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" barbarians, often thoufand foot, a thoufand horfe, and an
" hundred fail of fhips : that the Platseans fhouid be looked
" upon as exempt, and facred to the fervice of the Gods,
"and be only employed in offering facrifices for the wel-
" fare of Greece."

This decree being pafied, the Plataeans undertook to
perform an annual facrifice in the honour of thofe that were


416 The LIFE of

ilain in that place ; and they (till continue to perform It
after this manner. On the fixteenth day of Maimacte-
rion (November), which with the Boeotians is the month
Alalcomenius, they have a prccefficn which they begin
by break of day; it is opened by a trumpet founding
the fignal of battle ; then follow feveral chariots full of
garlands and branches of myrtle, and next to the cha-
riots a black bull ; then come fome young men that are
free born, carrying the ufual libations, vefiels full of wine
and milk, and cruets of oil and ointments ; for no Have
is allowed to be prefent at a folemnity which is per-
formed in honour of fuch as died in the caufe of liberty.
And laft of all, follows the Archon, or chief magi-
ilrate of Plataeae, who at all other times is obliged not
fo much as to touch iron, or wear any garment but
white ; but, that day, he is cloathed in a purple
robe, and girt with a fword ; and carrying in his hands
a water-pot taken out of the city hall, he walks through
the midit of the city to the burying-place. Then tak
ing water in his pot out of a fountain, he himfelf
wafhes (2) the little pillars of the monuments, and rubs
them with fweet ointments, after which he kills the
bull, upon a pile of wood. And laflly having made
his fupplication (3) to the terreftrial Jupiter and Mer-
cury, he invites thofe brave men who died in the de-
fence of Greece to this funeral banquet and oblation ;
then filling a bowl with wine, and pouring it out, he
fays, " I prefent this bowl to thofe men who died for the
' liberty of Greece. This is the manner of that funeral
folemnity, which the Plataeans obferve to this day.

When the Athenians were returned home, Ariftides
perceiving that they endeavoured every way to get the
government into their hands, and to eftablim a demo-
cracy ; and confidering, on one hand, that they de-
ferved a more than ordinary regard on account of their
late gallant behaviour, and on the other, that it was a
difficult tafk to curb and reflrain thofe who had their
weapons ftill in their hands, and were highly elated by


(z) For it wts cuftonary to numenta.

place little pillars upon the mo- (3) The terreftrial Jupiter is

Pluto 5

A R I S T I D E S. 417

their victories, he propofed a decree, that every citizen
Ihould have an equal right to the government, and that
the Archon mould be chofen out of the whole body of
people, without any preference or diftinction.

Themiftocles declaring one day at a publick aflembly
of the people, that he had formed a defign which would
be of great advantage to the ftate, but that it was of fuch
importance that it ought to be kept fecret, he was or-
dered to communicate it to Ariftides, to whofe fole
judgment it was referred. And when Themiflocles had
informed him that his project was to burn the whole Gre-
cian navy, by which means the Athenians would become
fo powerful, as to be the fovereigns of all Greece, Ari-
ftides returning to the aflembly, told the Athenians,
" That nothing could be more advantageous than the de-
" fign Themiftocles had communicated to him, and that
" nothing could be more unjuft." Upon which report
the Athenians ordered Themiftocles to r defift ; fuch was
their love of juftice, and fuch the efteem and confidence
which Ariftides had obtained among them.

Some time after this, being joined in commifTion
with Cimon, he was fent againft the barbarians ; where
obferving that Paufanias and the other Spartan com-
manders behaved with exceflive haughtinefs towards
all the allies, he chofe a quite different manner, con-
veriing freely with them, and treating them with the
greatell mildnefs and condefcenfion ; and Cimon, in
imitation of his example, became fo affable and cour-
teous that he was universally beloved. By this means
he infenfibly ftole away the fovereign command from
the Lacedaemonians, not by force of arms, horfes or
mips, but by his kind and obliging behaviour. Arif-
tides's juftice, and Cimon's candour had already very
much endeared the Athenians to all the confederates ;
but the avarice and cruelty of Paufanias rendered them
ftill more amiable. For he always fpoke to the officers
with fternefs and feverity ; and as for the ccmmon
foldiers, they were either whipt, or obliged to ftand a


Pluto ; and Mercury was fo called Ing the fhades into the lower re-
from his employment of condudt- gions.
VOL. II, Dd (4) Art

4 i 8 We LIP E of

whole day with an iron anchor on their fhoulders, for
the leaft offences. Neither durft they provide forrage
for their horfes, draw for themfelves to lie on, or fo
much as touch a fpring of water till the Spartans were
all ferved; his fervants being conftantly pofted there
with whips to drive away fuch as offered to approach.
And when Ariftides attempted one day to expoftulate
with him on his behaviour, he told him with a fierce and
angry look, " that he was not at leifure," and refufed to
hear him.

