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armies con tinued a long time without coming to action ; for
the diviners thatinfpected the entrails of the facrifices, had
equally allured the Greeks and Perfians of victory, if they
remained only on the defenfive, and threatened the aggreC-
fors with a total defeat. But at length, Mardonius rind-
ing that he had only a few days provifion left, and that the
Grecian forces encreafed continually by the daily arrival of
frefh troops, grew impatient, and refolved to wait no long-
er, but to pals the river Afopus next morning by break of
day, and to fall upon the Greeks, whom he expected to
find unprepared. In order to this, he gave his orders to all
the commanders and officers, over-night. But about mid-
night a horfeman, came filently to the Grecian camp, and
bid the centinels call Ariftides the Athenian General, to
him ; Ariftides came immediately, and the ether faid to
him, (4) "I am Alexander King of Macedon, who out of
" the friendfhip I bear you, have expofed rnyfelf to the
" greateft dangers, that you might not be fo furprized by a
" fudden attack, as to behave with lefs bravery and reiblu-
" tion than ufual. For Mardonius is determined to give
" you battle to-morrow ; not that he is led to this by
*' any well-grounded hope or profpeft of fuccefs, but
" from a fcarcity of provifions ; for the augurs by their
"ominous facrifices and ill-boding Oracles endeavour to
"divert him from this enterprize, and his foldiers are
" fearful and defponding ; but neceflity forces him ei-
" ther to run the hazard of a battle, or by delaying
" to fee his whole army perifh for want." When Alex-
ander had faid this, he defired Ariftides to remember him
as his friend, but not to reveal this intelligence to any
other perfon. (5) Ariftides replied that it would not be
proper to conceal it from Paufanias, who was General


that he was originally of Grecian out of his charge of fecrefy.faying,
extra&ion. "I entruft this fecret with you,

(5) According to Herodotus, A- " which you (hall reveal to no man
|examier had ezcepted Paufanias " living but Paufanias."

C c 3 (6) He-

4 o6 Me LIFE of

of the army, but promifed not to make the lead men-
tion of it to any other of the officers, till after the battle ;
affuring him at the fame time, that if the Greeks proved
vi&orious, not a man in the whole army mould remain
ignorant of the danger he had expofed himfelf to for
their fakes, and the great kindnefs he had exprefied tQ
them on this important occafion. .

After this, the King of Macedon returned back to his
camp, and Ariftides went diredly to Paufanias's tent,
and to'd him what he had heard ; whereupoi. all the officers
were fent for, and orders given to draw up the army, and
prepare for battle. At the fame time, as Herodotus writes,
Paufanias acquainted Ariftides with his defign of altering
the form of the army, by removing the Athenians from the
left wing to the right, that fb they might be oppofite to
the Perfians, againft whom they would fight with the more
bravery, arid greater affurance of victory, as having alrea-
dy made proof of their manner of combat, and being like-
wife animated by their former fncceis he intended to
command the left wing himfelf, where he fhould be obliged
to fight againft thofe Greeks who had embraced the Me-
dian intereft. (6) All the other Athenian officers looked
upon this behaviour of Paufanias as too haughty anr. info-
lent, to permit all the other Greeks to remain in their re
peftive pofts, and to take upon him to remove them, as if
they were Helots, from place to place, at his pleafure, and
to fet them againft the moft valiant of the enemy's troops.
But Ariftides fhowed them, that they were very much
miftaken. " It is but a few days, (faid he,) fince you had
" a difpute with the Tegeatse for the command of the left
" wing, and having gained that point, you looked upon it
" as a great honour ; and now when the Spartans are wil-
" ling to give you the command of the right wing, which is
" in a manner the command of the whole army, you are
" difpleafed at this further honour, and inferable of the ad-
" vantage of not being obliged to fight againft your own


(6) Herodotus fays the quite the fame thought themfelves, but
contrary ; for all the Athenian did not think it proper to propofe
officers were fo far from taking it it, for fear of difobliging the Spar-
amifs, that they faid, they had had, tans. ix. 45.

(7) The/

A R I S T I D E S. 407

"countrymen and relations, but only againft barbarians,
" and fuch as are by nature your enemies." Thefe words
had fuch an effect, that the Athenians immediately agreed
with pleafure, to change pofts with the Spartans, and no-
thing was heard among them but exhortations to one
another, to act like brave men. " The enemy, (faid
"they,) bring with them neither better arms nor more
" courageous hearts than they had at Marathon-, they have
" the fame bows, the fame embroidered habits, the fame
u ornaments of gold, and the fame foft and effeminate bo-
** dies, as well as the fame v/eak and cowardly fouls. As
" for -us, we have ftill the fame weapons and the fame bo-
a dies,but wehavelikewifeaboldnefsandaffuranceheight-
" ened by our victories; nor do we like them, fight only
" for a trad of land, or a fingle city, but for the trophies
"ofSalamin and Marathon, that they may not appear to
" have been the work of Miltiades or Fortune, but of the
*' people of Athens."

