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fen by lot out of the relt, and his cords or registers.

(2) Thcr?

384 22* LIFE of

two of the name of Ariftides w ho carried the prize at the
fhows they exhibited, neither of which was the Ton of
Lyfimachus ; for the firft of the two was the fon of Xe-
nophilus, and the latter lived long after, as appears
from the characters (2), which were not in ufe till after
Euclid's time, and likewife from the name of the poet
Archeftratus, which is not to be found in any record
or author, during the wars with the Medes ; (3) where-
as it appears, that a poet of that name had fever al plays
acted in the time of the Pelonnefian war. But this
argument of Panaetius's ought to be more thoroughly

As for the oftracifm, it is very certain that it fell
indifferently upon all that were any way diftinguifhed
by birth, reputation, or eloquence , fo that even Da-
mon, praeceptor to Pericles, was banifhed by it on ac-
count of his extraordinary abilities. And further, Ido-
meneus fays that Ariftides did not obtain the office of
Archon by lot, but by the choice of the people. And
indeed, (4) if this happened after the battle of Platasae,
as the fame Demetrius writes, it is highly probable, that
having gained fuch renown by his atchievements, he was
called to this high office for his virtue, though it was
conferred upon others on account of their wealth. But
it is x plain that Demetrius was refolved to free Socrates,
as well as Ariftides, from the charge of poverty, as if it
were a crime or reproach to be poor, fmce he affirms,
that the former, befides a houfe of his own, (5) had
feventy Minae at intereft with Crito.


(2) There feems to be an error ken ; for Ariftides never was Ar-
in the original herej inftead of chon after the battle of Platase,
ypjtfATntw ? Grammar, " Mr Sal- which was fought in the fccond
" vini reads >^aft^ixns the art or yearof the feventy fifth Olympiad,
manner of making characters. Jn the lift ofarchons the name of

(3) The learned Voffius Ihould Ariftides is found in the fourth
not have placed the poet Arche- year of thefeventy-fecond Olyni-
ftratus among fuch as lived at a piad, a year or two after the bat-
time not certainly known, fmce tie of Marathon ; and in the fe-
we find here that he flouriflied cond year of the feventy-foutth
during the Peloponnefian war, Olympiad, four years before the
which lafted twenty-feven years battle of Platseae.

(4) But Demetrius was mifta- (5) This appears to be falfe


A R I S T I D E S. 385

Ariftides had an intimate friendfhip with Clifthenes,
who fettled the government of the commonwealth after
the expulfion of the tyrants (6). He had a particular
veneration and efteem for Lycurgus the Spartan, above
all other legiflators ; and thence he came to be a fa-
vourer of ariftocracy, wherein he was always oppofed by
Themiftocles, who was zealous for a popular govern-
ment. Some authors write indeed, that being bred up
together from their infancy, when they were boys they
were always at variance, not only in ferious matters,
but even at their fports and diverfions; and that the
difference of their tempers was difcovered very early by
this continual oppofition ; the one being compliant,
daring, artful and fubtle to compafs his ends, variable
and inconftant but eager and impetuous in his purfuits ;
whereas the other was firm and fteady in his behaviour,
immoveable in every thing that appeared juft, and in-
capable of ufing the leaft falfnood, flattery^ difguife, or
deceit, fo much as in jeft. But (7) Arifto of Chios
writes that their enmity took its rife from love, and
from thence grew to fo great a heighth ; for being both
enamoured of Stefileus of the ifland of Ceos, the moft
beautiful youth of his time, they were unable to reftrain
their pallion within bounds, but conceived fuch a jea-
loufy and hatred of each other as furvived the beauty of
the boy ; and as if this had been an exercife to prepare
them for future quarrels, they foon after entered upon
the adminiflration of publick affairs, heated and exaf-
perated by their former animofity.


from what Socrates himfelf fays in (6) Plutarch does not mean the

his apology to his judges, where thirty tyiants, but the Pififtrati-

he declares, that conudering his dse, whofe expulfion was an hun-

poverty, they could not condemn dred and fifteen years earlier than

him to pay a fine of more than one that of the thirty tyrants.

