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made the following fpeech ; " Friends and allies, we aik
" a favour of you, which will be a very fmgular honour
" and confolation to us in this great misfortune. It is
V- not Pelopidas alive the Thefialjans defire to attend ; it
'* is not to Pelopidas, fenfible of what is done to him, they

" defire

'/) He was both an 'hiftorian under Dionyfius the elder, whofe
*nd a Ibldier. He had lerved life he wrote in fix books. He


P E L O P I D A S.

" defire to pay the honours due to his merit : no ; all we
" afk is the perrniilion to wafh, adorn, and inter his dead
" body ; and if we obtain this, we (hall then think you
" areperfuaded we efteem our (hare in this common ca-
*' lamity greater than yours. You, it is true, have loft
" an excellent General ; but we, with the lofs of a Gene-
*' ralhave loft all hopes of liberty ; for how (hall we dare to
<c defire another of you, fince we cannot reftorePelopidas?
The Thebans granted their requeft : and never was a
more fplendid funeral feen ; at leaft in the opinion of
thofe who do not think that magnificence confifts in
gold, ivory and purple, like Philiftus, (4) who made 3,
fplendid encomium on the funeral of Dionyfms the ty-
rant, which, to fpeak properly, was only like the pom-
pous cataftrophe of that bloody tragedy, his tyranny.
Alexander the great, at the death of Hephaeftion, did not
only cut off the manes of his horfes and mules, but
took down the battlements from the walls of cities, that
even the towns might feem mourners, and inftead of
their former beauteous appearance look dejected at his
funeral : but fuch kinds of pomp and magnificence not
being free and voluntary, but the injunctions of arbitrary
power, are attended with envy towards him in whofe ho-
nour they are performed, and with hatred agairft him
who commands them, and are far from being proofs of a
fincere love and efteem ; they only (how the barbarous
pride, luxury, and vanity of thofe who lavifh their wealth
to fuch vain and contemptible purpofes. But that a man
of common rank, dying in a ftrange country, neither his
wife, children nor kinfmen prefent, none either defiring
or ordering it, mould be attended, buried and crowned
by fo many cities, that ftrove to exceed one another in
the demonftrations of their love, feems to be the height
of happinefs. For the obfervation of flLCop is not true,
" that death is moft unfortunate in the time of profperity
<c and fuccefs-" on the contrary it is then moft hap-
py, becaufe it fecures to good men the glory of their


ferved likewife under Dionyfius defeated by Dion, killed himfdf
the younger \ and having been

328 fbe LIFE of

virtuous actions, and advances them above the power
of fortune. And that Spartan's advice was better
founded, who embracing Diagoras after he himfelf, his
fons and grandfons had all conquered and been crown-
ed in the Oiympick games, laid to him, " Die, Diagoras,
" die quickly, for thoucanft not be a God." And yet is
there any one that will pretend to compare all the victo-
ries in the Pythian and Oiympick games, with one of
thofe enterprizes of Pelopidas, in all which he was con-
flantly victorious ? So that after he had fpcnt thegreateft
part of his life in great and glorious actions, and had
been thirteen times named governor of Boeotia, he died
at lail in a noble attempt to extirpate tyranny, and re-
ftore the liberties of Theflaly.

If his death occafioned great grief, it brought greater
advantage to the allies -, for no fooner were theThebans
advertifed of it, but prompted by a defire of revenge
they immediately fent to their ailiflance an army of fe-
ven thoufand foot, and feven hundred horfe, under the
command of Malcitus and Diogiton, who falling upon
Alexander, who was already much weakned and reduc-
ed to great difficulties, compelled him to reftore thofe
cities he had taken from the Theflalians, to withdraw
his garrifons from the Magnefians, Phthiotse and Achse-
ans, and to engage by oath to afford the Thebans at all
times whatever affiflance they mould demand. The
Thebans were fatisfied with thefe conditions ; but punifh-
ment foon followed the tyrant for his wickednefs, and
the death of Pelopidas was revenged in this manner.

He, as we mentioned before, had taught Thebe not
to refpect the exterior mow and pomp of tyranny, not-
withftanding me was furrounded by the tyrant's guards.
She therefore fearing the fallhood, and hating the cru-


city of her hufband, confpired with (5) her three bro-
thers, Tifiphonus, Pytholaus andLycophron, to kill him - t


$5) Tifiphonus was the eldeft, affair ; but Xeaophon died the
and as fuch fucceeded Alexander, year following, which was the
and reigned at the time that Xe* firft or fecond year of the hun-
Dophon wrote the hiftory of this dred and fifth Olympiad.