From that time the fea-captains and land-officers,
and particularly thofe of Chios, Samos and Lefbos, pref-
fed Ariftides to accept of the general command of all the
confederate forces, and receive them into his protection,
they having long defired to be delivered from the Spartan
yoke, and to fubmit only to the Athenians. Ariftides an-
" fwered, " That he faw a great deal of force and reafon in
" what they faid ; but that it was neceffary toperform fome
4< action that might manifeft thefmcerity of their intentions,
" and at the fame time fix the troops beyond a poflibility of
" changing." Upon this anfwer, Uliades of Samos and
Antagoras of Chios confpiring together, went boldly
and attacked Paufanias's galley at the head of the whole
fleet near Byzantium. When Paufanias perceived their
infolence, he rofe up in a rage, and threatened "to make
" them foon know that it was not his galley, but their own
"country they had thus infulted." But they toldhim, "that
" the beft thi-nghe could do was to retire; and thank for-
" tune for her favours at Plataeae ; for that nothing but
" the regard they had for that great action reftrained the
" Greeks from revenging the iH treatment they had re-
" ceived at his hands." The conclulion was, that they
renounced all manner of fubmiflion to the Spartans, and
ranged themfelves under the Athenian banners.

The wonderful magnanimity of the Spartan people
appeared very fully on this occafion ; for finding that
their Generals were grown corrupt through the great-
nefs of their power and authority, they fent no morcy
but voluntarily laid down the chief command of the


A R I S T I D E S. 419

confederate forces, chufmg rather to fee their citizens
prudent, modeft, and ftriftly obfervant of their laws
and cuftoms, than to poflefs the fovereign command of
all Greece.

All the time the Lacedaemonians had the command,
the Grecians paid a certain tax towards carrying on the
war but being now defirous that every city mould be
juftly and equally rated, they begged Ariftides of the
Athenians, and entrufled him with the care of examin-
ing all the lands and revenues, that fo all might pay
according to their real wealth and ability.

Ariftides being invefted with this great authority, by
which he became in a manner mafter of all Greece, was
far from abufing the trufl he repofed in him ; and if he
entered upon it poor, he went out of it poorer ; for he
levied this tax, not only juftly and difmtereftedly, but
likewifc with fuch tendernefs and humanity, as to render
it eafy and agreeable to all. And as the ancients ufed
to celebrate the reign of Saturn, fo did the confederate
Greeks this taxation of Ariftides, calling it, " The hap-
" py fortune of Greece ," and this applaufe was very much
heightened foon after, when that taxation was doubled
and trebled. For Ariftides's afleflment amounted to no
more than four hundred and fixty talents, but Pericles
afterwards encreafed it almoft a third ; for Thucydides
fays, that at the beginning of the war, the Athenians
received fix hundred talents from their allies ; and af-
ter his death they who had the government then in their
hands, raifed it by little and little till it came to thir-
teen hundred not that the war grew mote expenfive,
either by its long continuance, or want of fuccefs, but
becaufe they accuftomed the people to receive diftribu-
tions of money for the publick fpectacles and other
purpofes, and had made them fond of erecting magni-
ficent ftatues and temples.

Ariftides having gained a wonderful reputation by
the equity of his taxation, Themiftocles,*it is faid, made
a jeft of it, and ufed to fay, that the commendation they
gave him on this account, " was not the commenda-

D d 2 tion

420 Me LIFE of

"tionofaman,butofamoney-cheft, which fafelykeeps the
" money that is put into it without diminution :" wherein
"he revenged himfelf but very poorly for a fevere ex-
preflion of Ariftides. For Themiftocles faying one day,
" that he looked upon it as the greatefl excellency of a
" General to know and forefee the defigns of an enemy ;'*
Ariftides replied, " That it was indeed a neceffary qua-
lification, but that there was another equally illuftri-
"ous and becoming a General, which was to have clean
" hands, and not to be a flave to money."