While they were thus encouraging each other, they
marched chearfully to change pofls with the Spartans.
But the Thebans being advertifed of it by deferters, fent
forthwith to acquaint Mardonius who without delay,
either for fear of the Athenians, or out of a defire to
engage the Spartans, changed the order of his battle,
placing the Perlians in his right wing, and the Greeks
that were of his party, in the left, oppofite to the Athe-
nians. When this change was made known to Paufa-
nias, he likewife changed again, he himfelf returning
to the right wing ; Mardonius likewife did the fame,
pofling himfelf in his left, that he might be over againft
the Spartans ; thus the day paffed without any action at
all. In the evening it was refolved in a council of war
to decamp, and take poileflion of fome place that was
more commodious for water, (7) becaufe the fprings
near the prefent camp were diflurbed and fpoilt by the
enemy's horie.


(7) They had only the foun- hard by, for fear of the enemy's
taia of Gargaphia to ferve the horfe. This fountain having been
whole army ; for they durft not fpoilt and choakt up by the bar-
go to the river Afopus, which was bariaus, they were obliged to rer

C c 4. n?ove

4 o8 ne LIFE of

When the night was come, and the officers began to
march at the head of their troops towards (8) the place
that had been marked out for a new camp, the foldiers
feemed to follow unwillingly, and could not, without
great difficulty, be kept together in a body ; for as foon
as they were got out of their firft entrenchments, and
at liberty, the greateft part made towards the city of
Platseae, and fome ran one way, and fome another,
pitching their tents where-ever they pleafed themfelveK,
without any order or discipline, which occafioned a very
great confufion. It happened that (9) the Lacedaemo-
nians were left alone behind, though againft their will ;
for Amompharetus, who commanded them, a daring in-
trepid man, who for a long time had been very defirous
of coming to a battle, and grew impatient at their te-
dious lingerings and delays, openly called this decamp-
ment a difgraceful flight, and protefted, u he would not
"defert his poft, but remain there with his troops, to re-.
*' ceive and fuftain the whole force of the enemy." And
when Paufanias came and reprefented to him, that he ought
to fubmit to what had been refolved on by the Greeks in
council, he took up a large ftone with both his hands,
and throwing it at Paufanias's feet, faid, " There is my
" balot for a battle , and I defpife all the mean and cow-.
fc ardly refolutions of others." Paufanias was at a lofs
what to do, but refolved at laft to fend to the Athenians
that were before, to halt a little, that they might all pro-
ceed in a body ; and at the fame time he marched with
the reft of the army towards Platseae, hoping (i) that
Amompharetus might by that means be induced to
quit his poft, and join him.

By this time the day began to appear, and Mardonius
who was advertifed of the Grecians decampment, having
formed his army, marched againft the Lacedaemonians^;,
arid fuch were the fhouts and cries of the barbarians,


move their camp. Herodot. hf. the fountain of Gargaphia ix. 50.
4*- (9) They were not ail the La-

They had a mind to re- ce'dxmonians, but only a part of
move into a little ifland, which them that were commanded by
v,as ten furlongs frcmAfopus, and. Amompharetus, all the reft having


A R I S T I D E S.

that one would have imagined they were gsing not to
join battle with the Greeks, but to plunder and deftroy
"them in their flight-, and indeed this almofl happened ;
for though Paufanias when he perceived this motion of
Mardonius, flopped, and ordered every one to his pofl t
yet either out of refentment againfl Amompharetus, or
furprize at the fudden attack of the Perfians, he forgot
to give his troops the word ; for which reafon they did
not all engage readily, nor at the fame time in a body,
but continued irregularly fcattered in fmall parties, even
after the fight was begun.

Paufanias in the mean time offered facrifice, but re-
ceiving no propitious omens, he commanded the Lace-
daemonians to lay their fhields at their feet, and to re-
main quiet, and attend his orders without oppofmg the
enemy. After this, he offered another facrifice, the
enemies horfe flill advancing. They were now come
within reach, and fome of the Spartans were wounded,
among whom was Callicrates, the tallefl and mofl comely
perfon in all the army ; this brave officer being wounded
with an arrow, and ready to expire, faid, " That he did
" not lament his death, becaufe he came from home with
" a defign to facrifice his life for the fafety of Greece ;
" but that he was forry to die without having once drawn
" his fword againfl the enemy."