(i) The

P E L O P I D A S. 329

and they put their defign in execution after this man-
ner. The whole palace at night was full of guards,
except the tyrant's bed-chamber, which was an upper
room, and the door of this apartment was guarded by a
dog who was chained there, and who would fly at all
but the tyrant and his wife, and one flave that conflantly
fed him. When the time appointed was come, Thebe
hid her brothers all day in a room hard by ; and go-
ing alone into Alexander's chamber whilft he was afleep,
as (he ufed to do, me came out again in a little time,
and commanded the flave to lead away the dog, faying
her hufband had a mind to fleep without being di-
flurbed ; and that the flairs might make no noife as
her brothers came up, me covered them with wool.
All things being thus prepared fhe fetched up her bro-
thers foftly ; and leaving them at the door with pon-
iards in their hands, went into the chamber, and pre-
fentiy returned with the tyrant's fword that hung at the
head of his bed, and mowed it them as a proof that
he was faft afleep. Being now upon the point of exe-
cution, the young men appeared terrified, and durfl
not proceed ; which fo enraged Thebe, that fhe re-
proached them for their cowardice, and with oaths
declared fhe would go and awake the tyrant, and
difcover their whole plot. When fhame and fear
had brought them to themfelves again, and they had
refumed their former refolution, fhe led them into the
chamber, and with a light in her hand conducted them to
her hufband's bed. One of them caught him fafl by
his feet, another by the hair of his head, while the
third flabbed him with his poniard. His death may
perhaps be thought too quick and eafy for fo cruel and
deteftable a monfler ; but if it be confidered that he was
the firfl tyrant that ever fell by the contrivance of his
own wife, and that his dead body was expofed to all
kind of indignities, and fpurned and trodden under foot
by his own fubjefts, hispunifhment will appear adequate
to his innumerable oppreffions and cnleltics.

M A R-

t 330 ]

M A R C E L L U S.

"ARCUS CLAUDIUS, who was five time*
Conful, was the Ton of Marcus, and the
firfl of his family that was called Marcellus (i),
that is Martial, as Pofidonius affirms. He was by long
experience ikilled in the art of war, and by nature
hardy, aftive, and daring ; but his fiercenefs and im-
petuofity appeared only in battle, on all other occafions
he was modefl, courteous, and humane. He was fond
of the Grecian learning and eloquence, and admired and
honoured all that excelled in them ; but he did not


(i } The Romans were very fond from Mars, from whom they
f names and fiirnames derivtd reckoned themfelves defcended ;


M A R C E L L U S. 331

make a progrefs in them himfelf, equal to his defires,
becaufe his other employments took him off from a
clofe application. If ever God defigned that any men

Sbou'd lead their lives in farce and endhfs war,

as Homer fays, they were undoubtedly the principal
Romans of that age. In their infancy they had the Car-
thaginians to contend with for Sicily ; in their middle
age, the Gauls for Italy itfelf ; and in their old age they
were obliged to contend again with the Carthaginians
and Hannibal. Nor were they allowed the common
privilege of age to excufe them from the wars, their
merits and valour continually calling them forth to mi-
litary commands.

As for Marcellus, he was admirably ikilled in all kinds
of fighting ; but in fingle combat, he even furpafled
himfelf. He never refufed a challenge, or failed of
killing thofe that challenged him. In Sicily, feeing his
brother Otacilius once in danger, he threw his ihield
over him, flew all thofe who attacked him, and ib faved
his life. For that and other honourable atchievements,
he received from the Generals, while very young,
crowns and other prefents, as rewards of his valour.
His reputation daily encreafing, the people chofe him
Curule Aedile, and the priefls created him Augur. This
is a kind of facerdotal office, to which the law afligns
the fuperintendance of that kind of divination which is
taken from the flight of birds.

While he was in the former of thefe offices, he was
obliged, contrary to his inclination, to bring a crimi-
nal accufation before the fenate. He had a fon of his
own name, who was very young, but of fuch extraor-
dinary beauty and accomplifhments, and of fo virtuous
a difpofition, that he was univerfally admired. Capito-
linus, Marcellus's collegue, a very infblent and vicious


from thence came the names, mercus, and Marcellus.
Marcus, Marcius, Mamers, Ma-

(2) Perhaps


man, fell in love with this youth, and attempted to
feduce him. At firfl, the youth of himfelf rejected all
his offers, without acquainting any one-, but" when the
other repeated his folicitations, he difcovered the mat-
ter to his father. Marcellus highly enraged a.t fuch an
affront, accufed Capitolinus before the fenate. Capito-
linus made ufe of all kind of arts and evafions to get
judgment deferred, and at laft appealed from the fenate
to the tribunes. But they refufmg to receive his ap-
peal, he defended himfelf by a flat denial of the charge.
As there was no witnefs of the fact, the fenate ordered
the youth himfelf to be brought before them, and to be
examined. As foon as ever he appeared, his blufhes,
tears, and bafhfulnefs, mixed with indignation and re-
fentment, convinced them without further proof ; and
they condemned Capitolinus to pay a confiderable fine to
Marcellus ; which he converted into a filver exchange-
table (2), and confecrated it to the Gods.