When Ariftides had finifhed the articles of alliance,
he made all the people of Greece fwear to the obferva-
tion of each particular ; and he himfelf took the oath in
the name of the Athenians, and threw pieces of red hot
iron into the fea, when he had pronounced the curfes a-
gainft fuch as mould violate what they had fworn. But
afterwards when the Athenians, through the neceflity of
their affairs, were forced to be guilty of fome breaches of
this oath, and to rule more abfolutely, headvifed them to
throw upon him all the curfes and guilt of that perjury,
which the neceflity of their affairs required. Upon the
whole, Theophraftus informs us, that in all his own private-
concerns, and in his behaviour to his fellow-citizens, he
was perfectly juft ; but that m matters of government he
frequently fubmitted to the exigency of affairs, when ads
of injuftice became neceflary ; and he relates, that once in
council when there wasa debate about bringing fome
treafure to Athens that had been depofited at Delos, as
the Samians had advifed, though contrary to a treaty,
when he came \o fpeak, he faid, "that it was expedient,
" but not juft. .

In fine, though he had raifed his city to fo high a
degree of glory, and eftablimed her dominion over fo
many people, yet he himfelf continued poor to the day
of his death, efteeming his poverty no lefs a glory than
all the laurels he had won, as appears from hence. Cal-
lias the torch-bearer, who was his relation, was capi-
tally accufed by his enemies ; when the day of trial
came, they urged the heads of their accufation againft


A R I S T I D E S. 42I

him very faintly, but enlarged much on an affair that wa s
foreign to the charge, telling the judges, "You know A"
*' riftides the fonof Lylimachus, a man who is the admira-
" tion of all Greece. How do you think he lives at home?
" when you fee him appear every day in publick in a forry
** thread-bare coat ? Is it not reafonable to imagine that he
" who makes with cold without doors, is ready to ftarve
" with hunger, and wants neceflaries within ? Yet does
" Callias, the richeft man in all Athens, wholly neglect this
" perfon, who is his coufm-german, fuffering him, with his
"wife and children, to live in extreme necefnty, notwith-
11 ftanding he has received great fervices from him, and on
" feveral occafions made ufe of his credit and intereft with
" you." Callias perceiving that his judges were more af-
fected and exafperated by this reproach than by all the
other crimes of which he had been accufed, fummoned
Ariftides to appear and teftify in his behalf, that he had
not only offered him money feveral times, but ftrongly
prefled him to accept it, which he had always obftinately
refufed, making him this anfwer, " It better becomes A-
" riftides to glory in his poverty, than Callias in his wealth ;
" for many people .make a good as well as a bad ufe of
*' riches, butit is hard to find one that bears poverty well ;
" and they only are amamed of it who are forced to bear it
" againft their will." Ariftides having given this depofition
in Callias's behalf, there was not one perfon that went
out of the ailembly but was more in love with Ariftides's
poverty than his kinfman's wealth. This is the ac-
count left us by JEfchines, the difciple of Socrates- and
Plato, among all the Athenians that were perfons of
eminence and diftinction, judged none but Ariftides
worthy of real efteem. As for Themiftocles, Cimon,
and Pericles, they rilled the city with wealth, magni-
ficent buildings, and vain ornaments ; but virtue was
the only object which Ariftides had in view during
his adminiftration.

He gave manifeft proofs of his great candour and
moderation, even towards Themiftocles himfelf. ' For
though he had been his conftant enemy on all occafions,

D d 3 and

422 The LIFE of

and the caufeof his banifhment ; yet when a fair oppor-
tunity for revenge was offered, upon Themiftocles's be-
ing accufed of capital crimes againfl his country, he
mowed no refentment of the injuries he had received,
refufed to join with Alcmeon, Cimon and feveral others
in the profecution, faid nothing at all to his difadvantage,
nor in the leaft infulted him in his misfortunes, as he
had never envied him in his profperity.

Some affirm that Ariftides died in Pontus, whither he
went upon fome affairs relating to the publick ; others,
that he died of old age at Athens, in great honour, e-
fteem, and veneration with his fellow-citizens. But the
account given us of his death by (4) Craterus the Ma-
cedonian, is as follows. After the banifhment of The-
miftocles, the pride and infolence of the populace gave
rife to a great number of villainous informers who at-
tacked the reputation of the beft and greateft men in
the city, expofmg them to the envy of the people, who
were at that time highly elated by their fuccefs and
power. Ariftides himfelf did not efcape, but fell under
a fentence of condemnation, having been accufed by
Diophantus of Amphitrope, of taking a bribe from the
lonians at the time of his levying the tax. He adds,
that being unable to pay his fine, which was fifty Minae,
he fet fail from Athens, and died fomewhere in Ionia.
But Craterus produces no written proof of this, neither
the form of the accufation, nor the publick decree ;
though on other occafions he is careful to collect this
fort of evidence, and to cite his authors. Almoft all
the other writers that have undertaken to give an ac-
count of the people's injuftice towards their governors
and generals, make particular mention of Themiftocles's
banilhrnent, Miltiades's imprifonment, Pericles's fine,
and Paches's death, who, upon receiving fentence, killed
himfelf in the judgment-hall, before the tribunal ; and
feveral other inftances of the like nature they relate ;


