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LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OP
CALIFORNIA
SAN DIESO








■^







PLUTARCH'S

LIVES AND WRITINGS

IBlritton 'tit QSvmxti Huve
I.



THE LIVES

VOLUME ONE^i'



Efje lElJition tit (3mnO Etiie of pitttardj'ss Etbes antj
Mrftmgg in limittb to <!^ne ^i)au0anli stt&, of
fajljicJj t!}is is Wo. *"»*^0



Romulus and Remus.
From the painting by Joseph Binder.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES AND WRITINGS

EDITED BY A. H. CLOUGH and PROF. WILLIAM W. GOODWIN
WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY RALPH WALDO EMERSON

PLUTARCH'S LIVES

THE TRANSLATION CALLED lORYDEN'S
CORRECTED FROM THE GREEK AND REVISED BY

A. H. CLOUGH

SOMETIME FELLOW AND TUTOR OF THE ORIEL COLLEGE, OXFORD, AND LATE PROFESSOR
OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE A'ND LITERATURE AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON

in five volumes
Volume One



ILLUSTRATED fTITH PHOTOGRAVURE REPRODUCTIONS
OF PAINTINGS AND SCULPTURES



. '~T'f-/F, •
COLONIAL

coMPAisnr

LIMITED




Palma nonsine
pulvere f r r



THE COLONIAL COMPANY, Limited

NEW YORK AND PITTSBURG
1905



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859,

By Little, Brown, and Company,

In the Clerks OfiBce of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.



Copyright, 1905,
By Little, Brown, and Company.



^rintfrs
S. J. Parkhii.i. a- Co.. Rostox, I'. S. A.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.

FAGE

Preface and Life of Pldi'arch v

LiFE OF Theseus 1

Life of Romulus 39

Comparison of Romulus with Theseus 78

Life of Lycurgus 83

Life of Numa Pompilius 127

Comparison of Numa with Lycurgus . . 160

Life of Solon 168

Life of Poplicola 203

Comparison of Poplicola with Solon 226

Life of Themistocles 231

Life op Camillus 269

Life of Pericles 318

Life of Fabius 372

Comparison of Fabius with Pericles 405

Appendix 409



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



VOLUME ONE
Romulus and Remus ...... Frontispiece

From the painting by Joseph Binder.

Meleager and Atalanta ...... Page 30

From the painting by Peter Paul Rubens.

Rape of the Sabines . . . . . . . " 54

From a sculpture bj' Giovanni Bologna in Lanzi Museum, Florence.

Augustus Caesar . . . . . . . " 155

From a sculpture found at Prima Porta in 1863. Now in the Vatican
Museum, Rome.

AsPASiA OF Miletus . . ....." 349

From a sculpture in the Vatican Museum, Rome.



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF THE LIVES.



Volume Page

JEmilius Paulus II. 155

Agesilaus IV. 1

Agis IV. 445

Alcibiades II. 1

Alexander IV. 159

Antoky V. 156

Aratus V. 367

Aristides II. 280

Artaxerxes V. 421

Brutus V. 302

C^SAR IV. 256

Camillus I. 269

Marcus Cato II. 316

Cato the Younger IV. 370

Cicero , V. 35

CiMON III. 198

Cleomenes IV. 467

C0RIOLANU8 II. 52

Crassus III. 331

Demetrius V. 95

Demosthenes V. 1

Dion V. 245

EuMENES III. 416

Fabius I. 372

Flamininus II. 384

Galba V. 456

Caius Gracchus IV. 531

Tiberius Gracchus IV. 506

LUCULLUS III. 227

Lycurgus I. 83

Lysander III. 104

Marcellus II. 238

Marius III. 48

NiCiAS in. 289

NUMA POMPILIUS I. 127



ALPHABETICAL INDEX.

Volume Page

Otho V. 487

Pelopidab II. 201

Pericles I. 318

Philop(emen II. 360

Phocion IV. 329

POMPEY IV. 50

POPLICOLA I. 203

Pyrrhus III. 1

Romulus I. 39

Sertorius III. 382

Solon I. 168

Sylla III. 141

Thkmistocles I. 231

Theseus I. 1

TiMOLEON II. 107



ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF THE COMPARISONS.



Agesilaus and Pompey

Agis and Cleomenes and the Gracchi
Alcibiades and Coriolancs ....
Aristides and Marcus Cato ....

CiMON AND LUCULLUS

Demetrius and Antony

Demosthenes and Cicero

Dion and Brutus

Lycurgus and Numa

Lysander and Sylla

NiciAS and Crassus

Pelopidas and Marcellus ....

Pericles and Fabius

Philopcemen and Flamininus . . .

