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imau iorcedf Archimedes therefore having caufed one
of the King's gaiiies to be drawn on the more by the af-
fiftance of a great many hands, and not without much
labour, ordered it to be loaded with its ufuai burden,
and a great number of men befides ; then placing him-
ielt at lomediftance from it,, without any pains, and on-
ly by moving with his hand the end of a machine which
conlutcu ox a variety of ropes and pullies, he drew it to
him as imoothly and eafily as if it had floated on the
water. Tne King, aftoniined at fo lurprizing an errecl,
and convinced by it of the wonderful power of this an,

entreated.



350 tte LIFE of

entreated Archimedes to make him feveral kinds of mi-
litary engines and machines that might be ufeful both
ways, and ferve either to defend or attack. Thefe
however he never made ufe of, the greatefl part of his
reign being free from war, and bleiTed with tranquillity
and peace -, however they were all ready for the Syra-
cufans on this occafion, and the artifl himfelf at hand
to dired them.

When the Romans were preparing to {form the walls
of Syracufe in two places at the fame time, filence and
confiernation reigned throughout the city, the inhabi-
tants believing it impoflible to withftand fuch nume-
rous forces, and fo furious an affault. But as foon as
Archimedes began to play his engines, they (hot forth
againft the land-forces all kinds of miflile weapons,
and ftones of a prodigious weight with fo much noife,
and fuch an irrefiftible rapidity and force, that nothing
was able to {land before them ; they overturned and
broke to pieces every thing that came in their way,
and caufed terrible diforder ampng their ranks. On
the fide towards the fea were erected vaft (3) machines,
putting forth on a fudden, over the walls, huge beams,
which {Inking with a prodigious force on the enemies
mips, funk them at once. Others being hoifted up
at the prows by iron claws, or hooks, like the beaks of
cranes, and fet an end on the flern, were plunged to the
bottom of the fea. Others again by means of hooks
and cords were drawn towards the more, and after be-
ing whirled about were darned againfl the edges of the
rocks that jutted out below the walls, and all who
were on board were bruifed to pieces. Very often you
might have feen (which was indeed a dreadful fight)

{hips

(3) This machine with which " my foot (omewhere and I will

Archimedes took hold of Marcel- " move the whole earth with- my

lus's fhips, overfetting them, and " machine." Mention is made of

plunging them into the fea, was a thisintheLatininfcriptions, where

kind ofcrane,cal!edChariftion.We we find"Chariftionem sneum." It

read inTzetzes vraiu, > ^ufmtutt is faid by fome to have been in-

Let me fix vented not by Archimedes but by

on*



M A R C E L L U S. 351

ihips raifed a great height above the water, (winging
in the air, and when the men were (haken out by the
violence of the motion, the veffels were either fpiit in
pieces againft the walls, or elfe fuddenly let fail and
plunged to the bottom of the fea.

(4) As for the machine which Marcellus brought
upon eight gallies, and which was called Sambuca, from
its refemblance to a mufical inftrument of the fame
name ; before it came near the walls, Archimedes 'dif-
charged a vail piece of a rock, of ten talents weight ;
after that a fecond, and then a third, all which flrik-
ing upon it with an amazing noife and force, totally
mattered and disjointed it.

Marcellus, doubtful what courfe to take, drew off
his gallies as faft as he could, and at the fame time
fent orders to the forces on land to retreat like wife.
He immediately called a council of war, in which it
was refolved, to come clofe under the walls, if it was
pofiible, the next morning before day; for Achimedes's
engines, they thought, being very ftrong, and defigned
for a confiderable diftance, would throw all the ftones
and weapons over their heads ; and if they mould be
pointed at them when they were fo near, they would
have no effect. But Archimedes had long before pro-
vided machines for all diftances, with fui table v/eapons
and fhorter beams. Befides he had caufed lilies to
be made in the \talls, in which he placed fcorpions, for
clofe fighting, which wounded thofe that came near,
vyithout being perceived.

When the Romans were got clofe to the walls, imagin-
ing themfelves by that means in a good meafure fkreened
from the enemy, they were inflantly attacked from all

parts

one Chariftion a mathematician, cording to the learned Cafaubon,

and to have been ufed with good the moft e^al description of it

fuccefs againft Samos. may be found In the nicchanrcka

of Atherisus, which he took from

(4) Polybius has defcribed this the memoirs of one Damius of

machine in his eighth book, and Colophon,
tevetal writers after him; but ac-



352 The L I F E of

parts with a fhower of darts and all kind of miiTiIe
weapons, together with great quantities of ftones, falf-
, ing perpendicular upon their heads, which foon obliged
them to retire; but no fooner were they got at a little
diftance from the walls, when a new fhower of all forts
of weapons overtook them, fo that there was a very
great (laughter made, and many of their gallies were
bruifed and darned to pieces, without being able to do
the leaft damage or make the leaft imprefnon upon
the enemy. For moft of Archimedes's machines were
hid behind the walls ; fo that the Romans fuftaining
fuch infinite mifchief, without feeing whence it came,
feemed, as it were, to fight againft the gods.