(4) An hiftorian who lived a He had made a colleflion of De-
littie after the time of Ariftides. crees. Vofilus believes him to he


A R I S T I D E S. 423

they alfo mention the banishment of Ariftides by the
oftracifm, but none of them, any where, fpeak one
word of this condemnation. Befides, his monument
is ftill to be feen at Phalerum, and was ereded at the
charge of the city, he not having left enough behind
him to defray his funeral expences. It is likewife faid,
that the city provided for the marriage of his daugh-
ters, and that each of them received three thoufand
drachmas for her portion out of the publick treafury.
The people like wife bellowed on his fon Lyfimachus an
hundred Minae of filver, and a plantation of as many
acres of land, befides a penfion of four drachmas a-day,
confirmed to him by a decree which was drawn up by
Alcibiades. Calliflhenes writes further, that Lyfimachus
dying and leaving a daughter whofe name was Poly-
crite, the people afligned her the fame allowance with
thofe that conquered at the Olympick games. Demetrius
the Phalerean, HieronymustheRhodian, Ariftoxenus the
mufician, and Ariflotle himfelf, if the treatife concern-
ing nobility, that is found among his works, be really
his, affirm that Myrto, Ariftides's grand-daughter, was
married to Socrates the philofopher, who had another
wife at the fame time, but took her, becaufe fhe was
in extreme want, and remained a widow on account of
her poverty. But this is fufficiently confuted by Pa-
naetius, in his life of Socrates.

The fame Demetrius, inhis account of Socrates, writes,
that he remembers to have feen one Lyfimachus, grand-
fon to Ariftides, who being very poor, fat conftantly
near the temple of Bacchus, having certain tables, by
which he interpreted dreams for a livelihood ; and that
he himfelf procured a decree to be paft, by which his
mother and aunt were allowed half a drachma a-day
for their fubfiftence. He writes further, that when he
afterwards undertook to reform the Athenian laws, he
ordered each of thofe women a drachma a-day. A^d


the fame that accompanied Alexander the great in his expedi-

Dd 4 (0 An/


it is no wonder that the people of Athens took fuch great
care of the poor that lived in the city with them, when
hearing that a grand-daughter of Ariflogiton lived in
great diftrefs in the ifle of Lemnos, and continued un-
married through poverty, they fent for her to Athens,
and married her to a man of a coniiderable family,
giving her for a portion an eftate in the borough of
Fotamos. This city, even in our days, continues to
give fo many proofs of the like humanity and bounty,
that it has defervediy gained the applaufe and admira-
tion of the whole world.

[ 4*5


IT is faid that Marcus Cato was born at Tufculum, of
which place his family was originally ; and that,
before he intermeddled with civil or military affairs,
he lived at an eftate which his father left him near the '
country of the Sabines. Notwithstanding his anceflors
were generally reckoned very obfcure perfons, yet he
boafls of his father Marcus as a man of great virtue and
courage, and afTures us, that his grandfather Cato re-
ceived feveral military rewards, and that having had
five horfes flain under him in battle, the value of them
was paid him out of the publick treafury, as an acknow-
ledgment of his bravery, (i) As the Romans always


(i) Any man that diftinguifhed able aftions was reckoned great
himfelf by his virtue and remark- and illuftrious, but he was not


426 7&? L I F E of

called fuch perfons New Men, who having received no
dignity from their anceflors, were beginning to diftin-
guifh themfelves by their perfonal virtues ; ib they be-
ftowed that appellation upon Cato. But he ufed to con-
fefs that with refpect to honours and dignities he was
indeed new, but with regard to the great actions and
fervices of his anceftors he was very ancient.

His third name, at firfl, was not Cato, but Prifcus,
though it was afterwards changed to that of Cato, on
account of his great wifdom ; the Romans calling wife
men Catos. He had red hair and grey eyes, as appears
from this epigram made upon him by one of his ene-

'This churl with eyes fo grey and hair fo red
Not hell Jh all 'willingly admit when dead.