Mina, and if he (hould be fined (7) There have been feveral

thirty Minse, it would be only be- writers of this name, the two

caufe CritojCritobulus and Apol- principal of which are Arifto of

lodorus were refolved to pay his Chios, a ftoick, and Arifto ofCeos,

fine for him. The falfity of this a peripatetick philofopher : they

likewife appears from what Ciito have been often confounded,

faid to Socrates in prifon, as it is What Plutarch relates here, was

related in the dialogue fo called. certainly taken from a work en-

VoL.'II. Bb titled

3 86 The LIFE of

As for Themiftocles, by his management at firft, and
by gaining friends, he ftrengthened himfelf with a confi-
derable intereft and authority ^ fo that to one, who told
him, " he would govern the Athenians admirably, provid-
" ed he would take care to avoid partiality," he replied,
" May I never fit on a tribunal where my friends will not
" meet with more favour and refpecl than ftrangers."

On the contrary, Ariflides was very particular in his
manner of governing ; for firft of all, he would never do
the leaft injuftice to oblige his friends, nor yet difoblige
them by denying all they alked, and refufmg to grant
the leaft and moft inconfiderable favour : and in the
next place, obferving that moft rulers relying on the pow-
er of their friends, are led to abufe their authority, and
be guilty of injuftice, he guarded carefully againft it;
for it was his opinion, that a good citizen ought to make
his whole ftrength and fecurity confift in advifmg and
doing always what is juft and fit to be done. In the
mean time, Themiftocles made feveral rafh attempts,
oppofmg him in all his defigns and breaking all his
meafures, which put him under a neceflity of thwart-
ing Themiftocles in whatever he propofed as well in his
own defence, and by way of retaliation, as to put a ftop
to his growing power, which increafed daily through
the favour of the people. For he thought it better to
obftruct fome things that might even be advantageous
to the publick, than to fufTer Themiftocles to become ab-
folute. Once when Themiftocles had propofed an affair of
great importance and advantage, Ariftides oppofed it
ftrenuoufly, and with fuccefs ; but as he went out of the
aiTembly, he could not forbear faying aloud, " That the
"Athenians would never be fafetill they throw Themif-
" tocles and himfelf into the Barathrum" (8). Another
time he propofed fomething to the people which met


tUted Ifarwuv oixrfiu, or ipwTxa patetick, than to a ftoick philofo-

ofA&'a, which was a collection of pher. I think we fheuld here read

love-intrigues. Some afcribe it Arifto of Ceos.

to Arifto of Chios, and others, (8) The Barathrum was a deep

among whom is Athenjeus, to A- pit into which condemned perfons

rifto of Ceos. As fuch a work were thrown headlong,

feems more agreeable to a peri- (9) Tiref^ verfes are fpoken by


A R I S T I D E S. 387

with great oppofition ; however at laft he prevailed ;
notwithstanding which, juft as the Prefident was going
to put it to the queftion, he let the matter drop of his
own accord, having been convinced by the preceding
debates of the inconveniences that would attend "it. He
likewife propofed his fentiments very often by a fecond
or third hand, for fear of Themiftocles, out of envy and
hatred to him, might oppofe what would be for the
good of the publick.

But what was much to be admired in him, was his
conftancy and firmnefs in thofe fudden and unexpected
changes, to which perfons concerned in the high affairs
of {late are always liable. For he was never elated by
any honours he received, nor dejected by the difap-
pointments he met with, but was always ferene and
eafy ; it being his fixed opinion, that a man ought to
be entirely at his country's command, and ready to
ferve it on all occafions, without thejeafl profpedt of
honour or profit. For this reafon, when the play of
.rEfchylus, entitled, The feven leaders againft Thebes,
was acted, at the fpeaking of thefe verfes made by the
poet in praife of Amphiaraus,

(9) For 'worth be wi/bes, but he f corns the Jbow ;
Fair virtues meed his vif tutsan beftow ;
From his own mind he reaps celeftial fruit,
Wliere ivifdom bids fpontaneom baruefts Jboo-f.

the eyes of all the audience were turned upon Ariflides,
as the perfon to whom this great encomium was moft
applicable For he had fo ftrong an inclination to
juftice, as not to be influenced againfl it by favour or
friendihip, nor even by enmity and refentment. Ac-

the courier who brings Etcocles He was not fpeaking of juftice,

an account of the enemies at- but valour; the courier faid, that

tacks, and of thepetfons that com- Amphiaraus had no device or in-

manded among them; but Plu- fcription on his fliield like the reft,

tarch has changed one word, put- for, added he, " It is his aim not

ting J t x*.o?juft, inftead of pro; " to appear brave, but to Be fo."
valiant, which ^fchvlus ufed.

Bb2 (i) In

388 ?be LIFE of

cordingly it is reported of him, that when he was pro-
fecuting one that had injured him, after he had finifhed
his accufation, finding that the judges were going to
pafs fentence without hearing the perfon accufed, he
rofe from his feat, and feconded the requeft of his ad-
verfary, who delired to be heard, and not to be denied
the benefit of the law.