However, Marcellus e leaped this danger, and laugh-
ing at his own engineers and artifts, faid, l ' Shall we con-
<c tinue to fight with this mechanical Briareus, who lifts our
*' fhips out of the fea, and plunges them into it again, like
*' bowls, forhisdiverfion,and who, for numbers of weapons
"difcharged againft us at once, even furpafles the fabulous
" ftory of the giants with an hundred hands ?" And in-
deed the Syracufans were all but as the body of thefe
machines, Archimedes alone was the foul that moved
them ; all other weapons lay idle and unemployed ; his
were the only offenfive and defenfive arms of the city.

In fhort, Marcellus finding that the Romans were
feized with fo much terror, that if they only fpied a
fmall cord or piece of wood above the walls, they im-
mediately fled, crying out, " That Archimedes was go-
" ing to let fly fome terrible engine at them ;" gave
over all thoughts of taking the city by ftorm, and
turned the fiege into a blockade.

However, Archimedes had fo fublime a genius, fuch
a depth of underftanding, and fuch an inexhauftible
fund of mathematical knowledge, that he would never
condefcend to commit to writing the leaft account of
thefe machines, which he emploved with fuch vvonder-

. ' ful

(0 He was the firll who de- tween thefe foikis. Cicero dif-
monftrated the proportion be- covered this monument when he

was



M A R C E L L U S. 353

ful fuccefs, and which gained him the reputatiqn of a
man endued not with human fcience, but divine wif-
dom. He flighted as vile and fordid the art of contriv-
ing engines, and applying mathematical knowledge to
common ufes, and placed his whole fludy and delight
in thofe purely intellectual fpeculations, whofe excel-
lence arifes from truth and demonftration only. For
if the mechanical fcience is valuable for the curious
frame and amazing power of thofe machines which it
produces, the other infinitely excels on account of its
invincible force and conviction. For difficult and ab-
flrufe geometrical queftions are no where exprefled in
plainer terms, or demonftrated on- more clear and evi-
dent principles, than in the writings of Archimedes.
Some afcribe this to the natural force and acutenefs of
his genius -, others to his indefatigable induftry, by
which he made things that cofl much toil and pains
appear unlaboured and eafy. It will be almoft impoA
fible for any man of himfelf to find out the demon-
ftration of his propofitions, but when he has once learnt
it from him, he fancies he might have done it without
any difficulty, fo fhort and eafy is his method of demon-
ftration. Wherefore we are not to reject as incredi-
ble, what is related of him, that being perpetually
charmed by a domeflick fyren, that is, his geometry,
he neglected his meat and drink, and all neceflary
care of his body -, and that being often carried by force
to the baths, he would make mathematical figures in
the afhes, and with his finger draw lines upon his
body, when it was anointed with oil ; fo much was he
tranfported beyond himfelf with intellectual delight, and
captivated with the love of fcience. And though he
was the author of many curious and excellent difcove-
ries, he is faid to have defired his friends only to place
on his tombftone a cylinder containing a fphere, and to
fet down the proportion which the contained folid bears
to the containing. (5) Such, was Archimedes who em-
ployed

was Quzeftor in Sicily and fhowed not that it was in being. He

it to the Syracufans, , who knew fays there were verfes infcribed

VOL. II. Z below



354 ^ LIFE of

ployed his utmoft (kill to fave both himfelf and the city

of Syracufe from being taken.

Marcellus leaving Appius with two thirds of the army
before Syracufe, marched with the reft to befiege Me-
gara, one of the moft ancient cities of Sicily, which he
took by ftorm. A few days after he (6) attacked the
camp of Hippocrates at Acrillge, and flew above eight
thoufand of his men. About the fame time, he over-ran
a great part of Sicily, retook feveral places that had fub-
mitted to the Carthaginians, and fought feveral battels,
in all which he was conftantly victorious.