(3) Soon after the firft Punick war, which had lafled
twenty-two years, Rome became engaged in a new war
againft the Gauls. The Infubrians, a people of Celtick
extraction, who inhabit that part of Italy which bor-
ders on the Alps, though very powerful in themfelves,
applied to their neighbours for ailiftance, and particu-
larly to thofe called Gefatae, who ufed to hire out them-

(2) Perhaps to (how that this founds the time a little. The firft
happened during the time of his Punick war lafted four and twenty
being Curule yEdile ; for it was years; for it began in the four
the duty of that office to fuper in- hundred and eighty-ninth year
tend every thing relating to com- from the building o< Rome, and
merce At the fame time I con- the treaty with the Carthaginians
fefs myfelf a ftranger to the word was made in the five hundred and
Apyi>f>f*oic'a, which I have never twelfth. The Gauls continued
feenany where elfe. In fomemanu- quiet all that time, and did not
fcr'pts it is ufyvfu. x&r.t " which begin to ftir till four years after.
" he converted into filver cruets or They advanced as far as Arminum,
" vafes ;" this feems a better read- but the Boii mutinying againft
ing. Ait&Ta werelittle vefl'els made their leaders, flew the kings Ates
nfe of in facnfices, and were like- and Galates ; after which, failing
wife called XoiCiJs?, and (rwov&ia. out among themfelves, and fight-

(3) Plutarch in this place con- ing againft one another, fome-


M A R C E L L U S. 333

felves for pay. It feemed indeed ftrange, and very for-
tunate for the Romans, that they did not happen to be
engaged in this Gallick war before that againft the Car-
thaginians was concluded, but that the Gauls continued
quiet all that time, as if they had really waited to take
up the conqueror, and would not attack the Romans till
they had gained the victory, and had no other enemy
to cope with. However, the near neighbourhood as
well as ancient renown and bravery of the Gaul's ftr.uck
the Roman's with great terror ; for they were indeed the
enemy they dreaded moft, having not forgot how they
had formerly made themfelves mailers of Rome ; from
which time it was provided by law, that the priefts
mould be excufed from taking arms, except only to de-
fend the city againft the Gauls.

The vaft preparations made by the Romans on this
occafion, (for it is faid fo many thoufand of them were
never feen in arms at once, either before or fince) as
well as their new and extraordinary facrifices, plaialv
fhewed the apprehenfions they were under. For though
they had received none of the barbarous rites of other
nations, but imitated the mild and humane cultoms of
the Greeks in their religious worfhip, yet at the appear-
ance of this war, in obedience to fome prophecies con-
tained in the books of the fibyis, ^4) they thought

them iel yes

times one party overcame, and Atllius Regulus were confuls, in

fometimes another ; and they that the five hundred and twenty.

v/ere left alive returned home, eighth year of Rome, and rhe

Five years after this, the Gauls third year of the one hundred

began to make preparations for a and thirtyeigbth Olympiad. Polyb.

new war, on account of the divi- 1. 2.

fion which Fiaminius had made of (4) Tluy offered the fame fn-

the lands belonging to the Piceni, crifice at the beginning of the fe-

whichjie had taken from the Se- cond Punick war, which foil

nones in Galiia Cifalpina. Thefe this : for Livy mentions chele two

preparations were carrying on a facrifices, lib. xxii. tf. " Interim

long time, and it was eight years "exfatalibuslibnsfacrinVaaliquct

after that divillon, before the war " extraordinana facia, iniei qua:

began in earned tinder their lead- " Callus S: Qa!Ia;Gra:cu& Gs'sec*

ers Congolitanus and Aneroelres, " in Poro Boario fub terra' vivi de-

when L. /Emilius Papus and C. " miili l:n:t in locum faxo confep-

334 n f LIFE of

themfelves obliged to bury alive, in the place which is
called the beaft-market, two Greeks, a man and a wo-
man, and likewife two Gauls, one of each fex. Thefe
facrifices gave rife to certain private and myfterious
ceremonies, which ftill continue to be annually per-
formed in the month of November.