Another time fitting as judge in a caufe between two
private perfons, when one of them faid that " his adver-
" fary had done Ariilides many injuries," he interrupted
him faying, " Friend, tell me only what injuries he
" has done to thee, for it is thy caufe, and not mine,
" which I fit to judge."

Being chofen publick treafurer, he foon made it ap-
pear that not only thofe of his time, but the preceding
officers, had applied great fums of the publick money
to their own ufe, and particularly ThemiftocieSi

For be, though wife, could ne'er command his hands.

For which reafon, when Ariftides was to give in his ac-
counts, Themiftocles raifed a ftrong party againft him,
accufed him of mifapplying the publick money, and
procured his condemnation, as Idcmeneus writes : but
the chief and beft men of the city oppofmg fo unjuft a
fentence, he was not only acquitted of the fine impofed
on him, but likewife appointed treafurer for the follow-
ing year. Whereupon, pretending to difapprove of his
former conduct, he made himfelf acceptable to fuch as
robbed the publick, by being lefs rigorous in examining
their accounts and expofing their frauds ; fo that they
gave him the higheft commendations, and made intereft
with the people to continue him in his office another
year. But on the day of election, as the Athenians were
juft going unanimously to appoint him again, he rebuked
them feverely, faying, " When I difcharged my office
" faithfully and honourably, I was reviled and difgraced ;

" but

^ (i) In this council, the majo- but Miltiades having brought over
lity was againft hazarding a bat- Callimachus to his fide, who was
tie for this reafon, becaufe the Polemarchat that time, and whofe
enemy was fupeiior in number ; authority was equal to that of the


A R I S T I D E S. 389

" but now when I have differed your treafure to be plun-
"deredby thefe publick robbers, I am admired and ap-
" plauded as the befl of citizens. I am therefore more
** afhamed of the honour done me to-day, than of the fen-
" tence palTed againft me laft year -, and it is with indig-
'* nation and concern that I fee you efteem it more merito-
" rious to oblige ill men, than faithfully to manage the
" publick revenue." By fpeaking thus, and difcovering
their frauds, he (lopped the mouths of all thofe robbers
of the publick, who were at the very fame time extolling
him and giving ample teflimony in his behalf, and like-
wife gained the juft and real applaufe of all good men.
When Datis, who was fent by the King of Perfia,
under pretence of revenging on the Athenians their burn-
ing of Sardis, but in reality to conquer all Greece, ar-
rived with his fleet at Marathon, and began to plunder
and ravage all the neighbouring country, the Athenians
appointed ten generals to command in this war, of
whom Miltiades was the chief; and the next to him in
reputation and authority was Ariftides. In a council of
war that was held, Miltiades declared for giving the
enemy battle, and Ariftides feconding his opinion (i)
contributed not a little to their coming to that refolu-
tiorL And as thefe generals had the chief command by
turns, when the day came that gave Ariftides the com-
mand, he refigned it to Miltiades, thereby mowing the
reft of the commanders, that it was in no refpect inglo-
rious to follow the direction of the wifeft men ; but on
the contrary, very honourable and advantageous. By
this means he prevented all jealoufy and contention,
made them fenfible of their happinefs in being guided
by a perfon of the beft experience, and confirmed Mil-
tiades in an abfolute and undivided command of the
army, the other generals no longer minding when it
came to their turn, (2) but fubmitting, in every thing,
entirely to his orders.


ten generals, the opinion for fight- thus Plutarch and Herodotus may
ing prevailed. Ariftides probably be reconciled,
had a great fhare in bringing Cal- (2) Plutarch here omits menti~
limachus to this refolucion $ and oning one particular in Miltiades 's

8 b 3 conduct,

390 7hs LIFE of

In this battle (3) the main body of the Athenian
army being hard prefled, and differing much, becaufe
the barbarians made their greatefl efforts there for a
long time againil the tribes Leontis and Antiochis, The-
miftocbs and Ariftides who belonged to thefe tribes, and
fought together at the head of them, oppofed the enemy
with fuch vigour and refolution, that they were put to
flight and driven back to their fhips. But the Greeks
perceiving, that, inftead of failing towards the ifles in
order to return to Alia, (4) the barbarians were forced
in by the winds and currents towards Attica ^ and fear-
ing left they mould furprize the city unprovided for a
defence, they haflened to its affiftance with nine tribes,
and (5) marched with fuch expedition, that they ar-
rived there the fame day.

