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her children in her arms, ran firft of all, and proflrated
herfelf as a fuppliant to the GoddefTes at their altar ;
then pretending to go in fearch of her hufband who was
wandering about the fields, me got fafely out of the
town without any hindrance at all, and fo they both
made their efcape to Marcellus atSyracufe. Some days
after this, Marcellus entering Enguium, caufed all: the
inhabitants to be loaded with irons, in order to punifh
them for their infolence and treachery. But Nicias,
addrefTed himfelf to him, and falling on his knees witli
tears in his eyes, and kifling his hands, afked pardon
For all the citizens, and in the firfl place for his ene-
mies'. Hereupon Marcellus relenting, fet them all at
liberty, and hindered his foldiers from committing any
diforder in the city, be&owfng on Nicias a large tract
of land and many rich prefeiits. This is the account
given by Pofidonius the philofopher.

(i) Marcellus, after this, being recalled by the Romans
to condudt a war nearer home, carried away with him
at his departure the fineft ftatues, paintings and furni-

mentions only the temple of Cy- (i) Plutarch forgets here a great

bele. viftory Marceiius gained over E-

(9) TRere is probably an error picydes and Hanno before he left

in the text here. The Latin Sicily ; when he flew a great ma-

tranflator renders it, " nee vocerh ny men, took feveral prifoners,

' ullam, &c. prsetermifit ; he o- befides eight elephants. Liv. xxv.

' nutted nothing in his words and 40. " Haec ultima in SiciliaMar-

' a&ions that was fuitable to the " celli pugna fuit."

' charafter of a perfon mad or

' pofTeffed." (z) Livy makes a refleaion


M A R C E L L U S. 361

ture in Syracufe , firft to be made ufe of to decorate his
triumph, and then to be preferved as lafting ornaments
to the city. For (2) before triat time, Rome had never
feen or known any curiofities of this kind ; nor were
there any of thofe exquifite pieces of art, which mow
an elegant and polite tafte, to be found there; Inftead
of thefe were then to be feen arms taken from the bar-
barians, fpoils ftained with blood, and triumphal orna-
ments and trophies, which prefented to the view an un-
pleafing and dreadful fight, no way fit to entertain the
eyes of nice and delicate fpedtators. And as Epaminon-
,das called the plains of Bceotia, " the Orcheilra, or flage
" of Mars," and Xenophon (tiled " Ephelus the Arfenal
" of war," fo in my opinion, Rome might then have been
called (to ufe the words of Pindar) " the palace of Mars."
For this reafon Marcellus became the favourite of the
people, he having made the city a delightful fpectacle,
by embellifhing it with fuch ornaments, that all the
variety and elegance of the Grecian arts were exhibited
to their view. But the graver citizens preferred Fabius
Maximus, who, after he had taken Tarentum, brought
no fuch things from thence, but contented himfelf with
their gold and filver and other ufeful riches, leaving
the pictures and ilatues of the Gods in their places, and
ufmg upon that occafion thofe memorable words, " Let
" us leave to the Tarentines their offended Deities." They
charged Marcellus, in the firfl place, with having ren-
dered the city of Rome odious, by leading not only men
but even the Gods in triumph ; and then with having
fpoiled ?. people inured to hufbandry and war, wholly


uppn thjs, which is very remark- ' which Marcellus had adorned

able. "All the fpoils were the con- "with fo much fplendor and

" queror's, they belonged to him by " magnificence:" and 40s proof he

" therightof war; but from thence gives of this, is, that in his time

' arofe the cuftomof admiringthe there was not to be feen the hun-

' works of Grecian artifts, and the dredthpart of the ornaments which

'liberty which ftill prevails, of Marcellus had confecrated, xxv.

' violating places facred and pro- 40. Polybius has written a whole

' fane ; a liberty which was at chapter to enquire whether the

* laft turned againft the very Gods Romans did well in carrying the

" of Rome, ?.nd that very temple rich

3 6 2 Me LIFE of

unacquainted with luxury and floth, and (as Euripides
faid of Hercules)

Rough and unbred, yet fit for great de/igns,

by furniming them with an occafion of idlcnefs and
vain difcourfe ; for they now began to wafte the belt
part of their time, in difputing about arts and artifts.
But notwithftanding this cenfure, this was the thing
Marcellus moft. gloried in, and even before the Greeks
themfelves, that he was the firft who taught the Romans
to admire and value the Grecian arts, and gave them a
tafle for thofe exquifite performances, which they never
underftood before.