Sertorius and Eumenes

Solon and Poplicola

Theseus and Romulus

TiMOLEON AND JEmILIUS PaULUS . . .



T^olume


Page


IV.


152


IV.


553


II.


101


II.


353


III.


284


V.


240


V.


89


V.


362


I.


160


in.


192


III.


376


11.


276


I.


405


II.


413


m.


441


I.


226


I.


78


II.


198



PREFACE,

CONTAINING A LIFE OF PLUTAECH.



The collection so well known as " Plutarch's
Lives," is neither in form nor in arrangement
what its author left behind him.

To the proper work, the Parallel Lives, nar-
rated in a series of Books, each containing the
accounts of one Greek and one Koman, followed
by a Comparison, some single lives have been
appended, for no reason but that they are also
biographies. Otho and Galba belonged, prob-
ably, to a series of Eoman Emperors from
Augustus to Vitellius. Artaxerxes and Aratus
the statesman are detached narratives, like oth-
ers which once, we are told, existed, — Hercules,
Aristomenes, Hesiod, Pindar, Daiphantus, Crates
the cynic, and Aratus the poet.

In the Parallel Lives themselves there are
gaps. There was a Book containing those of
Epaminondas and Scipio the younger. Many
of the comparisons are wanting, have either been
lost, or were not completed. And the reader
will notice for himself that references made here



PREFACE.



and there in the extant lives, show that their
original order was different from the present. In
the very first page, for example, of the book,
in the life of Theseus, mention occurs of the Hves
of Lycurgus and Numa, as already written.

The plain facts of Plutarch's own life may be
given in a very short compass. He was bom,
probably, in the reign of Claudius, about a.d. 45
or 50. His native place was Chgeronea, in Boeotia,
where his family had long been settled and was of
good standing and local reputation. He studied
at Athens under a philosopher named Ammonius.
He visited Egypt. Later in life, some time be-
fore A.D. 90, he was at Rome " on public busi-
ness," — a deputation perhaps, from Chaeronea.
He continued there long enough to give lectures
which attracted attention. Whether he visited
Italy once only, or more often, is uncertain.

He was intimate with Sosius Senecio, to all
appearances the same who was four times consul.
The acquaintance may have sprung up at Rome,
where Sosius, a much younger man than him-
self,* may have first seen him as a lecturer; or
they may have previously known each other in
Greece.

To Greece and to Chasronea he returned, and
appears to have spent in the little town, which
he was loth " to make less by the withdrawal of

* Unless the expression " my to be taken as a piece of pleas-
sons your companions " ought antry.



PREFACE. Xi

even one inhabitant," the remainder of his life.
He took part in the piibhc business of the place
and the neighborhood. He was archon in the
town, and officiated many years as a priest of
Apollo, apparently at Delphi.

He was married, and was the father of at least
five children, of whom two sons, at any rate,
survived to manhood. His greatest work, his
Biographies, and several of his smaller writings,
belong to this later period of his life, under the
reign of Trajan. Whether he survived to the
time of Hadrian is doubtful. If A.D. 45 be taken
by way of conjecture for the date of his birth,
A.D. 120, Hadrian's fourth year, may be assumed,
in like manner, as pretty nearly that of his death.
All that is certain is that he lived to be old ; that
in one of his fictitious dialogues he describes him-
self as a young man conversing on philosophy
with Ammonius in the time of Nero's visit to
Greece, A.D. 66-67 ; and that he was certainly
alive and still writing in A.D. 106, the winter
which Trajan, after building his bridge over the
Danube, passed in Dacia. "We are told," he
says, in his "Inquiry into the Principle of Cold,"
"by those who are now wintering with the Em-
peror on the Danube, that the freezing of water
will crush boats to pieces."

To this bare outline of certainties, several
names and circumstances may be added from his



Xll



PREFACE.



writings; on which indeed alone we can safely
rely for the very outline itself. There are a few
allusions and anecdotes in the Lives ; and from
his miscellaneous compositions, his Essays, Lec-
tures, Dialogues, Table-Talk, etc., the imagina-
tion may furnish itself with a great variety of
curious and interesting suggestions.

The name of his great-grandfather, Nicarchus,
is incidentally recorded in the life of Antony.
"My great-grandfather used," he says, "to tell
how in Antony's last war the whole of the citi-
zens of Chgeronea were put in requisition to bring
down corn to the coast of the gulf of Corinth,
each man carrying a certain load, and soldiers
standing by to urge them on with the lash."
One such journey was made, and they had
measured out their burdens for the second, when
news arrived of the defeat at Actium.* Lam-
prias, his grandfather, is also mentioned in the
same life. Philotas, the physician, had told him
an anecdote illustrating the luxuriousness of
Antony's life in Egypt. His father is more than
once spoken of in the minor works, but never
mentioned by his name.