Ariftides being left with his tribe at Marathon to
guard the prifoners and booty, fully anfwered the good
opinion that had been conceived of him ; for though
there was much gold and filver in feveral parts of the
camp, and all the tents and mips they had taken, were
full of fumptuous apparel, furniture, and riches of all
forts ; yet he forbore touching any thing himfelf, and
did all he could to hinder every one elfefrom meddling
with any part of it. But notwithflanding his flricl
orders, there were fome who enriched themfelves un-
known to him ; among whom was Callias (6) the torch-

conduft, which deferves notice, the reputation of him, who, as it

^nd which is related by Herodo- were, took the command out of

tas ; that though the other Gene- his hand.

rals had given up to him their (3) For the main body was

relpe&ive turns, yet Miltiades worfe provided and weaker than

would not fight on any of their the wings, for which reafon the

<Uys of command, but waited for barbarians made their greateft ef-

his own. For no doubt he was forts there. Herodot. lib. iv.

afraid that the pcrfon whofe turn (4) Herodotus obferves particu-

he took, had refigned his com- larly that they defigned to double

mand unwillingly, and only 'to the cape of Sunium, to furprize

follow the example of others, and Athens before the Athenians could

that out of envy to him he would arrive to aillft it. And Herodotus's

be lefs careful to do his duty in teftimony in this matter is of very

the battle, becaufe he would not great weight, becaufe he had

be very forward to contribute to learned the particulars of the bat-

A. R I S T I D E S. 391

bearer. One of the barbarians meeting him privately,
and probably taking him for a King on account of his
long hair, and the fillet about his head, fell on his
knees before him, and taking him by the hand, difco-
vered to him a great quantity of gold that was hid in
the bottom of a well But Callias mewed himfelf
on this occafion the moft cruel and unjuft of men, for .
not fatisfied with the whole treafure, he killed the poor
wretch upon the fpot, to prevent his difcovering it to
others. From thence it is faid, the comick poets called
his family Laccopluti, [enriched by the well] jefting
on the place from whence their founder derived his
wealth. Soon after this battle Ariflides was chofen firft
Archon, or the Archon from whence the year takes its
name ^ though Demetrius Phalereus allures us, that he
never enjoyed that office till after the battle of Plataeae,
a little before his death ; but if we confult the publick
regifters, we mall no where find Ariftides's name in the
lift of Archons after Xanthippides, in the time of whofe
Archonfhip Mardonius was defeated at Plataeae ; whereas
his name may be feen upon record (7) immediately af-
ter Phanippus, who was Archon that year the battle of
Marathon was fought.

Of all Ariftides's virtues, the beft known, and that
by which he was moft diftinguifhed, washisjuftice, as
being of moft conftant ufe, and of the greateft extent.


tie of Marathon, from forae that her hu&and, and her fon, fuc-

had been prefent at it. ceffively enjoy this office. This

(?) From Marathon to Athens Callias was coufin-german to Ari-
ls about forty miles. Herodotus ftides, as will appear hereafter,
writes, that they marched from (7) The regirters fhow Phanip-
about the temple of Hercules at pus to have been Archon in the
Marathon, and encamped near third year of the feventy-fecond
his temple at Cynofarges, before Olympiad. It was therefore in
Atheiis. this third year that the battle of

(6) This office of Torch bearer Marathon was fought, and not in

was very confiderable, becaufe he the firft as moft learned men have

was admitted to the moft fecret thought. Aiiftides was Archon the

myfteries. We find that Paula- year following, as he is fet down

nius in his Atticks, thinks a wo- in the fourth year of the feventy-

man's good fortune very great, fecond Olympiad,
becaufe Ihe had feen her brother,

