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ground ; and that for this reqfon he was called Peri-

After nine months the Samians furrendered. Pericles
demoljfhed their walls, feized their (hips, and fined
them in a great fum of money, part of which they
paid immediately j a time was fixed for the payment
of the reft, and they gavehoftages as a fecnrity. Duris
the Samian (7) defcribes thefe tranfactions in a moft tra-
gical manner, and accuies the Athenians and Pericles of
rnonftrous cruelty, of which neither Thucydides, Ephorus
nor Ariftotle make any mention. The account he gives
is utterly incredible, that Pericles brought the com-
manders of the Samian Ihips together with the feamen
into the market-place of Miletus, where he fattened
them to boards, and left them in that condition for
ten days, and then when they were almoft expiring
ordered them to be killed by beating them on the head
with clubs , after which their bodies were thrown out
into the fields, where they remained unburied. Duris
who often fwerves from the truth even when rot milled
by any particular paffion or intereft, feems in this cafe
to have exaggerated the mileries of his country on pur-
pofe to bring a reproach upon the Athenians.

Pericles upon his return to Athens after this conqueft,
celebrated with great magnificence the funeral of thofe
who had died in the war, and pronounced an oration
in honour of them, which charmed and aftonifhed the
audience (8). When he came 4own from the Roftrum
the women all ran to compliment him, and ciOvvned
him with garlands like one who had gained a victory


manner In the life of Alcibiades. preferved in the fecond book of

(8) This oration is not to be Thucydides This mentioned here

confounded with that which he was pronounced in the laft year

pronounced in honour of thofe of the eighty-fourth Olympiad,

who fell at the beginning of the and the other not till the fecond

Peloponneiian war, which we find of the eighty-feventh.

C 3 (9) The

38 We L I F E of

in the public games. Bat Elpinice coming up to him
laid, " You have acted glorioufly indeed, Pericles, and
" deferve to be crowned for facrificing fo many of the
" braVeft citizens, not in fighting with the Phoenicians or
" Perfians, as my brother Cimon did, but in destroying
" a city united to us both in blood and friendfhip." Pe-
ricles in reply only fmiled, and repeated to her in a low
voice thefe lines of Archilochus ;

Leave, leave, for Jbame, thefe youthful airs j
Nor paint, nor drefs becomes grey hairs.

Ion fays that he was extremely elated with this fucceis,
and beaded that whereas Agamemnon fpent ten years in
taking a Barbarian city, he had fubdued themcft pow-
erful ftate among the lonians in the fpaceof nine months.
And indeed he had reafon to pride himfelf on this con-
quell, the war having been attended with great hazard
and uncertainty, if it be true, as Thucydides aflerts,
that the power of the Samians was fo confiderable, that
the Athenians were in imminent danger of lofing the domi-
nion of the fea.

Some time after this, when the Peloponnefian war was.
ready to break out, the inhabitants of Corcyra being
attacked by the Corinthians, Pericles perfuaded the people
to fend them fome affiftance, and to fecure in their
interefl that ifland which had fo confiderable a naval
power, and would be of great feryice to them in th$
conteft which they were likely to have foon with the
Peloponnefians The people having agreed to his pro-
pofal, he fent Lacedaemomus the fon of Cimon with no
more than ten fh ip s, as if he defigned only to difgrace
hi-m. For as there was a very great friendfhip fubfift-
ihg between the family of Cimon and the Spartans, if


(9) The manner in which Thu- attempting to make a defcent

cydides relates this affair, is more upon Coicyra, or any of its terri-

probabie, and not fo dilhoaour- tories His defign was to let

able to Pericles. He tells us that them fight among themfelves as

when Pericles ordered thofe ten long as they pleafed, that they

fhips to fail, he gave them inftruc- might weaken one another, and

tions not to engage with the Co- be in no condition to oppofe the

finthians, unlefs they faw them Athenians in any war they might



Lacedaemonius performed nothing' confiderable in this
expedition, a ftrong fufpicion might ariie of his trea-
cheroufly favouring the Spartan interefl. For this rea-
fon Pericles fent him out with fo fmall a force, though
he was very unwilling to accept of the command (cj).
But it was the conftant endeavour of Pericles to deprefs
the family of Cimon ; he often faid that his ions ought
not to be looked upon as native Athenians, that their
very names proved them to be of foreign and ille-
gitimate extraction (i), one of them being called La-
cedaemonius, another Theflalus, and- the third Eleus : and
indeed it was generally thought that they were all born
of an Arcadian woman. Pericles being much cenfured
on account of thefe mips, which as they were a (lender
fuccour to thofe who had requefted them, gave his
enemies abundant occafion to reproach and villify him,
fent a larger fleet to reinforce thein, which did not ar-
rive till the battle was over .-(2).