Some time after this, when he was returned before Sy-
racufe, he furprifed and took prifoner Damippus a La-
cedaemonian, as he was going from thence by fea. The
Syracufans being very defirous to redeem him, offered
his ranfom to Marcellus, and he had feveral meetings and
conferences with them about it. This gave Marcellus
an opportunity of obferving a tower into which fbl-
diers might be privately conveyed, which was care-
lefly guarded, and the wall that led to it eafy to be
fcaled. Having found the height of the wall with fuf-
ficient exaclnefs, by being frequently near it on account
of thefe conferences, he prepared his fcaling ladders,
and put his defign in execution, when the Syracufans
were celebrating a feafl to Diana with wine and jollity ;
fo that before the day-light, without being perceived
by the citizens, he not only penciled himfelf of the
tower, but filled the walls all about with foldiers, and
forcibly entered the Hexapylum. The Syracufans, as foon
as they perceived it, began to move about in great
confufion ; but at the found of all the Roman trumpets
at once, they were feized with confternation, and be-
took

below expreffing that a cylinder at Heraclca with twenty thoufand
and fphere had been put upon- his foot, three thoufand horfe, and
tomb. twelve elephants. Marcellus

marched from Agrigentum, which

' (6) Hippocrates marched out of he had taken, and fell upon him
Syracufe by night with ten thou- as he was entrenching himfelf at
fand foot and five hundred horfe Acrillse a town not far from Sy-
to join Himilco, who was landed racufc. Liv. xxiv. 35.

(7) Was



M A R C E L L U S. 355

took themfelves to flight, believing that the whole city
was in the podeflion of the enemy. But the Achradina,
the heft and flrongefl part of it, was not taken, being
divided by walls from the reft of the city, one part of
which was called Neapolis, and the other Tyche.

This enterprize being thus fuccefsfully executed,
Marcellus about break of day entered from theHexapy-
lum into the city, where all his officers came about
him to congratulate him on his fuccefs. But when
from the riling ground he looked down and viewed
this great and magnificent city, he is faid to have
wept, commiferating the calamity that hung over it,
his thoughts reprefenting to him how fad and difmal
the approaching fcene muft be, when it came to be
facked and plundered. For the foldiers peremptorily
demanded the plunder of it, and none of the officers
durfl deny it ; nay, there were many who infilled that
the city mould be burnt and laid level with the ground ;
but this Marcellus refufed to confent to ; nor was it
without much reludance that he fufFered the riches of
the city and the ilaves to become their prey ; though
he ftridly commanded them at the fame time not to
touch any freeman, nor to kill, offer violence to, or
make any citizen a flave,

But notwithftanding this great moderation of Mar-
cellus, the city met with fo a fevere treatment, that, ip
the midft of his joy, he could not help exprefling his
concern, to fee fo flourifhing a ftate of grandeur and
felicity vanifh in a moment. The plunder and fpoils
of the city are faid to have been no lefs in value than
thofe that were taken foon after at Carthage. (7) For
in a very fhort time all the other parts of the city were

taken

(?) Was there no other rela- ture to fay, that never any city,

tion of this fiege, than what is after the enemy was in poflefiion

given by Plutarch, every one of it and encamped within its

would conclude that Marcellus got walls, held out fo long, and cod

pofTeflion of the whole city of the conqueror fo much pains.

Syracufe within a very few days After Marcellus was in pofleffion

after he fir ft entered it, which is a of Neapolis and Tyche, he met

miilake. I believe one may yen- with a more difficult ttflc, wherein

7, z he



35 6 fbe LIFE of

taken by treachery and plundered only the royal trea-
iure was preferved, and carried into the publick trea-
iury at Rome.

But



he gave proof at the fame time of
his heroick bravery and confum-
inate wifdoin. Plutarch did not
think fit to relate the particulars,
and by fo (lightly palling over
that great and glorious action, he
has been highly injurious to the
fame and honour of this illuftri-
ous Roman. What Polybius wrote
about it is unfortunately loft;
Livy is the Only author now re-
maining, who gives us all the par-
ticulars of that fiege in his twen-
ty-fifth book. I believe the reader
will be pleafed with an abtlract
of it.

When Marceilus had in this
manner entered the city by the
Hexapylum',Epycides alTembled in
hafte all the troops he had in the
ifle adjoining to Achradina, and
inarched at the head of them a-
gainfthim; butfindingafterafhort
trial, that Marceilus was too ftrong
for him, he (hut himfelf up in A-
chradina. Marcellus endeavoured
to gain thofe who had the charge
of the gates belonging to that for-
trefs, but not fucceedirig, he turn-
ed his forces againft the fort cal-
led Euryalus, which flood at the
end of the town, and commanded
all the country towards the land.
Philodemtis, who commanded
there* kept Marcellus in play for
fome time, to give Hippocrates and
HSmilcoan opportunity to come
up with their forces to his aflift-
ance. Whereupon Marcellus find-
ing it difficult to make himfelf ma-
iler of it-, encamped between Nea-
polis and Tycho, till Philodemus
tor want of fuccours furrendered
oa condition he might be allowed