In the beginning of this war, (5) the Romans ibme-
times gained very fignal victories, and were as often
Ihamefully defeated ; but neither good nor bad fuccefs
was available to put a final period to the war, till C.
Quintius Flaminius, and P. Furius Philo, being confuls,
marched againft the Infubrians with a powerful army.
It was then reported that the river which runs through
the country of Picenum was turned into blood, and that
three moons were feen at Ariminum at the fame time.
The priefts, whofe bufmefs it was to obferve the flying
of birds at the time of chufing the confuls, declared
that the election of thofe two was unduly and inaufpi-
cioufly made. Hereupon the fenate immediately diC-
patched letters to the army, exprefsly forbidding the
confuls to attempt any thing againft the enemy in that
capacity, and enjoining them to return with all fpeed
to Rome, in order to lay down their office. Flaminius
having received thefe letters, deferred opening them till
he had fought and defeated the enemy and ravaged
their whole country ; after which he marched towards
Rome. But though he carried a prodigious booty home
with him, yet none of the people went out to meet
him ; nay they had like to have denied him the honour
of a triumph, becaufe he did not inflantly obey the fe-
nate, but flighted and defpifed their orders. And as
fbon as ever the triumph was ended, both he and his
collegue were depofed from their office, and reduced to
the condition of private citizens : fuch a refpecl had the
Romans for religion, making all their affairs depend


" turn, ibi ante, hoftiis humanis, fered at the beginning of the war

" minime Romano Sacro imbu- againft the Gaul , which is here

"' turn. "The words ibi ante, &c mentioned by Plutarch,

refer tp the facrifice that was of- (5) C. Atilius Regulus was fla'n

iM A R C E L L U S. 335

folely on the pleafure of the Gods ; never fuffering, no
not in their greateft profperity, the lead negled or
contempt of their ancient rites or Oracles ; being fully
perfuaded that it was of much greater importance to the
publick welfare that their magiftrates and generals ihould
reverence and obey the Gods, than that they mould
conquer their enemies. Tiberius Sempronius, who for his
fortitude and other virtues was fo highly beloved and
efteemed by the Romans, when he was Conful, named
Scipio Nafica and Caius Marcius Figulus his fucceflbrs.
When thefe two confuls were gone into their relpedtive
provinces, Sempronius happening to light upon fome
books containing directions relating to facred rites and
cufloms, found out a certain particular which he never
knew before ; it was this j " Whenever the magiftrate
u went out of the city, and fat down in a houfe or tent
" hired for that purpofe, to obferve the flight of birds, if
" it happened for any caufe whatfoever that he wasoblig-
" ed to return into the city before he had ftnifhed his ob-
" fervations, he was not to make ufe of that lodge again,
" but to take another, and there begin his obfervations
" a-new." Sempronius was ignorant of this, when he
named thofe two confuls, for he had twice made ufe
of the fame place. But when he came afterwards to
underftand his miftake, he declared it to the fenate ;
they, trifling as that circumftance might feem to be, did
not neglect it, but immediately wrote to the confuls ; who,
leaving their provnces, returned to Rome, and refigned
the Confulfhip. But thefe things happened afterwards.

About this time, two priefts of the befl families in
Rome, Cornelius Cethegus and Quintus Sulpicius, were
degraded from the prieflhood ; the former for not having
expofed in a proper manner the entrails of a beaft flain
in facnfice ; and the latter, becaufe, while he was facri-
ficing, the tuft, which the prieft called Flamines wear


in a battle ; on the enemy's fide Aneroeftes, the other King, killed
Congolitanus, one of their kings, himfelf out of defpair.
was killed at the fame time, and

(6) Plutarch


336 The L I F E of

on the top of their caps, fell off And becaufe a rat
was heard to cry the very moment that (6) Minucius
the Dictator named Caius Flaminius General of the horfe,
the people obliged them both to quit their pofts, and
chofe others in their Head. But notwithstanding their
exactnefs in the moft minute circumftances, they kept
free from fuperftition, becaufe they obferved only their
ancient cuftoms, without change or innovation.

Flaminius and his collegue being thus depofed from
the Confulate, the Roman magiftrates, (7) called Inter-
reges, chofe Marcellus in their room who, as foon as
he entered upon his office, chofe Cneius Cornelius for his
collegue. The Gauls fent ambafladors to propofe a
treaty of peace, and the fenate feemed inclined to it ;
but the people by the inftigation of Marcellus were defi-
rous of war. However, a peace was at laft concluded ;
which, it is faid, the Gefatae broke foon after ; who, to
the number of 30,000, palling the Alps, joined the In-
fubrians, who were ftill more numerous ; and relying
on their numbers advanced boldly as far as (8) Acerrae,
a city, fituated between the Po and the Alps, that was
befieged by the Romans. From thence King Viridoma-
rus taking with him 10,000 of the Gefatae, ravaged the
whole country near the Po.