The Corinthians refenting the conduct of the Atheni-
ans, made their complaint to the Lacedaemonians. They
were joined by the Megarenfians, who accufed the Athe-
nians of having excluded them from every market and
every port in their dominions, contrary to the rights
of nations, and the oaths which had been taken by the
different dates of Greece. The people of ^Egina like-
wife, thinking themfelves wronged and opprefled,
though they durfl not openly accule the Athenians, yet
applied in private to the Lacedaemonians. The fiege of
Potidaea, which happened at the fame time,, contributed
alfo to baften the war. This city, though originally
a Corinthian colony, was fubject to the Athenians, and
had now revolted. However, as ambafiadors were
fent to Athens, and as ArchidamusKing of the Lacedae-

have with them hereafter. Be- at the beginning,
fides, Lacedaemonius the fon of (z) But this fleet (which con-
Cimon was not the fole comman- Med of twenty- fLips) arriyecl juft
der in this expedition ; Diotenes as they were preparing for a fe-
and Proteas were appointed by cond engagement, which the fight
Pericles for his collegues. of fo confiderabie 4 force pre-

( i ) See the life of Themiftocles

C 4 J3)Thucy-

40 The L I F E of

monians endeavoured amicably to compofe thefe diffe*
rences, and to pacify the allies, the war might proba-
bly have been prevented, could the Athenians have been
prevailed upon to come to an accommodation with the
Megarenfians, and to have repealed the decree which
they had made againft them. Therefore, as the oppo-
fition which was made to this meafure proceeded chiefly
from Pericles, who inflamed the minds of the people, and
perfifted in his implacable enmity to the Megarenfians,
he was confidered as the fole author of the war.

It is faid that when the ambafladors came upon this
occafion to Athens from Sparta, Pericles alledged a cer-
tain law that forbad the taking down any table on
which a decree of the people was written ; " Well then,"-
faid Polyarces one of the ambafladors (3), " do not take it
*' down ; only turn the other fide outward ; there is no law
" againft that." The pleafantry of this repartee had no
effect upon Pericles, nor in the leaft abated his animo-
fity againft the people of Megara. It is probable that
his hatred to them was owing to tome private and per-
fbnal caufe. But the charge which he brought againft
them in publick was, that they had appropriated to
themfelves a piece of confecrated land ^ and he procured
a decree to be pafled, that a herald mould be fent to
Megara to expoftulate with them, and from thence
mould go to Sparta to accufe them there of this facri-
legious action. This decree of Pericles contained no-
thing more than a mild and equitable remonftrance.
But the herald Anthemochrytus dying by the way, and
the Megarenfians being fufpe&ed as the authors of his
death, Gharinus propofed a decree, that there fhould
be an eternal and irreconfilable hatred between the two
ftates -, that if any Megarenfian entered the territory of
the Athenians, he mould be put to death j that the Athe-

(3) Thucydides names three and yet it Is fo certain that the
ambafladors, Ramphius, Melefip- Megarenfians were looked upon as
pus, and Agefander, but makes the authors of the murder, that
no mention of Polyarces. they were puniflied for it many

ages after j for on that account

(4) We do not find any notice the Emperor Adrian denied them
tajcenof this herald in Thucydides; that relief which he had procured



nian generals, when they took the cuftomary oath,
mould fwear befides to make an incurfion twice a year
into Megaris and that Anthemocritus mould be buried
near the Thriafian gate, which is now called Dipylon (4).
The Mcgarenfians, however, abiolutely deny the mur-
der of Anthemocritus, and charge the whole guilt of
the war upon Afpafia and Pericles ; in confirmation of
which they quote thofe well known verfes from ths
Acharnenfes of Ariflophanes,

drunken youths from Athens
'To Megara, on mifchief bent ;
And thence (their valour to difplay^
tfhe whore Sjmaethayfo/? away.
Rage fires the Megarenfian throng ;
With in f reft they repay the wrong j
And entring good AfpafiaV doors,
From her they force two fanfrite whores,
Behold thefpring of all our woe !
Hence difcordj war, and Jlaughter flow.