to march with hrs garrifon to Epi-
cydes in Achradina. In the mean
time Bomilcar, who lay in the
port with ninety veffels, taking
the opportunity of a dark tempef-
tuous night, when the ihips of the
Romans were driven from their
anchors, failed out with thirty-fix
of his veffels, went to Carthage,
acquainted the Carthaginians
with the ftate of their affairs in
Sicily, and returned with an hun-
dred fail. Marcellus having put a
garrifon into Euryalus, and there-
by fecured himfelf from any at-
tempts of the enemy in the rear,
fat down before Achradina. In the
mean time Hippocrates and Himil-
co arrived. Hippocrates made an
attack upon the old camp of the
Romans, where Crifpinus had the
command, whilft Epicydes fallied
out upon Marcellus. Hippocrates
wasvigoroilfly repulfed by Crifpi-
nus, who purfued him up to his
intrenchinenfs j and Marceilus o-
bliged Epycides to keep himfelf
within Achrcadina. It was now
autumn, arid a peftilentialdiftem-
per raged in the city, and in the
camps both of the Romans and
Carthaginians, but more efpecial-
ly in the latter. The Sicilians that
wre among them difperfed them-
felves up and down in the coun-
try, and fo efcaped the contagion ;
but the Carthaginians who had
no places of retreat, died almoft
all to a man, with their comman-
ders Hippocrates and Himilco.
In the mean time, Bomilcar*
made a fecond voyage to Cai-
thage, and returned with frefii
fupplies -, for he brought with
him



M A R C E L L U S.

But what gave Marcellus the greateft concern was the
unhappy fate of Archimedes, who was at that time en-
gaged in ftudy, and his mind, as well as eyes, fo in-
tent



him one hundred and thirty fail,
and feven hundred (hips of bur-
den. The contrary winds hin-
dered him from doubling the cape
of Pachynus. Epicydes beirigafraid
that in cafe the wind continued,
Bomilcar would return with the
fleet into Africa, leaving Actaadi-
na under the command .of the offi-
cers belonging to the mercena-
ries, went toBomllcar, and prefTed
him to try his fortune in a naval
engagement Marcellus obferving
ihat the forces of the Sicilians en-
creafed every day, and that if he
did not take care, he fhould be
pent up both by fea and land,
refolved though not fo ftrong at
fea as the Carthaginians, tooppofe
their pafTage. When the wind
abated, Bomilcar flood out to fea,
that he might double the cape
with lefs danger ; but as foon as
Jie faw the Romans making to-
wards him in good order, all on a
fudden, he unaccountably fled,
and ordering the fhips of burden
to return home, failed himfelf to
Tarenturn. Epicydes, being thus
deferted, returned to Agrigentum.
The Sicilians, informed of what
had paiFed, immediately difpatch-
ed deputies to Marcellus with of-
fers to furrender upon conditions.
When they had agreed upon the
terms, the deputies went to con-
fer with the inhabitants of Achra-
dina, whom they ealily perfuaded
to put to death the commanders
Epicydes had left there. Thofe
officers being flain, an afTembly
was called, new officers were
created, and fome of them fent to
Marcellus. When every thing was



agreed upon between them and
the Romans, the deferters in the
fortrefs being afraid they fhould
be delivered up to the Romans,
perfuaded the auxiliary troops,
whom they terrified with the fame
apprehenfions, to join with them,
to kill the new officers, to fall
upon all the Syracufans that came
in their way, feize on every thing
they could lay their hands upon,
and appoint fix officers of their
own. Three of thefe had the
command in Achradina, and three
in the ifland. Among thofe who
commanded in Achradina, was one
Mericus a Spaniard. He being
corrupted by the Romans, deliver-
ed iup the gate that flood near the
fountain of Arethida. The pext
morning at break of day, Mar-
ceilus caufed a falfe attack to be
made upon Achradina, to draw to
that part all the forces that were
in the ifland and the fortrefs ad r
joining, and to give fome fhips
he had prepared for that purpofe,
an opportunity of throwing forces
into the ifland after the enemies
troops were withdrawn. 7 ^ e
fuccefs anfwered his defire. The
folciiers landing in the ifland,
found all the ports forfaken and
the gates opec, and made them-
felves matters of the place with
little oppofition. Marcellus find-
ing himfelf in polTeflion of the
ifland, and one of the quarters of
Achradina, and that Mericus had
joined him with his garrifon,
founded a retreat to pi event the
treafure which had been collected
by the Sicilian kings from being
plundered. Soon aftej this, al}
Z 3 th*



