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the 'great men and chief of the citizens undertook his
defence very warmly, and fpoke with great freedom,
advifing the people not to (how themfelves worfe judges
than the enemy, by condemning Marcellus for cowar-
dice, who was the only General they had whom Han-
nibal took care to avoid, and conftantly endeavoured
not to be engaged with, though he was very forward to
come to an engagement with all the reft.

When they /had ended their pleadings on both fides,
the accufer's hopes of obtaining judgment againft Mar-
cellus were fo far defeated, that he was not only acquit-
ted, but a fifth time chofen Con fill.

As foon as he had entered upon his office, he went
to all the cities of Tufcany, where he allayed a ver^
dangerous and feditious commotion, that tended to a
revolt. At his return he had a mind to dedicate to
Honour and Virtue the temple he had caufed to be built
but of the ipoils brought from Sicily, but was hindered
by the priefts, who thought it unbecoming the honour
due to the gods, that one tempile fhbuld contain two


Sinuefla ; for there were hot baths hot baths rierir that place. Bibu-

near that city, famous for curing his thought it fufficientto reproach

feveral diftempers, as Strabo par- Marcellus with pa/ling the funmief

ticularl^ obferves. But if Mar- in winter quarters, that is in gar-

cellus went to Venufia, as there is rifon within doors ; " j'Eftiva Ve-

no room to doubt, then this jeft ' nufue fub telis agere, L.iv.
is quite loft ; for there were no

A a 2 () A

rbe LIFE of

deities -, (3) he therefore (4) began to build another to
Virtue, highly difpleafed at the oppofition he had met
with, and reckoning it an ill omen.

Several other omens happened at the fame time,
which troubled him very much , fome of the temples
were ftruck with thunder, and the gold in that of Ju-
piter was gnawed by rats : and it was likewife reported,
that an ox had fpoke ; and that a child had been born
with an elephant's head, and was ftill alive ; and among
all the expiatory facrifices which were offered on that
occafion there was not one that manifefled any favour-
able tokens. For this reafon the Augurs detained him
flill at Rome, notwithstanding his ardour and impa-
tience to be gone ^ for never was a man inflamed with
fo great a defire for any thing as Marcellus was to bring
Hannibal to a decifive battle. This was the fubjedt of
his dreams in the night, and of his converfation all
day with his friends and collegues ; nor did he make
any other requeft to the gods, but that they would per-
mit him to come to a thorough engagement with
Hannibal. Nay, I believe he would have been glad
to have had both armies encompafTed with one wall or
ditch, and to have engaged Hannibal within that inclo-
fure. And had not his fame in war been thoroughly
eftablifhed, and the proofs he had given, that for pru-
dence and difcretion he was inferior to no one what-

(3) A certain man going to ' to more than one God ; for if It
Athens, and feeing at the gate of ' was dedicated to two, and it
the city, a temple dedicated to two ' fliould happen to be vifited with
goas, faid, " I muft even turn back ' lightning and thunder, or any
"again; for fmce they are forced ' other prodigy from heaven, it
" to lodge two gods at the gate, 1 ' would be difficult to make expi-
" fhall meet with no lodging in the ' ation, becaufe they could not
" city." But in this inftance the ' know to which of the two gods
true caufe that made the priefts ' they ought to offer facrifice; it
oppofe thisdedication was not that 'not being allowable to offer a
they thought it unfuitableto their ' fingle facrifice to two gods, ex-
dignity. Livy tells us the true ' cept inlfome particular inftances.'
reafon. xvii. 25. " The priefts op- (4) This work was carried on
" pofed this dedication, becauie and finished with great diligence,
" they affirmed that one temple though Marcellus dedicated nei-
" could not regularly be dedicated ther

M A R C E L L U S. 373

ever, been inconteftible, one would have thought he
had been tranfported by a juvenile heat and ambition
beyond *vhat became a perfon of his age ; for he was
above fixty when he was chofen Con fill the fifth time.