(5) The real caufe of this war is very difficult todifco^
ver ; but that the above-mentioned decree was not re-
pealed, is univerfally afcribed to Pericles. Some think
that his oppofition to this meafure proceeded From real
greatnefs of mind, and a perfuafion that he was acting
for the befl, as he thought that this propofition was made
by the Lacedaemonians only to try the ftrength and
refolution of the Athenians, and that to comply with it
would have been to confefs their weaknefs. Others are
of opinion that he flighted the mediation of the Lacedae-
monians from pride and obftinacy, from a fpirit of con
tention and a defire to manifeft his power and authority,

But that caufe of the war which is the mod exceptionable
of all, an4 which is afligned by moil writers is this.


for the other cities and people of Spartans had conceived of the

Greece. Athenians, which prompted them

to make ufe of every occafion to

(5) Thucydides takes no notice difpute with them the empire of

of thefe frivolous accounts, but the fea, and confequently of all

makes it appear that the real caufe Greece.

pf the war was the jealoufy the (6) They

42 The LIFE of

Phidias the ftatuary had undertaken, as we have
faid before, to make the flame of Minerva. The
friendfhip and influence he had with Pericles, expofed
him to envy, and procured him many enemies, who
being defirous by making an experiment upon him, to
try the difpolition of the people, and what would be
the event if Pericles himfelf mould be cited before
them, perfuaded Menon one of Phidias's workmen to
come as a fuppliant into the Forum, and implore the
protection of the people, that he might be at liberty to
bring an information againft Phidias. His requefl be-
ing granted, Phidias was tried before an afTembly of
the people, but the theft with which Menon charged
him could not be proved. For the gold which was uied
in making thisftatue, Phidias, by the advice of Pericles,
had fattened to it in fuch a manner, that it was eafy
to take it off and weigh it ; and this the accufers v/ere
bid to do by Pericles. Phidias however funk under the
envy which his fuperior merit occafioned. But what
gave the greater! offence was, that in the reprefenta-
tion of the battle of the Amazons upon Minerva's fhield,
he had introduced his own figure, and appeared there
in the likenefs of a bald old man holding up a ftone
with both his hands. He had likewife engraven there
an admirable figure of Pericles fighting with an Amazon;
this was executed with confummate art, the hand that
held out the fpear feeming to have been defigned to
cover the face and conceal the refemblance which,
neverthelefs, ftrongly appeared on each fide (6). Phi-
dias at lafl ended his life in a prifon (7). Some fay
that he died a natural death, others that he was poi-


(6) They pretended that thofe Ariftotle. "It is faid that Phidias,
modern figures of Pericles and ' who made the ftatue of Miner-
Phidias deftroyed the credit of the ' va in the citadel, inter -wrought
ancient hiftory, which did fo ' his own figure fo artificially in
much honour to Athens v and their ' the middle of the buckler of the
founder Thefeus. This figure of ' Goddefs, and incorporated it
Phidias reprefented in the fight of ' with the whole competition in
the Amazons, has given occafion ' fuch a manner that it was im-
to a remarkable paffage in the ' poifihle to remove it withoutder
tf eatife de Mundo, attributed to ' ftroying the ftatue entirely."



>ned by his enemies, who intended to take occafion
from thence to flander Pericles. As to the informer
Menon, the people granted him an immunity from
taxes by a decree which was propofed by Glycon ; and
the generals were charged to provide for his fecurity.

About the fame time Afpafia was profecuted for im-
piety, upon the accufation of Hermippus the comick
poet, who charged her b. fides with entertaining cer-
tain women of reputable families, to ferve the debauch-
eries of Pericles. Diopithes like wife propofed a decree,
that ail thofe who denied the exiftence of the Gods, or
who taught profane opinions concerning celeftial ap-
pearances, mould be tried before an ailembly of the
people, This decree, though it moft immediately af-
fected Anaxagoras, yet was indirectly levelled at Peri-
cles. The people feeming to liften readily to thefe
accufations, another decree was propofed by Draconti^
des, that Pericles mould lay before the Prytanes an ac-
count of the publick money with which he had been
entrufted, and that the judges mould take the ballots
from the altar (8) and try the caufe in the city. But
the laft article was changed by Agnon, and it was de-
creed that the caufe mould be tried by the fifteen hun-
dred judges, whether the accufation were laid for "env*
" bezzlement" and " taking of bribes," or in general for
" corrupt practices." Afpafia was acquitted ; Pericles ha-
ving as ./Efchines fays, by force of tears and intreaties
moved the judges to companion. But fearing the event
of Anaxagoras's trial, he fent him out of the city, and
accompanied him part of the way. And as he himfelf
was become obnoxious to the people upon Phidias's
account, and was afraid of the confequence mould he


(7) Others fay that he was ha- tmlefs by the " city"we are to un-
niftied, and that in his exile he derftand " the full aflembly of the
made the famous flatue of Jupiter "people." By the fifteen hun-
at Olympia. cired judges mentioned in the next

(8) In the life of Themiftocles fentence, the court of Helisea is
we meet with another inftance of probably meant ; for this court
this folemnity. What Plutarch fometimes on extraordinary occi-
means by " trying the caufe in the (ions confifted of that number.