If this fituation of the Spartan army was dreadful, the
fteadinefs and bravery of the men was worthy of the
higheft admiration ; for they made no defence againfl
the enemy that charged them, but expecting the fignal
from the Gods and their General, patiently fuffered
themfelves to be wounded and flam in their ranks.

Some authors write, that as Paufanias was praying
and facrificing at a little diflance from the army, fome
Lydians came upon him by furprize, and either carried
of or threw down the facrifice from the altar ; and


marched. Herod, ix. 54. 55. tance of ten Stadia, in a place

(i) And this happened as he called Argiopius, where itood the
thought. Amompharetns left his temple of the Eleufinian Ceres,
poft at laft, and joined the reft of Herod ix, 55.
the army when it was at the dif-

(2) See

4 io Me LIFE of

that Paufanias, and thofe that were with him, having
no weapons, drove them away with Haves and whips :
and that to perpetuate the memory of this action, they
celebrate to this day a feaft at Sparta, (2) where they
whip children round an altar, and conclude with a
march called the Lydian March, in imitation of this in-
curfion and flight of the Lydians.

Paufanias being exceedingly troubled, and feeing the
priefl offer one facrifice after another, without obtaining
any favourable omen, turned on a fudden, with his eyes
full of tears, towards Juno's temple, and lifting up his
hands to heaven, addrefTed himfelf to that Goddefs, the
patronefs of Citheron, and to the other tutelar Deities of
the Plataeans, befeeching them, " .That if the Fates had not
"decreed that the Grecians fhould prove victorious, they
" might atleafl be permitted to fell their lives dearly, and
"not perifh without firil mowing their enemies by their ac-
" tions, that they had to do with men of experience and bra-
" very." As foon as he had finifhed this prayer, the facri-
fices appeared propitious, and the diviners promifed him
the victory. Orders were immediately given to march
againfl the enemy ; and in an inflant the Spartan batta-
lion feemed like the fingle body of fome fierce animal,
erecting his bridles, and preparing for combat. The
barbarians plainly faw they were to encounter with men
refolved to fight to the lafl drop of blood , wherefore
covering themfelves with their targets, they (hot their
arrows amongft the Lacedaemonians, who moving in a
clpfe compact body, fell on them and forced their tar-
gets out of their hands ; at the fame time they directed
their blows at the breafts and faces of the Perfians, and
overthrew them ; however, when they were down, they
continued to give proofs of their great flrength and cou-
rage ; for taking hold of the Lacedaemonian fpears with
their naked hands, they brake many of them ; and then


(2) See a different account of mentioned but in this paffage of
the origin of this ceremony in the Plutarch.

notes on the life of Lycurgus Vol. (3) This number feems much
I. p. 130. But the circumftance too great, and is probably errone-
01 the Lydian March is no where ous.

(4) In

A R I S T I D E S. 4 ri

riling, and betaking themfelves to their fwords and
battle-axes, preiling them clofe, wrefting away their
fhields, and grappling with them, they made a 'long
and obftinate refiftance.

The Athenians all this while flood (till in expectation
of the Lacedaemonians ; but hearing the noifeof thebat-
tie, and being informed by an officer difpatched to them
by Paufanias, that the engagement was actually begun,
they marched without delay to their afiiftance j and as
they crofted the plain towards the place where the noife
y/as heard, the Greeks, who had fided with the enemy,
met them. As foon as Ariflides faw them, he advanced
a confiderable fpace before the army, and calling out to
them, conjured them by all the Gods of Greece, "to give
" over this impious war, and not oppofe the Athenians,
" who were going to the afliflance of thofe who were ha-
" zarding their lives for the fafety of Greece ;" but perr-
ceiving that they paid no regard to what he faid, but
came on to engage him, he quitted his defign of going to
affift the Lacedaemonians, and fell upon thefe Greeks, who
were about fifty thoufand (3) in number. But the great-
eft part of them foon gave way, and made a fwift re-
treat, efpecially when they heard that the barbarians were
defeated. This engagement was hotteft againft the The-
bans. The moft confiderable and powerful men among
them at that time fiding with the Medes, had, by vir-
tue of their authority, brought out their troops againft
heir inclinations.