However as foon as the diviners had finifhed fuch fa-
crifices and expiations as they judged proper, (5) he
and his collegue left Rome, in order to carry on the
war againft Hannibal ; and encamping between the ci-
ties of Bantia and Venufia, he tried every method to pro-
voke Hannibal to a battle. This, Hannibal very in-
duftrioufly avoided , but having received intelligence
(6) that the confute were about to fend troops to be-
fiege the city of the Epizephyriar.s, or weftern Lccrians,
he prepared an ambufcade on their way near the hill
of Petelia, and flew two thoufand five hundred of their
men. This enraged Marcellus beyond meafure, and
heightened his deiire of coming to a battle, fo that he
removed his camp nearer to the enemy.

Between the two armies was a little hill, whofe
afcent was pretty fteep ; it was covered with bufhes and
thickets, and on its fides were holes and ditches, from
whence iifued fprings and currents of water. The Ro-
mans admired that Hannibal coming fir ft to fo com-
modious a place, mould not take poffeflion of it, but
leave it for the enemy. But if Hannibal judged it a
proper place for a camp, he thought it much fitter for


ther of them himfelf ; but about the confuls fent a detacl.ment of

four yeais after his fon dedicated their forces to undertake that

them both. fiege, which if a great miflake.

(5) His collegue Crifpinus left Marcellus and Crifpinus were not
Rome before him, and marching fo imprudent as to weaken their
into Lucania, befieged Locris; but army in fight of fuch an enemy
he raifed the (iege as foon as he as Hannibal. They fent orders to
undeifteod that Marcellus was ar- Lucius Cincius, who was in Sicily
rived at Venufia, and had brought to fail with his fleet to Locris, and
his troops into the field, and Nke- at the fame time caufed the gar-
wife that Hannibal was come rifon that was at Taientum to
near to Lacinium. march that way ; and thefe were

(6) Plutarch does not fuffici- the troops Hannibal furprized, by
ently clear this faft. From what lying in ambufcade near Petelia.
he fays, one would believe that Liv. xxvii. 26.

A a 3 (?) Every

374 The LIFE of

an ambufcade ; and to that ufe he chofe to put it. To
this end, he filled the thickets and hollows with arch-
ers and fpearmen, not doubting but fo advantageous a
fituation would entice the Romans thither. Nor was he
miftaken in his conjecture ; for immediately this be-
came the fole fubjed of difcourfe all over the Roman
camp ; and, as if they had been all Generals, every
one was fetting forth the advantage they fhould have
over the enemy by encamping on this hill, or at leaft
raifmg a fortification on it. Marcellus therefore thought
fit to go himfelf with fome horfe to take a view of the
place -, but before he went, ordered a facrifice to be
offered. In the firfl victim that was flain, the diviner
fhowed him the liver without a head ; in the fecond,
(7) the head of the liver feemed to grow plump and
large all at once, and all the other parts appeared frefh
and promifing ; fo that all the fears and apprehenfions
occafioned by the firft, feerned quite removed by the
great hopes arifing from the lafi. But the diviners
thought otherwife, and declared that this only encreafed
their fears ; for whenever fair and aufpicious figns ap-
pear immediately after fuch as are imperfect and ill-
boding, fuch a fudden change is an unfavourable prog-
noflick. But as Pindar fays,

Nor fire nor brazen walls can fate controul, !>

Marcellus therefore leaving his camp in order to view
the place, took with him his collegue Crifpinus, his
(on Marcellus who was a tribune, and about two hun-
dred and twenty horfe, among which there was not
one Roman , they were allTufcans, except forty Fregel-
lanians, of whofe fidelity, affection, and courage he
had received fignal and undoubted proofs. On the


(7) Every thing that encreafed latter end of the year, after he
and grew large was a good fign ; had named Titus Manlius Tor-
anrl whatever was contracted and quatus di&ator, to hold the Co-
diminiflied was an ill omen. mitia. Some fay he died at Ta-

(8) He lived till towards the rentum, others, in Compania.