" city, is not eafy to determine, (9) Seq

44 tffe L I F E of

be called into a court of judicature, he urged on the
war which as yet was lingering, and blew up that
flame which till then was ftifled and fuppreiled. By
this means he hoped to remove all reproach and accu-
fation, and to mitigate the envy and ill-will of the
people ; for fuch was his authority and reputation, that
in times of difficulty and danger they placed their cou-
fidence in him alone, Thefe are the different caufes
afligned for his having prevented the people from yield-
ing to the demand of the Lacedaemonians : which was
the true one is not known.

The Lacedaemonians being per fuaded that if they could
jruin Pericles, they might eafily manage the Athenians,
required them to remove from the city all execrable
perfons ; for Pericles, as Thucydides fays, was by the
mother's fide defcended from fome of thole who had been
pronounced " execrable" in the affair of Cylon (9). But
this had a contrary effect to what the Lacedaemonians ex-
peeled ; for inftead of diflruft and reproach, it procured
Pericles greater confidence and efteem from the Atheni-,
ans, who confidered him as the man whom their ene-*
mies mod of all feared and hated. And therefore
before Archidamus invaded Attica at the head of the
Peloponnefian army, Pericles declared to the Athenians,
that if Archidamus when he was ravaging the reft of
their lands, fhould abflain from his, either on account
of the friendfhip and right of hofpitality that fubfifted
between them, or to furnifh his enemies with matter of
flander agairft him, he would give his lands and houfes
to the publick. The Lacedemonians and their allies
ibon after entered Attica with a great army under the
condudt of King Archidamus. They laid wafte the
whole country, and advanced as far as Acharnae (i),
where they encamped, expeding that the Athenians
would not patiently fuffer them to continue there, but
that pride and indignation would provoke them to


(o,) See vol. I. p. 214. as its quota for the publick fer-

(i) The borough of Acharnae vice, tt was about 1500 pacet

was one of the largeft in Attica, from the city.

fpr that alone fupplied 3000 men (2) The fameCleon that was fo



; Jighr. Pericles, however, thought it too dangerous an ex-
pciiment to riik no lefs than the prefervation of the city
itfelf upon an engagement with fixty thoufand Lacedae-
monian and Boeotian troops ; for that was the number
employed in the firft expedition. As to thofe who being
exafperated by the devaftations which the Lacedaemo-
nians had committed, were eager to come to a battle,
he endeavoured to cool and pacify them, by faying,
" that trees after they are lopped will foon grow again,
" but when men are cut off the lols is not eafily re-
" paired." He avoided calling an aifembly of the people,
left he mould be forced to act contrary to his opinion.
But as a pilot in a ftorm, when he has given proper di-
rections, and difpofed every thing belonging to the
(hip in the beft manner, acts as the rules of his art re-
quire, regardlefs of the tears and entreaties of the fick
and fearful pafiengers ; thus Pericles baring fhut up the
gates, appointed the guards, and taken every proper
meafure for their fecurity, purfued the dictates of his
own prudence, without paying any attention to the
clamours and complaints of others. On one fide he
was attacked by the importunity of his friends, on the
other by the threats and reproaches of his enemies. He
was continually infulted by fatirical fongs and various
other exprelTions of ridicule and contempt; his caution
was reprefented as cov/ardice and a defertion of his
country, which he thus left as a prey to the enemy.
Cleon (2) too inceflantly reviled him, making the gene-*
ral refentment againft Pericles a means of increafmg his
own popularity ; as appears by thefe verfes of Her-
mippus ;

Kingoffatyrs (3), is the fpear declined
For empty threats that mingle with the wind ?
As groans the whet/lone, when the fautchion's fide
fo gain new keennefs is with /kill applied,

roughly handled by Ariftophanus. Athenians. See a farther account
He fo well knew how to gain the of him in the life of Nicias.
affections of the people, that in (3) This alludes to thedebauch-
tirae he became General of tbe cries with which he was charged,

(4) Pecicles

46 Me L I F fi of

So labile you jbarpen CleonV w#, you rave,
Tour tongue a hero, but your heart a flaw.