Finding at his return that his enemies oppofed his
triumph, and confidering that the war in Sicily was not
quite finifhed, and that a third (3) triumph would ex-
pofe him to the envy of the citizens, he was content to
celebrate his greater triumph on the Alban mount, and
to enter the city in that fort of triumph, which the
Greeks call Evan, and the Romans Ovation. The per-
fon, to whom this kind of triumph was allowed, did
not ride in a triumphal chariot drawn by four horfes,
neither was he crowned with laurel, nor had he trum-
pets founding before him ; but he went on foot, in
flippers, with flutes playing before him, and with a
crown of myrtle on his head, which was a fight that
carried no appearance of war, and was rather delightful
than terrible. And this, in my opinion, is a plain
proof that formerly the difference between a Triumph
and an Ovation, did not arife from the greatnefs of the
atchievcment, but the manner of its celebration; for
they who conquered the enemy with great {laughter and
effufion of blood were honoured with the firfl kind of
military and terrible triumph, in which both the fol-


rich ornaments of all the cities authors fpeak of any more- In-

they conquered to Rome. ftead of -rprrosa certain inanufcript

(3) Plutarch mentions but one has vrfurof if this be the true

triumph before this, nor do other reading, it rnaft be thus translated,


M A R C E L L U S. 363

diers and their arms were crowned with laurel, as was
ufual in the ceremony of luftrating or purifying a camp :
but to fuch generals as fucceeded in their enterprizes
without force, merely by their prudence and power of
perfuafion, the law allowed the honour of that civil
pacifick entry, called Ovation, For the flute is an in-
ftrument of peace, and the myrtle the plant of Venus,
who, more than all the other deities, abhors violence
and war. The word Ovation, is not derived, as mod
authors think, from the word Evan, fignifying a fong
of joy, becaufe the other triumph was accompanied with
fhouting and fmging as well as this ; but the Greeks
have wrefted it to a word well known in their language,
believing that this (how relates in fome meafure to
Bacchus, whom they call Evius and Thriambus. But
this is not the truth. It was cuftomary among the Ro
mans at the greater triumph to facrifice an ox, but at
the other only a fheep, which in Latin is called Ovis,
and thence comes the word Ovation. It is worth our
while on this occafion to obferve the conduct of the
Spartan legiflator, whofe laws concerning facrifices were
directly oppofite to the Roman. For at Lacedaemon a
General who had fucceeded in his undertaking by art or
perfualion, facrificed an ox, but he that fucceeded only
by force of arms, offered a cock; for though they
were a very brave and warlike people, yet they thought
fuch atchievements as were owing to eloquence and
wifdom more fuitable to the nature of man, and more
worthy of honour, than thofe that were effected only by
violence and (laughter. But which of the two has the
beft reafons to fupport it, I leave to the determination
of others.

Marcellus being a fourth time chofen Con/ul, his ene-
mies perfuaded the Syracufans to come to Rome and
accufe him before the fenate of feveral acts of injuflice


" his former triumph had expofed that Marcellus had three triumphs,
" him, &c." But as Plutarch after- it was thought proper to translate
wards in the comparifon of Pelo- the paflage according to thecom-
pidas and Marcellus (ays exprefsly mon reading.

(4) Plutarch

364 Me L I F E of

and cruelty, contrary to the league between them and
the Romans. (4) On the day of their arrival Marcellus
happened to be offering facrifice in the capitol. The
Syracufan deputies went directly to the fenate, who were
then fitting, and falling on their knees befought them
to hear their complaints and do them juftice. The
other Conful, who was there prefent, took Marcellus's
part, and reproved the complainants, for preferring their
petition during his collegue's abfence. But when Mar-
cellus heard what was in agitation, he made hafte to the
fenate, and taking his place there, difpatched the or-
dinary affairs of his office ; after which, he rofe from
his feat, and as a private man went into the place ap-
pointed for the accufed to make their defence, giving
the Syracufans full liberty to make good their charge.
They were at firfl ftruck and confounded at his un-
concern and the dignity of his appearance ; and though
bis afpett, when in armour, was awful and tremendous,
they found it much more terrible now in Confular purple.
However being animated and encouraged by his enemies,
they laid open their accufation in a fpeech full of lamen-
tations and complaints ; the fumofall which was, "That
"though they were friends and allies of the Romans, yet
" Marcellus had made them fuffer fuch things as other ge-
" nerals feldom inflict on a conquered enemy." (5) To this
Marcellus anfwered,"That notwithstanding all the injuries
** they had done the Romans, they had fuffered nothing but
" what it was impoflibleto protect an enemy from, when a
" city was taken by ftorm ; and that it was their own fault,
"they were fo taken,by having rejedcd fuch reafopable pro-