By temperance and exercife, and a military life, to
which he was early accuftomed, he acquired a good
habit of body with refpecl to ftrength as well as health.
And as to eloquence, he looked upon it as a fecond
body, and as an inftrument not only ufeful but neceffa-
ry for every perfon that would not live obfcure and in-
active, and therefore took particular care to cultivate
and improve it by pleading in feveral boroughs and
neighbouring villages, undertaking the defence of all
that applied to him ; fo that he was foon reckoned an
able pleader, and afterwards gained the reputation of a
good orator.

From this time forward all that converfed much with
him dilcovered fuch a gravity of behaviour, fuch a
greatnefs of mind, and fuch a fuperiority of genius
as were fit for the management of the greateft affairs,
even in the fovereign city of the world. He not only


noble nor did his pofterity derive
any particular marks of diftin&ion
from him. But he whofe ance-
ftors had enjoyed publick potts
aad honourable employments was
noble, and made his defendants
lo. Afconius has very well ex-

' nes, fays he, ij nobiles ; qui fuas
' tantum ij novi ; qui necmajorum
' nee fuas, ignobiles appellati funt.
' They who could Ihow the ilatues
' of their anceftors were called
' nobiles, noble ; they who"had
' only their own were called novi;

plained this diftinftion. " Qui ma- " and they who had neither their
" jorum fuorum habuerunt imagi- " anceftors

C A T O the C E N S O R. 427

fhowed his difmtereftednefs and contempt of money by
refuting to take any fees for pleading, but it further
appeared that the honour arifmg from fuch contefts was
not that kind of glory he aimed at -, his chief ambition
being to diftinguifh himfelf againft an enemy in the
field. While he was but a youth his breaft was full of
fears from the wounds he had received in battle; for he
fays himfelf that he was but feventeen years old when he
made his firft campaign, at the time when Hannibal was
fo fuccefsful in ravaging and deflroying Italy. In battle
he always flood firm, ftruck with great force, looked
on his enemy with a fierce countenance, and fpoke to
him in threatning language and with a ftern accent ;
for he rightly judged and endeavoured to convince
others, that fuch a behaviour often ftrikes more terror
into anadverfary than the fword itfelf. He always
marched on foot, and carried his own arms, followed
only by one fervant who carried his provifions. And it is
faid, he never was angry with that fervant, whatever
he provided him to eat, but would often, when he was
at leifure from military duty, eafe and affift him in
drefling it. All the time he continued in the army he
drank nothing but water, unlefs that fometimes when he
was extremely thirfty he would afk for a little vinegar,
or when he found himfelf fatigued and difpirited he
would take a little wine.

Near his country-feat was a little farm-houfe that for-
merly belonged (2) to Manius Curius, who had been
thrice honoured with a triumph. Cato often walked
thither, and reflecting on the fmallnefs of the farm, and
poornefs of the dwelling, ufed to think with himfelf,
what kind of perfon he mull be, who, though he was
the greatefl man in Rome, had conquered the moft war-

anceftors nor their own, were fli- third year of Rome; firft over the

led ignobles, ignoble. For the pri- Samnites, and aftewards over the

vilege of having their flatues, the Sabines. And eight years after

Jus Imaginum, was annexed to that, in his third Confulate, he

certain pofts or dignities. triumphed over Pyrrhus. After

(2) Manius Curius Dentatus tri- this he triumphed again over the

limped twice in his firft confulate, Lucanians; but this was only the

in the four hundred and fixty letter triumph, called Ovation.

(3) This

428 rtg LIFE of

like nations, and expelled Pyrrhus out of Italy, cultivated
this little fpot of ground himfelf, and after fo many tri-
umphs, dwelt in fo mean a cottage. There it was, that
the ambaffadorsof the Samnites found him dreiTmg tur-
nips in the chimney corner, and having offered him a
large prefent of gold, received this anfwer from him ;
" That he who could be content with fuch a {upper, want-
" ed no gold, and that he thought it more glorious to
" conquer the owners of it, than to poflefs the gold itfelf."
Full of thefe thoughts Cato returned home, and taking a
review of his houie, eftate, (ervants, and charge of houfe-
keeping, encreafed his daily labour, and retrenched all
unneceiTary expences.

When Fabius Maximus took the city of Tarentum,
Cato, who was then very young, ferved under him. Hap-
pening at that time to lodge with oneNearchus a Pytha-
gorean, he defired to hear fome of his philoibpy ; and

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