The battle being thus divided into two parts, the
Lacedaemonians firft broke and routed the Perfians, Mar-
doni us himfelf being flain by one Arirnneflus (4) a Spar-
tan, by a blow on his head with a ftone, as the Oracle
of Amphiaraus had foretold : for Mardonius had fent a
Lydian to confult this Oracle ; and at the fame time he
like wife fent a Carian to the (5) cave of Trophonius. The


,'4) In fome copies he is called was near the city of Lebadia in
Diamneftus. Arimneftus was the Bceotia, above Delphi. Paufanias
name of the General of the Pla- who confulted this Oracle, and
fxans, p. 400. went himfelf into the cave, large-

(5) This cave of Trophonius \y defcribes the ceremony and


4 i2 The L I F E of

prieft of Trophonius anfwered the Carian in his own lan-
guage. As for the Lydian, (6) he lay all night in the
temple of Amphiaraus, as was cuftumary, and dreamt
that one of the priefts belonging to the God came to
him, and commanded him to go out of the temple,
and upon his refufal, threw a great (tone at his head,
fo that he thought himfelf killed with the blow. This
is the account given of that tranfadion.

The barbarians being put to flight, were purfued by
the Lacedaemonians into their camp, which they had
encompafled and fortified with wood ; and in a little
time after, the Athenians routed the Thebans, killing
three hundred of the mofl confiderable perfons among
them upon the fpot. Juft as they began to give way,
news was brought that the barbarians were^fhut up and
befieged in their wooden fortification by the Lacedaemo-p
nians ; whereupon the Athenians giving the Greeks an
opportunity to efcape, marched to reinforce the Lace-
daemonians, who made but a flow progrefs in their at-
tack, being very little Ikilled in fieges. But when they
arrived, they ftormed the camp (7) and made a prodi-
gious flaughter of the enemy ; for of three hundred
thoufand men, only (8) forty thoufand efcaped with
Artabafus ; and on the Grecian fide no more were fiain
than one thoufand three hundred and fixty. The Athe-
nians loft only fifty-two men, all of the tribe of Aiantis,


manner of this confultation, which lifetime been a great expounder of

is very curious, and may be feen dreams, fo after his death he gave

in his Bceoticks. The perfon that his Oracles only by dreams, which

Mardonius fent thither, did not he fent to thofe that confulted

only confult this Oracle, but al- him, and who, in order to it, were

moft ail the other Oracles in the obliged to lie all night in his

country; he addreffed himfelf lo temple, upon the (kin of a ram,

that of Abes, that of Apollo Ifme- which they had before facrihcecl

nius at Thebes, and to that of to him

Apollo in the city of Ptous ; fo (7) TheTegeatse were the firft

reftlefs and uneafy was Mardonius that entered, and among many

about the prefent ftate of his af- things of great value, they took

fairs, and fo defirous of knowing Mardonius's tent, and the brazen

the event of them. This happen- manger in which his horfes were

ed before he fent Alexander to fed, which was of very curious

Athens. SeeHerod. viii. 134,135. workmanfhip.

(6) As Amphiaraus had in his (8) Herodotus fays, that befide

A R I S T I D E S. 413

which as Clidemusthe hiflorian informs us, diftinguifhed
itfelf particularly on that occafion , for which reafon
that tribe offered a yearly facrifice for this vidory, to
the nymphs Sphragytides, at thepublick charge, as the
Oracle of Apollo had commanded. The Lacedaemonians
hed ninety-one, and the Tegeatae onty fixteen flain in
this battle : and therefore (9) I am very much furprized
that Herodotus mould write, that they only, and none
other, engaged the barbarians ; fmce the numbers of
the flain, and their monuments, plainly (how that this
victory was obtained by the united power of all Greece,
Had thofe three flates only fought the enemy, and all
the reft flood neuter, they would never have engraved
this infcription on an altar erected in memory of this
battle ;

'The Greeks, now vigor's o'er the Perfian bands,

Tbis fair memorial raised with grateful hands,

Sacred to Jove the father of the free ;

7 'be gift , the proof, the pledge of liberty.

This battle was fought on the fourth (i) day of Boe-
dromion (September) according to the Athenian way of
reckoning ; but according to the Boeotian computation,
on the twenty-fourth of the month called Panemus ; on
which day there is itill held a general ailembly of the
Greeks in the city of PlatsEC, and a facrifice is offered


the forty thoufand that were al- " a better proof, than by faying

ready fled with Artabafus, of the " that their forces were every

whole three hundred thoufend " where victorious ; and that the

men, that compofed the Perfian " Lacedaemonians were engaged

army, not three thoufand more " with the bed troops in the ene-

efcaped. " my's army." Thofe words of

(9) It may be thought ftrange Herodotus, cZj&u f*e &'&* 'l^u

that a modern fhould aflert that aVoir^r'nao-Sat, " here translated

Plutarch mifunderftood Herodo- ' of which I cannot give a better

tus jyet he plainly appears to have ' proof," feem to have been un*

miftaken his meaning in the pafTage derftood by Plutarch in another

here referred to. Herodotus fays, ' fenfe ; as if the meaning was,

L. ix 70. "Though all the Greeks ' I cannot bear witnefs for any

' fought bravely, and efpecially * other of the Greeks."