(4) Plutarch omits one cironn- ' muft now beobliged to leaye Si-

ftance here, which ought to have 'cily, and that it was better for

been fully exprefTed, which is, that 'them to leap into the gulph of

the Syracufans were fcarce arrived ' mount /Etna, or thefea, than ex-

at Rome before the confuls drew ' pofe themfelves to the Conful's

lots for their refpe&ive provinces, 'refentment.aftertheftepstheyhad

and Sicily fell to Marcellus. This ' taken again ft him." They would

was a terrible ftroke to the Syra- have obliged the confulb to defile

cufans that were come to accufe the fenate to change the provinces,

him. They wept, and faid, " they but Marceilus offered it of his


M A R C E L L U S. 365

** pofals as bad been offered them ; that they could not
" urge in their excufe, that they had been forced by the
" tyrants to take arms, fmce they had voluntarily fubmit-
" ted to thofe tyrants on purpofe to make war." When the
reaibns had been heard on both fides, the deputies, ac-
cording to cuftom, were ordered to withdraw ; Marcelius
likewile did the fame, leaving his collegue to take the
fenators votes ; while he himfelf (6) waited at the door
with great patience and modefty till the caufe was deter-
mined, mowing no fign of concern about the event, or re-
fentment againfl the Syracufans. After the votes were tak-
en, and judgment pronounced in favour of Marcelius, the
Syracumns came and threw themfelves at his feet, be-
feeching him with tears in their eyes to forget his reient-
ments, and to pardon not only them who were there pre-
fent, but likewife all the reft of the citizens, who would
always retain a grateful remembrance of his favours.
Marcelius moved by their tears and entreaties generoufly
forgave them, and from that time continued to do the
reft of the Syracuians all the good offices he was able. The
fenate ratified all that Marcelius had done, confirmed
the laws and liberties he had reftored to them, and fe-
cured them in the poffeffion of their goods and eftates.
The Syracufans in return decreed Marcelius all imagi-
nable honours, and made a particular law, that when
either he, or any of his family came into Sicily, the
Syracufans with chaplets on their heads mould in a fo-
lemn manner offer facrifice to the Gods.

After this, Marcelius was fent againft Hannibal. Since
the battle of Cannae the other confuls and generals had

u fed

own accord ; which being done, defirous to make his defence fa

and the Syracufans by that means their prefence.
put out of fear, they profecuted (6) Livyfays, he went to the

their charge. Liv. xxvi. 29, 30. capitol to take the names of the

foldiers that were lifted ; and that

(;) When the Syracufan depu- after judgment was pafTed, the

ties had finiflied their accufation, fenate fent two fenators to fetch

Lsvinus, the other Conful, order- him, and that the Syracufans were

ed them to go out of the fenate, ordered to attend at the fame time

but Marcelius kept them in, being with him.

366 The L I F E of

nfed no other policy againft the Carthaginians but only
to avoid coming to a battle, none of them daring to en-
gage with them. But Marcellus took a quite contrary
courfe, being fully perfuaded that delay, which was
thought the befl way to ruin Hannibal, would impercep-
tibly wade and deftroy Italy ; and that Fabius, with his
flow and cautious maxims, did not purfue a right me-
thod to cure the diforders of his country ; for before he
could put an end to the war, their whole ftrength would
be confumed. He thought him like an unlkilful phyfi-
cian, who out of fear delays giving his patient ftrong
but neceffary phyfick, till his fpirits are quite exhauft-
ed, and nature funk beyond the poflibility of a re-

His firft fuccefs was the retaking the chief cities of
the Samnites that had revolted from the Romans, in
which ,)ie found great quantities of corn and money ;
and, at the fame time, three thoufand of Hannibal's
foldiers, whom he had left for the defence of thofe
places, were made prifoners. After this Cneius Ful-
vius the proconful, with eleven tribunes, being flain by
Hannibal in Apulia, and the whole army entirely de-
feated, Marcellus difpatched letters to Rome to animate
and encourage the people, afluring them that he was
actually upon his march, againft Hannibal, and mould
foon leflen the joy he felt for his late fuccefs. Livy
informs us, that the reading of thefe letters was fo far
from abating their concern, that it increafed their fears ;
for they were in more pain for their prefent danger
than their paft lofs, as they accounted Marcellus a
greater General than Fulvius.