(9) He

M A R C E L L U S. 375

top of the hill, which, as we faid before, was woody,
and full of brambles, was placed a centinel, who,
without being difcerned by the Romans, faw plainly all
the motions of their army. They that lay in ambufh
had intelligence from him of every thing that pafied ;
and therefore lay clofe till Marcellus had reached the
foot of the hill, when on a fudden they all rufhed out
upon him, letting fly at him a mower of arrows, and
charging him on all fides with their fwords and fpears.
Some purfued thofe that fled, and others attacked fuch
,as ftood their ground ; for theTufcans having run away
at the firft charge, the forty Fregellanians clofed them-
felves together in a body, to defend and fave the con-
fuls ; till Crifpinus being wounded by two arrows, turned
his horfe to make his efcape ; and Marcellus being run
quite through the body with a lance, fell down dead ;
then the few Fregellanians that remained, leaving Mar-
cellus's body there, carried off his fon, who was already
wounded, and fled with him to the camp.

In this fkirmim there were not many more than
forty men flain ; eighteen were taken prisoners, befides
five lictors. (8) Crifpinus died of his wounds a few days
after. Never dki-ftrcTTa^fafter befal the Romans be-
fore, to lofe tfoth th^ir confuls in one engagement.
Hannibal mad4 little/account of this defeat, or the pri-
foners that werextatten ; but when he heard that Mar-
cellus was flain, hpro^ftened to the place of battle, and
coming neaj^his/bodyAviewed it for fqme time, admir-
ing Lpr-ftfengtH and mien ; but without fpeaking one
infulting word, or mewing the leaft fign of joy at the
fall of fo great and formidable an enemy. He feemed
indeed furprized at the ftrange and undeferved death of
fo great a man, and (9) taking his fignet from his fin-
ger, commanded that his\body mould be magnificently


(9) He defigned to make ufe\ prudence to acquaint all the
of it to furprize the city of Sala- \ neighbouring cities with the
pia, by writing letters in Marcel- I death of his collegue, and that
lus's name, and fealing them with his fignet was in the enemy's
his fignet : but Crifpinus had the hands. The inhabitants of Sa

A a 4 lapia

376 ne L I F E of

adorned and burnt, and his afties put into a filver
urn with a crown of gold upon it, and fent to his fon.
But certain Numidians meeting thofe that carried the
urn, fell upon them with a defign to take it away ;
and while the others ftood upon their guard to de-
fend it it happened that in the ftruggle the afhes were
fpilt. When this was told to Hannibal, he faid to thofe
about him, lt lt is impoflible to do any thing againft the will
" of Cod." He punifhed the Numidians for what they had
done, but took no further care to collect the afhes, be-
lieving that it was decreed by the gods that Marcellus
mould die after fo ftrange a manner, and his remains
be denied the honour of a burial. This is what Cor-
nelius Nepos and Valerius Maximus write ^ (i) but Livy
and Auguflus Casfar affirm that the urn was carried to
his fon Marcellus, and honoured with a magnificent
'funeral. Marcellus's publick donations, befides what
he dedicated at Rome, were a magnificent Gymnafiurn, at
Catana, in Sicily, and feveral ftatues and pictures brought
from Syracufe, which he fet up in the temple of the
Gods called Cabiri, in the ifland of Samothracia, and in
the temple of Minerva at Lindus ; in which laft there
was likewife a ftatue of Marcellus with this infcription,
as Pofidonius the philofopher relates,

Marcellus, great by birth, and great in war,
ffflkjbtou a planet radiant from afar ;
Sev'n times diftingui/frd by a Conful's name,
From well-fought fields he reap'd immortal fame.