35 g The LIFE of

tent upon fome geometrical figures, that he neither
heard the noife and hurry of the Romans, nor perceived
that the city was taken. While he was thus employed,
a foldier came fuddenly upon him, and commanded
him to follow him to Marcellus ; which he refufmg to
do till he had finifhed and demonilrated his problem,
the foldier, in a rage drew his fword and killed him.
Others write, that Archimedes feeing a foldier come
with a drawn fword to kill him, entreated him to hold
his hand one moment, that he might not leave his
problem unfinifhed, and the demonftration imperfect ;
but that the foldier, unmoved at his requeft, killed him
immediately. Others again write, that as Archimedes
was carrying fome mathematical inflruments in a box
to Marcellus, as fun-dials, fpheres, and quadrants, with
which the eye might meafure the magnitude of the fun's
body, fome foldiers met him, and believing there was
eold in it, flew him. But all hiftorians agree, that

^j f . O '

Marcellus was extremely concerned at his death ; that
he would not fo much as look upon his murderer, de-
tefting him as an execrable villain ; and that having
made a diligent enquiry after his relations, hebeftowed
many fignal favours upon them.

The Romans had hitherto given other nations fuffi-
cient proof, both of their courage and conduct in war,
but they had not yet fhown them any illuflrious ex-
amples of clemency, humanity, and political virtue,
Marcellus feems to have been the firft, who, on this
occafion, mowed the Greeks that the Romans furpafled
them in juftice, no lefs than in conduct and courage.
For fuch was his candour and condefcenfion to all with
whom he had any concern, fuch his generofity to feve-
ral cities and private perfons, that if any thing fevere
or cruel was committed in the cities of Enna, Megara
and Syracufe, the blame of it is more juftly chargeable

on



the gates of Achradina were fur- Syracufans, and when he had
rendered. Marcellus called a placed a guard upon the treafury,
council, made a fpeech to the gave the city up to be pillaged.

Thus



M A R C E L L U S. 359

bn the fufferers themfelves, than on thofe who were the
authors and inftrurnents of their fuffering. I fliall only
give one example out of many that might be menti-
oned. There is in Sicily a city called Enguium, which,
though not large, is very .ancient, and particularly cele-
brated for the appearance of the -Goddefies called the
Mothers (8). Their temple is faid to have been founded
by the Cretans ; there they fhow feveral fpears and bra-
zen helmets, fome of which bear the name of Merion ;
and others that of Ulyfles, who confecrated them to
thefe Goddefles. This city greatly favoured the Car-
thaginian interefl ; but Nicias, the moft eminent of the
citizens, ufed all his endeavours to make them declare
for the Romans, fpeaking his mind freely at all publick
afiemblies, and labouring to convince them of their
error. Thefe men fearing the power and reputation of
Nicias, refolved to feize him and deliver him to the
Carthaginians. But he, having difcovered their defign,
guarded againft it after this manner. He uttered feve-
ral things difrefpe&ful and injurious to the Goddefles,
ieeming to deny the received opinion of their appear-
ance among them, and to charge it with fable .and im-
poftura His enemies were overjoyed to fee that he
himfdf had furnifhed them with reafons fufficient to
juftify whatever they mould aft againft him. When
the day agreed on to feize him was come, there hap-
pened to be a publick aflembly in the city, and Nicias
was in the midft of the people haranguing them, and
giving his advice concerning fbme affair then under de-
liberation. But on a fudden, in the middle of hisdif-
courfe, he fell flat on the ground, and after having lain
there fome time without fpeaking, as though he had
been in a trance, he lifted up his head, and turning it
about, began to fpeak in a feeble trembling voice,
which he raifed by degrees ^ and when he perceived that

the

Thus Syracufe, after a three years (8) Thefe Goddefles, I be-
fiege fell into the hands of the lieve, were Cybele, Juno, and Ce-
Romans. res. Giceto fpeaking of Enguium,

Z 4 iijentions



S 6o T'be L I F E of

the whole aftembly was ftruck with horror and remained
in profound filence, he rcfe up, threw off his mantle, and
tearing his coat in pieces, ran half naked towards one
of the doors of the theatre, crying out that the Mothers
avenging furies purfued him. A religious fear detained
every body from laying hands on him or flopping him,
fo that he reached one of the city gates without 'oppo-
fition, no longer counterfeiting by the leaft word or
adion, a man mad or poflefled (9). His wife, who
was in the fecret, and ailifted in the ftratagem, taking



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