He then advancing, according to his promife, to
give Hannibal battle, marched into Lucania, where he
found the enemy encamped on inacceflible heights near
the city of Numiftro. Marcellus encamped upon the
plain, and the next day, drew up his army in order of
battle. Hannibal coming down from the hills, a battle
immediately enfued, which, though not decifive, was
very bloody ; for it began at the third hour, and con-


tinued till the darknefs of the night put a flop to it..
The next morning at break of day Marcellus drew up
his army again among the dead bodies, on the field of
battle, and challenged Hannibal to renew the fight, and
decide the conteft. But Hannibal cbofe rather to draw
off ; whereupon Marcellus, after he had caufed the fpoils
of the enemy to be gathered, and the bodies of his dead
foldiers to be burnt, marched in purfuit of him. And
though Hannibal laid feveral ambufcades for him in his
march, by his prudent conduct he efcaped them all,
and had the advantage in every fkirmifh and encounter ;
which fo much heightened his reputation at Rome, that
on the approach of the Comitia to appoint new confuls,
the fenate judged it more advifeable to recal Laevinus,
the other Conful, from Sicily, than to give Marcellus
the leaft interruption, who was fo fuccefsfully employed
againft Hannibal. As fbon as Laevinus arrived, he was
ordered to name Quintus Fulvius Dictator ; for the Dic-
tator is neither named by the fenate or the people, but
one of the confuls or generals advancing forward in the
midft of the afTembly, names whomfoever he pleafes ^
and the perfon named is called Dictator, from the word
Dicere, which in Latin fignifies to name. Others think
that he is called Dictator, becaufe he refers nothing to
the decrees of the fenate, or the fuffrages of the people,
but judges and determines every thing as he pleafes by
virtue of his own authority : for the orders of the ma-
giftrates are by the Romans called Edicts. Laevinus had
a mind to name another perfon Dictator, and not Ful-
vius, who was prefented to him by the fenate ; and be-
caufe he would not be obliged to act contrary to his
opinion, he left Rome by night, and failed back to Sicily.
Whereupon the people named Quintus Fulvius Dic-
tator, and the fenate at the fame time wrote to Marcel-
lus to confirm their nomination, which he did ; after
which he himfelf was continued in his command, and
appointed Proconful for the following year.

After this having agreed with Fabius Maximus the
Conful by letters, that Fabius mould befiege Tarentum,


3 68 Me L I F E of

while be watched Hannibal's motions fo carefully as to
prevent his relieving that place, he marched after him
with all diligence, and came up with him at Cantiflrun;
and as Hannibal fhifted his camp continually, to decline
coming to a battle, Marcellus purfued him clofely, en-
camping conflantly in his fight, and appearing every
morning in a readinefs to engage him. But at laft
coming unexpectedly upon him, as he was encamping
in a plain, he fo harrafled his army by little fkirmifhes,
that at length a general battle enfued ; but the night
parted them again. Early the next morning the Ro-
mans came out of their intrenchments, and prefented
themfelves once more in order of battle ; this greatly
enraged Hannibal, who calling all the Carthaginians to-
gether, made a fpeech to them, in which he conjured
them to fight bravely once more, to maintain the re-
nown they had already gained, and to confirm to them-
felves the fruits of all their former victories : " For you fee,
" faid he, after all our fuccefTes, and notwithftanding we
<c are fo lately come offconquerors, we are fcarce allowed
" time to breathe ; nor are we like to enjoy any manner
" of quiet, unlefs we drive this man back." Immediately
after this both armies charged with great fury ; and the
event mowed thatMarcellus'smifcarriage on thisoccafi-
on was owing (7) to an improper and ill-timed motion. For
feeing his right wing preffed hard, he commanded one of
his legions to advance from the rear to the front, which
occafioning a di (order among his troops, gave the victory
to the enemy, (8) above two thoufand Romans be-
ing flain upon the fpot. When Marcellus had retreated
into his camp, he fummoned the whole army together,
and faid, " he faw the arms and bodies of Ro-

(7) Livy relates the fal thus ; " take their place, the whole army

' Marceilus feeing his right wing, " was put into the utmolt confu-

* confiding of the choiceft troops "fion." Livy does not lay theblame

' of the allies, give way, ordered on Marcellus, but on the troops

' the eighteenth legion to advance that were ordered to fupport the

' to the front ; and the former right wing, and who advanced

' fliamefully retreating, and the too flowly.