4 the Tegeatxand the Athenians, (i) Plutarch in the life of Camil-

' yet the Lacedaemonians diftin- lus, Vol. i. p. 342 fays, that this

' guifhed themfelves above all battle was fought on the third

' others j of which I cannot give day of the month Boedromion.

(2) For

414 tffo L I F E of

to Jupiter the Deliverer, for this victory. As to the
irregularity and difference of days in the Grecian months,
that is not to be wondered at fmce even now, not-
xvithftanding the fcience of aflronomy has been fo much
cultivated and improved, the months begin and end
very differently in different places.

This victory had like to have proved fatal to Greece }
for the Athenians refufmg to yield the honour of the day
to the Spartans, or to allow them to erect a trophy,
they were upon the point of deciding the difference by
arms, and would have proceeded to extremities, had
not Ariftides interpofed, and by his arguments and en-
treaties appeafed the other commanders, and particularly
Leocrates and Myronides, perfuading them to refer the
decifion of the matter to the Grecians. When they were
aflembled, Theogiton the Megarenfian gave his opinion,
" That the honour contended for, was not to be adjudged
" either to Athens or Sparta, unlefs they had a mind to
*' kindle the flames of a civil war. After him, Cleocritus,
the Corinthian rifmg to fpeak, it was imagined he would
demand this honour for his. own country ; for, next to
Athens and Sparta, Corinth was the moft confiderable city
of Greece ; but they were agreeably furprized, when they
found that his difcourfe turned wholly in commendation
of the Plataeans, and when he prepofed, " That to extin-
" guifh this dangerous contention, they mould give the
" reward and glory of the victory to them only, at which
" neither of the contending parties would be difpleafed."
Whereupon Ariftides firft agreed to the propofal, in the
name of the Athenians, and afterwards Paufaniason the
part of the Lacedaemonians.

Being all thus reconciled, they fet apart eighty talents
for the Plataeans, with which they built a temple, and erect-
ed a ftatue to Minerva, adorning the temple with curious
pictures, which even ftill retain their original beauty and
luftre. Both the Athenians and Lacaedaemonians erect-
ed trophies feparately. When they fent to con-
fult the Oracle at Delphi, about offering a facrifice,
the God anfwered, " That they fhould erect an al-
" tar to Jupiter the Deliverer, but forbear to offer any

" facrifice

A K I S T I D E S. 415

" facrifice on it, till they had extinguifhed all the fire in
" the country, becaufe it had been polluted and profaned
" by the barbarians ; and that they fhouid afterwards
" fetch pure fire from the common altar at Delphi. As
foonas the Greeks were informed of this Oracle, the ge-
nerals went all over the country, and caufed the fires to
be put out ; and Euchidas a Platsean undertaking to fetch
fire from the altar of Apollo with all fpeed, went to Delphi,
where having fprinkled and purified himfelf with water,
he put a crown of laurel on his head, and taking fire from
the altar, haflened back to Plataea, where he arrived
before iun-iet, performing that day a journey of a
thoufand furlongs : but having faluted his fellow-citi-
zens, and delivered the fire to them, he immediately
fell down and foon after expired. The Plataeans car-
ried him away and buried him in the temple of Diana,
furnamed Eucleia, and put this infcription on his tomb,

Here lies Euchidas, who went to Delphi, and

returned in the fame day.

Moft are of opinion that Eucleia is Diana, and call
her by that name; but others maintain that fhe was the
daughter of Hercules and Myrto the daughter of Menae-
tius, and fitter of Patroclus; and that dying a virgin
fhe was highly honoured by the Boeotians and Locrians.
For in the market-places of all their cities, me has al-
tars creeled, where perfons of both fexes that are be-
trothed offer facrifice before their marriage.

At the firft general aflembly of the Greeks, after this
victory, Ariftides propofed a decree, "That a council con-
" fitting of deputies from all the cities of Greece, fhouid be
" held annually atPlataese, and that every fifth year they
" mould celebrate games of liberty : that a general levy
" fhouid be made over all Greece for the war againft the

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