The author of this infcription adds to the dignity of
Conful that of Proconful, with which he was twice


lapia punidied deceit by deceit; ed on the hill where the engage-
and Hannibal was forced to make ment happened, and that finding
a didionourable retreat after lo- Marcellus's body, he caufed it to
fing fome of his troops. be interred : " Caftrain turnulam

" in quo pugnatum erat externplo

(0 Livy does not affirm this ; * transfert; ibi inventum Marcelli
on the contrary he fays that Han- " corpus fepelit. xxvii. 28." As to
nibal went forthwith and encamp- Auguftus I can fay nothing,becaufe


M A R C E L L U S. 377

honoured. (2) His family flourifhed with great fplen-
dor to the time of Marcellus, who was the fon of Cains
Marcellus and of Odavia, fitter to the Emperor Ali-
gn! ins. He died very young, in the year of his /Edile-
fhip, and foon after he had married Julia the Empe-
ror's daughter. (3) In honour of him, his mother
Odavia dedicated a library, and Auguftus a theatre,
which were called the library and theatre of Mar-

The Comparifon of Marcellus with Pelopidas.

THESE are the moft remarkable things we find
in hiftory concerning Marcellus and Pelopidas,
between whom there was a perfect refemblance in tem-
per and behaviour. They were both men of uncom-
mon ftrength of body, of heroick courage and magna-
nimity, and of indefatigable induftry ; but there was
this difference ; Marcellus in moft of the cities which he
took by aflault fuffered great flaughter to be commit-
ted, whereas Epaminondas and Pelopidas never fpilt the
blood of any man they had conquered, nor deprived
any city they took of its liberty. And it is affirmed
that if either of them had been prefent, the Thebans
had never enflaved the Orchomenians.

As to their martial exploits, nothing can be greater
or more glorious than what Marcellus performed againfl
the Gauls, when with a handful of horfe only, he de-
feated a powerful army of horfe and foot, (which you
will fcarce find to have been done by any other Gene-

what he has written is not ex- and young Marcellus died in the

tant. fecond year of the iSgth Olym-

(2) It continued after his death piad, and yjoth year of Rome,
an hundred and eighty-five years;

for he was (lain in the firft year (3) According to Suetonius and

of the 1 43d Olympiad, in the Dion, it was not CXlavia, but

545th year of Rome, and 206 Auguftus, that dedicated this li-

years before our Saviour's birth, brary.

(4) The

The Comparifon of

and flew their King with his own hand. Pelopi-
das attempted fomething of the like nature, bur failed,
and loft his life in the attempt. However, the famous
battles of Leu&raand Tegyrae mayjuftly be compared
to thofe exploits of Marcellus. But for ftratagem and
circumvention, there is nothing in all the hiflory of
Marcellus that ,c#n be compared to what Pelopidas did
at his return from exile, when he flew the Theban
tyrants ; nor indeed is there any exploit effected by artifice
and furprize that can equal it.

The Romans had to do with Hannibal, who was a very
formidable enemy j the Thebans were engaged againft
the Lacedaemonians. And it is certain, that they were
defeated by Pelopidas at Leu&ra and Tegyrae ; whereas
Hannibal according to Polybius, was never once beatea
by Marcellus, but continued invincible, till he was con-
quered by Scipio. But we rather believe, with Livy,
Cornelius Nepos, and Caefar, the Latin hiftorians, and
with (4) King Juba among the Greeks, that Marcellus in
fome battles did defeat Hannibal, though the advan-
tages he gained were not of fuch confequence as to turn
the balance confiderably on his fide ; the lofs Hannibal
fuftained in any of thefe engagements, was like a flight
fall given to a wreftler, from which he eafily recovers
himfelf. But what has been very juftly admired, and
can never be fufficiently applauded is, that notwith-
ftanding the defeat of fo many armies, the (laughter of
fo many generals, and the almoft total fubveifion of
their whole empire, Marcellus flill infpired the Romans
with fuch confidence and courage, that they never de-
clined coming to an engagement with the enemy. He
alone not only removed that confirmation and dread
they had long lain under, but pofleflfed them with an