' latter advancing but flowly to (8) Two thoufand feven hun-

M A R C E L L U S. 369

" mans before him, but not one Roman." And when they
afked him pardon for their fault, he told them, " they
" muft not expect it fo long as they continued beaten, but
" that he would grant it as foon as they had conquered ;
" and that he would lead them to battle again the next day,
" that the news of their victory might arrive at Rome be-
" fore that of their flight.'* When he difmiiled them, he
gave orders (9) that barley, inftead of wheat, mould be
given to thofe companies that had turned their backs and
loft their colours. His difcourfe made fuch an impreflion
upon the foldiers, that though many of them had iuffered
very much, and were ibrely wounded, yet there was
not one among them, to whom the General's words

<^j *

were not more painful than his wounds.

Early the next morning the fcarlet robe, which was
the fignal of battle, was hung out - t the companies that
came off with dilhonour in the lail engagement, at their
earned requeft obtained leave to be placed in the fore-
moil line; after which die officers drew up the reft of
the troops in their proper order. When this was told
to Hannibal, he cried out, " O ye Gods ! what is to be done
" with a man, who is not affected with either good or bad
"fortune? He -is the only man, who, when conqueror,
" l gives his enemies no reft, and when conquered, takes
" none himielf. We muft even refolve to fight with him
" for ever ; for the glory of a victory and the fhame of a
" defeat equally infpire him with new courage, and fpur
"him on to further attempts."

Both armies engaged immediately ; and Hannibal
feeing the advantage equal on both fides, commanded
the elephants to be brought up, and driven againft the
van of the Roman army ; which at firft cauied fome
terror and confufion in the foremoft ranks. But Fla-


dred of the Romans and their al- (9) This was a common pu-
lies ; among whom were four Ro- nifhment. Marcellus likewife coon-
man centurians, and two tribunej manded that the commanders of
of tlie foldiers. The wing that thofe companies fhould con-
fled, loft four ftandards, and the tinue all day long with their
legion that fliould have lupported fwords drawn, and without their
them loft two. Liv. xxvii. it, girdles.

II. A a (i) Livy

370 ne LIFE of

vius a tribune fnatching an enfign from one of the com-
panies, advanced, and with the point of it wounded
the foremoft elephant ; whereupon the beaft turning
back ran upon the fecond, and the fecond upon the
next that followed, and fo on, till they were all put in-
to diforder. As foon as Marcellus perceived this, he
commanded his horfe to fall on, and taking advantage
of the confufion the elephants had caufed to endea-
vour to rout the enemy entirely. The cavalry, ac-
cording to his orders, attacked the Carthaginians fu-
rioufly, driving them back to their intrenchments, and
making a moft terrible Daughter ; to which the ele-
phants which were killed or wounded contributed not a
little. Eight thoufand Carthaginians were (lain in this
battle ; on the Roman fide three thoufand were killed,
and almoft all the reft wounded. By this means Han-
nibal had an opportunity to decamp by night, and re-
move to a good diflance from Marcellus, who, by rea-
fbn of his wounded men, was not in a condition to
purfue him, but retired with his army by flow and eaiy
marches into Campania, and (i) paifed the fummer at
Sinuefla, to recover and refrefh his foldiers.

When Hannibal had thus got clear of the enemy, his
army being under no manner of reftraint, over-ran the
feveral parts of Italy round about, ravaging and burn-
ing all before them. This gave occafion to fome un-
favourable reports concerning Marcellus at Rome ; and
his enemies incited Publius Bibulus, one of the tribunes
of the people, a man of a violent temper, and a confi-
derable orator, to bring an accufation againft him.
This man exclaimed againft him publicldy, and ufed
all his endeavours to have the command of the army
taken from him, and given to fome other perfon ; " For


(i) " Livy fays in the city of from the neighbourhood of Canu-

" Venufia ;" which is more pro- fium where the battle was fought,
bable. The great number of

wounded men Marcellus had, (2) Plutarch puts this piece of

would hinder him from going to wit into Bibulus's mouth, fuppo-

SinueiTa, which was too far diftant fing that Marcellus was gone to

Sinuefla ;


Marcellus, faid he, " having exercifed himfelf a little
" againft Hannibal, has left the ftage of battle, (2) and
" is gone to the baths, to refrefh himfelf after his fatigue.
Marcellus having received advice of thefe practices,
committed the charge of the army to his lieutenants,
and haftened to Rome to refute the falfe accufations of
his enemies. At his arrival he found a charge drawn
up againft him, founded on thofe calumnies^ And
when the day of hearing was come, and the. people
were affembled in the Flaminian Circus, Bibulus afcended
the tribune's feat, and accufed him with great vehe-
mence. Mareellus's anfwer was plain and fhort ; but

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