B b 4 (8) In

fix LIFE of

Thence, from being a perfon of mean fortune and
birth, he acquired the moft royal and divine appella-
tion of Juft, a title Kings and tyrants were never fond
of. They rather chufe to be ftiled Poliorcetes, [takers
*' of cities] Cerauni, [thunderbolts] j Nicanors, [conquer-
"ors.]" Nay fome have been pleafed with the appella-
tion of Eagles and Vultures, preferring the fame of
power to that of virtue. Whereas the Deity himfelf,
to whom they are fond of being compared, feems to
be diftinguimed only by three things, immortality,
power, and virtue; of which, virtue is without difpute
the mofl venerable and divine : for fpace and the ele-
ments are immortal ; earthquakes, thunder, whirl-
winds, and inundations have an amazing power ; but
as for juftice, nothing participates of that, but what
js capable of reafoning, and knowing the divine ef-
fence. And whereas men are pofleffed with three dif-
ferent fentiments with refpect to the Gods, either of
admiration, of fear, or of efteem, they feern to admire
them and think them happy by reafon of their free-
dom from death and corruption, to fear them on ac-
count of their power and empire over the world, and
to love, honour, and reverence them for their juftice ;
yet being thus affected towards the Deity in thefe three
different ways, they defire only the two firft of thofe
properties, immortality, of which our nature is inca-
pable , and power, which chiefly depends on fortune ;
while they foolifhly neglect virtue, the only divine
good that is in our own power ; not confidering that
juftice alqne makes the life of fuch as enjoy profperity
and power, heavenly and divine, whereas injustice ren-
ders it groveling and brutal. The furname of Juft at
firft procured Ariftides love and refpect, but at laft
envy ; and this was chiefly owing to the fecret practices
of Themiftocles, who fpread a report among the people,
that Ariftides had abolifhed all courts of judicature, by
making himfelf fole arbitrator and judge in all dif-
putes, and thus had infenfibly erected a monarchy in
his own perfon, though without guards and attendants.
The people, who were grown infolent upon thejr late


A R I S T I D E S. 393

fuccefs, thinking themfelves worthy of greater honours,
and revolving that every thing fhould depend on their
pleafure, were violently bent againft every man of fu-
perior eminence and reputation. Wherefore being af-
fembled at Athens from all the towns of Attica, they
banifhed Ariftides by the oftracifm -, difguifing their
envy of his glory under the fpecious name of hatred
to tyranny. For this exile was not a punifhment for
any crime or mifdemeanor, but only a kind of honour-
able retirement, which they called a curb and reftraint
to overgrown pride and power ; but it was in reality
a mild gratification of envy ; for by this means, who-
ever was offended at the growing greatnefs of another,
difcharged all his fpleen and malice, not in any thing
that was fevere and cruel, but only in a ten years ba-
nimment. But, after fome mean and worthlefs wretches,
and at lafl Hyperbolus, had been condemned to this
honourable exile, the Athenians defifted from any fur-
ther ufe of it. The occafion of Hyperbolus's banimment
by the onftracifm was this.

Alcibiades and Nicias, two perfons of the greateft:
power and authority in the city, were at the head of
two oppofite factions j but finding that the people
were about to have recourfe to the oftracifm, and that
it would undoubtedly fall upon one of them, they
confulted together, and uniting their interefls con-
trived to turn it againfl Hyperbolus. Whereupon the
people, full of indignation at the contempt- and di-
honour brought upon that kind of punifhment, abc-
lifhed it, end ufed it no more. The manner of voting
in the oftracifm was this. Every citizen took a piece
of a broken pot, or (hell, on which having wrote the
name of the perfon he would have banifhed, he carried
it to a certain part of the market-place that was in-
clofed with wooden rails. Then the magiftrates began
to count the number of the (hells ; for if they were lefs
than fix thoufand, the cftracifm was void ; but if the
number was compleat, then they laid every name
apart by itfelf, and that perfon, whole name was found
pn the greateft number of (hells, was declared banifhed


394 c LIFE tf

for ten years, but with permiiiion to enjoy his


At the time that Ariftides was banifhed, when the
citizens were infcribing their names on the (hells, it is re-
ported that an ignorant illiterate man came to Ariftides,
whom he took for fome ordinary perfon, and giving him
his (hell, defired him to write Ariftides on it ; he, a little
iurprized at the adventure afked the man if Ariftides had
ever injured him $ to which the other replied, u Not in
" the leaft, neither do I fo much as know him, but I am
4 weary with hearing him every where called the
" Juft." Ariftides made no anfwer, but took the (hell,
and having written his own name on it returned it to
the man. As went he out of the city to his banifhment,
lifting up his eyes to heaven, he made a prayer to the
Gods, quite contrary as may eafily be imagined, to
that of Achilles (8) ; for he prayed, " that the Athenians
" might never fee that day which mould force them to
" remember Ariftides."

Three years after, when Xerxes was marching to Attica
through ThefTaly and Bceotia, the Athenians repealed this
law, and made a publick decree to call home all the ex-
iles. What induced them to this was their fear of Arif-
tkies , for they were apprehenfive that he by fiding with
the enemy might corrupt and bring over many of the
citizens to their intereft ; but herein they very much mif-
took his character ; for before this decree, he conftantly
advifedand encouraged the Greeks to maintain their li-
berty ; and after it, when Themiftocles was chofen

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