(4) The fon of Juba, King of tarch, was brought in triumph to
Numidia, who in the civil war Rome by Czfar. His being taken
Tided with Pompey, and was flain prifoner proved his great happi-
by Petreius in a fmgle combat, nefs ; for by that means he came
The fon, mentioned here by Plu- to be educated in the learning of


Marcellus with Pclopidas.

eager defire of battle, and raifed their fpirits to that
height, that they would never eafily yield, but always
difpute the victory with obftinacy and refolution. For
thofevery men, whom conftant ill fuccefs had accuC-
tomed to think themfelves happy, (5) if they could
but fave their lives by flying from the enemy, he taught
to be afhamed of coming off with difadvantage, to
blufh at the very thought of giving way, and to be
very fenfibly affected as oft as they came fliort of

As Pelopidas all the time he commanded, never loft
one battle, and Marcellus won more than any Roman
General of his time, it will perhaps be thought that the
great number of his victories ought to put him on a
level with Pelopidas who was never once beaten.

On the other hand, Marcellus took Syracufe, whereas
Pelopidas could never make himfelf mafter of Sparta ;
though in my opinion, the taking of Syracufe was not
fo great an action as advancing to the walls of Sparta,
and being the firft that pafled the river Eurotas with an
army ; unlefs it may be faid, that Epaminondas had a
greater (hare in the glory of this, as well as of the bat-
tle at Leuctra ; whereas the renown Marcellus gained
was entirely his own. He alone took the city of Sy-
racufe, he defeated the Gauls without the help of his
collegue, he made head againft Hannibal, not only
without the afliftance of any other General, but even
when all the reft endeavoured to difTuade him from it ;
fo that it was he alone that quite changed the face of
the war, and taught the Romans to meet the enemy
with refolution and intrepidity.

As to their deaths, I commend neither of them ;
nay it raifes concern and even indignation in me to


the Greeks and Romans ; and of a mium, which Horace makes Han-
barbarian became an excellent nibal give the Romans,

(5) Plutarch here transfers to " quos optimus

the Carthaginians that fine enco- "Fallere&effugereefttriumphus."

3 So The Comparifon of

think of their unfortunate end, and that rafhnefs which
occafioned it. On the contrary, I admire Hannibal,
w ho in all the battles he fought, the number of which
was fo great that it would be a labour to reckon them
up, never received a wound ; and I cannot but ap-
plaud (6) Chryfantes in the Cyropedia, who having his
fword lifted up and ready to ftrike, upon hearing the
trumpets found a retreat, calmly and modeftly retired,
without giving the ftroke. But what may plead Pelo-
pidas's excufe is, that befides being tranfported and hur-
ried on by the heat of battle, his heroick ardour was
further inflamed by a brave and noble defire of re-
venge. For as Euripides fays,

With life preferv'dto triumph o'er the foe,
Is the fi*ft ghry valiant chiefs can know.
Is this denyed, and death by beav'n decreed?
tc Tis their next pmife in honour's caufe to bleed.

In fuch a man dying is a free and voluntary action,
not a fuffering as in other men. But befide the anger
and refentment with which Pelopidas was fired, the end
propofed in conquering, which was the death of a
tyrant, was fome excufe for its rafhnefs ; and it would
be difficult to find another inftance in which fo much
might be faid to juftify an action of this kind.

But as to Marcellus, the cafe is quite different ; he
lay under no urgent neceflity, he was not carried away
by that fury and enthufiafm that ftifles reafon, and fhuts
the eyes in the greateft danger ; but he threw himfelf
headlong into it, and died, not like a General but like
a fcout, or fpy, expofmg his five confulates, his three
triumphs, the fpoils of kings, with all his trophies and
laurels, to a company of Spanifh and Numidian adven-
turers, mercenary wretches, who had fold their lives to
the Carthaginians for hire : an accident fo ftrange and
furprizing, that they in fome meafure even envied


(6) He was an officer in Cy- phon in the beginningof the fourth
rus's army, mentioned by Xeno- book of his Cyropxdia.

