch of the machines as required his pre-
fence, hence obtained the name of Periphoretus. But
Heraclides of Pontus difproves this account, from fbme
verfes of Anacreon, in which Artemon Periphoretus is
mentioned feveral ages before the Samian war. He fays
that Artemon was a man extremely luxurious and effe-
minate, and of fuch exceflive timidity, that he re-
mained aimoft continually at home, where two fervants


(7) This hiftorian lived in the of the Samian boundaries. Ci-

time ot 'Ptolemy Philadelphia. He cero tells us he -was " Homo in

wrote a difcourfe upon tragedy, <; Hiftoria diligens ;" which does

a hiitory of Libyia, that of Aga- not agree with the character that

thocles of Syracufe, another of the Plutarch gives of him here. He

Maccdouians^rGreeksjandabook fpeaks of him much in the fame



always held a brazen fhield over his head for fear any
thing mould fall upon him, and that if at any time he
was neeeflarily obliged to go abroad, he was carried in
a litter, which hung fo low as almoft to touch the

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