Pericles, however, continued unmoved, patiently and
filently enduring all thefe indignities and reproaches.
And though he fent a fleet of an hundred fhips to Pe-
loponnesus, he would not fail with them, but remained
at home to watch over the city, and keep the reins of
government in his own hands till the Peloponnefians
mould retire. In order to appeafe the difcontent of the
common people on account of the war, he made a
diftribution of money and land ; for having expelled
the inhabitants oOEgina, he divided the ifland by lot
among the Athenians. It was alfo fome fatisfadion^to
them to hear of the calamities which their enemies fuf-
fered. For thofe who failed to Peloponnefus ravaged a
large tract of country, and plundered and deftroyed a
great number of villages and fmall towns. He like-
wife in perfon invaded the Megarenfians, and laid wafte
their whole territory (4). Though the Peloponnefians
Ib much diftreffed the Athenians by land, yet as they
were themfelves equally diftrefled by fea, they would
fbon have been tired out, and have put an end to the
war before it had been drawn out to fo great a length,

O v_7 7

(as Pericles foretold from the beginning) had not fome
divine power interpofed to defeat the fchemes of human
prudence. For a peftilence broke out which confumed
the mofl courageous and vigorous of the youth. And
it not only affected their bodies but their minds, fo
that they grew outrageous againft Pericles, like men
who in the delirium of a fever ftrike even their phyfi-
cian or their father : for the enemies of Pericles per-
fuaded the citizens that the diftemper proceeded from
the multitude of country people who were crouded to-
gether in the city, and obliged during the heat of fum-


(4) Pericles was not fo impru- of autumn, when they were with-
dent as ro leave tfte city while drawn. The truth of this appears
the Lacedemonians remained in from Thucydides, who exprefsly
Attica. l-.e did not enter upon tells us that the Athenian fleet was
this expedition till the beginning returned from Peloponnefus to



mer to live a lazy and inactive life confined in little clofe
tents and cabins, inftead of breathing the pure and c-
pen air to which they had been accuftomed. Of this,
they faid, he was the caufe, who had m confequence of
that war which he himfelf had occafioned, poured in
fuch vaft numbers of people from the country, whom
he kept unemployed, and penned up like cattle, to in-
fect and deftroy each other, without affording them
any intervals of relief and refrefhment.

Being defirous to remedy this calamity, and at the
lime time to annoy the enemy, he fitted out a fleet of
an hundred and fifty (hips, on board of which he em-
barked a great number of flout foldiers both horfe and

* ^^

foot. So large an armament very much encouraged the
citizens, and no lefs terrified the enemy. Jiift after
the men were all embarked, and Pericles himfelf was
gone on board his own galley, there happened an eclipte
of the fun. This iudden darknefs was looked upon as
an unfavourable omen, and threw them all into a great
confirmation. Pericles obferving that the pilot was very
much terrified and perplexed, put his cloak be/ore the
man's face, and wrapping him up in it, afked him if
there was any thing terrible in that, or if he thought it
portended any calamity. Heanfwered, "No." And what
" difference," faid he, " is there between this dark-
" nefs and the other, except that the eclipfe is caufed by
" fomething larger than a cloak ?" But the difcuffion of
thefe fubjects belongs to the fchools of philofophy.

Pericles in this expedition performed nothing fuitable
to the greatnefs of his preparations. He laid fiege to
the facred city of Epidaurus (5), but without fuccefs^
this was owing to a diftemper which raged in his army,
and not only deftroyed his foldiers, but a 1 other per-
fons who upon any occafion came into the camp. This
unfuccefsful expedition highly incenfed the Athenians


, and that the foldiers on lapius who had a magnificent
board were fent to join the land temple there. Plutarch by the
army. epithet facred, diftinguifhes it

(5) This Epidaurus was in Ar- from another town of the fame
geia. It was confecrated to^Efcu- name in Laconia.

(0 Acccr

48 ttt L I F E of

againft Pericles, who endeavoured in vain to comfort and
pacify them ; nothing could allay their refentment till
they had afTerted their own power, and by a general fuf-
frage deprived him of the command, and impofed a fine
upon him ; the fum according to the lowed account was
fifteen talents, according to the higheft fifty. The accu-
fation was managed by Cleon, as Idomeneus tells us ;
butTheophraftus fays that Simmidas was the accufer, and
Heraclides of Pontus that it was Lacratidas.

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