Marcellus having received an account of their march,
left his collegue before Acerras, with all the heavy-
armed infantry, and a third part of the horfe ; and tak-
ing with him the reft of the horfe, and 600 of the
lighter! foot, he purfued the 10,000 Gefatae night and
day without intermifTion, till at laft he came up with
them near Claftidium, a fmall town in Gaul, which a
little before had been brought under fubjedion to the
Romans. He had not time to refreih his troops, or give
them reft ; for the barbarians were foon advertifed of
his arrival ; and feeing the fmall number of his foot,


(6) Plutarch is miftaken in this pointed in an Inter-regntim, to
place; forQ_Fabius Maximus name a King ; and in the times
was Dictator, and not Minucius. of the Republick, when there

(7) Thefe were magiftrates ap- were no legal officers in being,


M A R C E L L U S. 337

and making little account of his hcrfe, they reckoned
themfelves fecure of victory. For thefe, as well as all
the other Gauls, being excellent horfemen, thought they
had the advantage in that refpecr, efpecially as they
found themfelves iuperior in number toMarcellus. They
marched therefore directly againfl him with great fury,
and uttering dreadful menaces, as though they had been
fare of carrying their point without oppofition ; Viri-
dornarus their King riding at their head. Marcellus, be-
caufe his troops were but few, that they might not be
encompafled by the enemy, extended his wings, of ca-
valry, thinning and widening them by degrees, till at
lafl his front was nearly equal to that of the enemy.
When he had done this, and was advancing to the
charge, his horfe. frighted at the fhouts and noife of the
Gauls, turned fhort on a fudden, and in fpite of all his
endeavours to the contrary, carried him back. Marcel-
lus fearing that this motion might be fuperftitioufly ta-
ken for an ill omen, and fo difhearten his men, took his
horfe by the bridle and turned him quite'round, and then
returning to his former ftation, adored the fun ; making
them believe that this wheeling about was not an invo-
luntary accident, but a defigned act of devotion ; for it
was cuftomary with the Romans to turn round when
they worshipped the Gods. When he was upon the very
point of engaging with the Gauls, he made a vow that
he would confecrate to Jupiter Feretrius the bed of the
arms that mould be taken from the enemy. At that
very inflant the King of the Gauls fpying him, and
gueflmg from the enligns of authority, that he was the
Roman General fpurred his horfe forward, and brandifh-
ing his fpear, loudly challenged him to the combat. He
was iuperior in ftature to all the reft of the GaulS, and
had on that day a fuit of armour adorned with gold
and filver, and variegated with the molt lively colours,


thefe Inter-reges had a right of with part of their array, and laid

naming them. fie^e to Claftidium, to make a

(8) The Gauls not being able diverfion. Vide Potyb. 1. 2.
to relieve the place, paffed the Po

VOL. II. Y (9)Scipio

?3'3 ?fo LIFE of

fo that it fhone like lightning. Whilfl Marcellus was view-
ing the difpofition of the enemy's forces, he can: his eyes
upon that armour ; and concluding from the richnefs of
it, that this was the armour which he had vowed to
Jupiter, he rode againft Viridomarus with all his might,
;ind with his fpear pierced his bread-plate ; at the
tame time by the ftrength of his horfe he overfet him,

-' >^J S

and threw him on the ground; and purfuing his blow y
at the fecond or third flroke killed him out-right: then
leaping from his horie, he difarmed him > and taking his.
.arms and lifting them up towards heaven, he faid, " O
"Jupiter Feretrius, who from on high beholdeil the va-
" liant exploits of captains and commanders in the day of
" battle, Icall thee to witnefs that 1 am the third Roman
" General who have with my own hands {lain a General
" and a King : to thee I confecrate thefe firfl and moft ex-
" cellentofthe fpoils , do thou be propitious, and crown our
" actions with the like fuccefsintheprofecuticnof this war.
When he had finifhed his prayer, the Roman horfe
began the charge, encountering both the enemy's horfe
and foot at the fame time; and, notwithfhmdingthe
.inequality of their numbers, obtained a victory Com-
plete in its kind, and almoft incredible in its circum-
ftances. For never before or fmce did a handful of
horfe give fo entire a defeat to fuch a fuperior, force,
both of horfe and foot, as were then drawn up in battle
againft them. Marcellus having ilain the greatefl part

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