Marcellus with Pelopidas. 381

themfelves fuch an unhoped for fuccefs, that the bra-
veft, mofl powerful and moft renowned of all the Ro-
mans fhould fall by their hands at the head of a few
Fregellanian fcouts.

But let it not be thought what I have faid here is
defigned as an accufation againfl thefe great men, but
rather as a complaint to them of the injury done them-
felves in preferring their courage to all their other
virtues, and as a free expoftulation with them for be-
ing fo prodigal of their lives, and dying for their own
fakes, and not for the fervice of their country, their
friends, and their allies.

Pelopidas was buried by his friends, in whofe caufe
he was Hain, and Marcellus by thofe very enemies that
flew him. The former was a happinefs that might be
envied ; but the latter was more great and glorious ;
fmce it is much more for an enemy to admire and ho-
nour that virtue by which he has fuffered, than for a
friend to be grateful to that, which has been benefici-
al to him. In the firft cafe the honour is pure and
fmcere ; in the laft, more regard is had to interefl than
to real worth and virtue.



ARISTIDES, the fon of Lyfimachus, was of
the tribe of Antiochis, and ward of Alopece.
Concerning his eftate, authors are not agreed.
Some affirm that he was always very poor, and that he
left two daughters behind him, who remained a long
time unmarried by reafon of their poverty. But Deme-
trius thePhalerian contradicts this general opinion in his
Socrates, and affirms, that he knew a farm at Phalera,
that went by Ariftides's name, where he was buried ;
and to fhow the wealthy condition of his family, he
produces three proofs j the firft is the office of that


Archons, as the Romans did theirs

by their confuls. One of the nine


(i) % Ewuvpo *A(x,w- At Athens
they reckoned the years by their

A R I S T I D E S. 383

Archon, by (i) whofe name the year was diftmguifhed,
and which fell to him by lot ; to which office none
were admitted but fuch as, by the valuation of their
eftates, appeared to be of the greateft eminence, and
who having an income of five hundred meafures of
corn, or fome other produce, were called Pentacofio-
medimnoi. The fecond proof 4s the oftracifrn, which was
never inflicted on the meaner fort, but only upon per-
fons of quality and diftindtion, whofe grandeur and
authority expofed them to the envy of the people.
The third and lafl proof is taken from the tripods
which Ariftides dedicated in the temple of Bacchus, as
offerings for his victory at the publick games, and
which continue there to this day, with this infcriptiou
on them, " The tribe Antiochis obtained the victory,
" Ariftides defrayed the charges, and Archeftratus's
'* play was acted."

But this lafl proof, though in appearance the ftrongeft
of all, is, in reality, very weak; for Epaminondas, who,
as every one knows, lived and died poor, and Plato
the philofopher, exhibited very expenfive (hows ; the
former defraying the charge of a concert of flutes at
Thebes, and the latter of an entertainment of (ing-
ing performed by boys at Athens ; Dion having fup-
plied Plato and Pelopidas Epaminondas with what money
was neceflary for that purpofe ; for good men have not
fworn an irreconcileable enmity to the prefents of their
friends ; they look indeed upon thofe that are taken to
be hoarded, and with an avaricious intention, as vik
and dimonourable, but refufe them not when honour
and reputation may be ferved by them without any ful-
picion of avarice.

As to the tripod in the temple of Bacchus, Panretius
mows plainly that Demetrius was deceived by the fimili-
tude of names ; for from the time of the Median to the
end of the Peloponnefian war there are upon record only


archons was for this purpofe cho- name infcribed in the publick re-

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