The name of Ammonius, his teacher and pre-
ceptor at Athens, occurs repeatedly in the minor
works, and is once specially mentioned in the

* There appears, however, to bered seeing his great-grand-
be no sure reason for saying father, and hearing him tell the
that Plutarch himself remem- story.



PREFACE. xiii

Lives ; a descendant of Themistoclcs had studied
with Plutarch under Ammonius. We find it
mentioned that he three times held the office,
once so momentous m the world's history, of
strategus at Athens.* This, like that of the
Boeotarchs in Bceotia, continued under the Em-
pire to be intrusted to native citizens, and judg-
ino* from what is said in the little treatise of
Political Precepts, was one of the more important
places under the Roman provincial governor.

*' Once," Plutarch tells us, " our teacher, Am-
monius, observing at his afternoon lecture that
some of his auditors had been indulging too
freely at breakfast, gave directions, in our pres-
ence, for chastisement to be administered to his
own son, because, he said, the young man has de-
clined to take his breakfast unless he has sour wine
with it, fixing his eyes at the same time on the
oflfending members of the class."

The following anecdote appears to belong to
some period a little later than that of his studies
at Athens. ** I remember, when I myself was still
a young man, I was sent in company with another
on a deputation to the proconsul ; my colleague,

* This may throw some doubt Plutarch was certainly skilled

on the statement (with which, in all the wisdom of the Grseco-

however, it is perhaps not abso- Egyptians (see his treatise ad-

lutely incompatible) made by dressed to the learned lady Clea,

the Byzantine historian Eunapi- on Isis and Osiris) ; but he may,

us, that "Ammonius, the teacher for anything we know, have

of the divine Plutarch, was an staid long and studied much at

Egyptian." Alexandria,



■vJy preface.



it so happened, was unable to proceed, and I
saw the proconsul and performed the commission
alone. Upon my return, when I was about to
lay down my office, and to give an account of its
discharge, my father got up in the assembly and
bade me privately to take care not to say / went,
but we went, nor / said, but we said, and in
the whole narration to give my companion his
share."

Of his stay in Italy, his visit to or residence
in Rome, we know little beyond the statement
which he gives us in the life of Demosthenes,
that public business and visitors who came to see
him on subjects of philosophy took up so much
of his time that he learned, at that time, but
little of the Latin language. He must have
travelled about, for he saw the bust or statue of
Marius at Ravenna, as he informs us in the
beginning of Marius's life. He undertook, he
tells us in his essay on Brotherly Affection, the
office, whilst he was in Rome, of arbitrating
between two brothers, one of whom was con-
sidered to be a lover of philosophy. '' But he
had," he says, " in reaUty, no legitimate title to
the name either of brother or of philosopher.
When I told him I should expect from him the
behavior of a philosopher towards one who was
first of all an ordinary person making no such
profession, and in the second place, a brother, as
for the first point, replied he, it may he well



PREFACE. XV

enough; hut I don't attach any great importance
to the fact of two people having come from the
same pair of bodies ; " an impious piece of free-
tliinking which met, of course, with Plutarch's
indignant rebuke and reprobation.

A more remarkable anecdote is related in his
discourse on Inquisitiveness. Among other pre-
cepts for avoiding or curing the fault, ^*We
should habituate ourselves," he says, "when
letters are brought to us, not to open them in-
stantly and in a hurry, not to bite the strings in
two, as many people will, if they do not succeed
at once with their fingers ; when a messenger
comes, not to run to meet him ; not to jump up,
when a friend says he has something new to tell
lis, — rather, if he has some good or useful advice
to give us. Once when I was lecturing at Rome,
Rusticus, whom Domitian afterwards, out of
jealousy of his reputation, put to death, was one
of my hearers ; and while I was going on, a
soldier came in and brought him a letter from
the Emperor. And when every one was silent,
and I stopped in order to let him read the letter,
he declined to do so, and put it aside until I had
finished and the audience withdrew, — an example
of serious and dignified behavior which excited
much admiration."

L. Junius Arulenus Rusticus, the friend of
Pliny and Tacitus, glorified among the Stoic
martvrs whose names are written in the life of



Xvi PREFACE.

Agricola, was in youth the ardent disciple of
Thrasea Psetus; and when Psetus was destined
by Nero for death, and the Senate was prepared
to pass the decree for his condemnation, Eusticus,
in the fervor of his feeUngs, was eager to inter-
pose the veto still attaching in form to the office
— which he happened then to hold — of tribune,
and was scarcely withheld by his master from
a demonstration which would but have added
him, before his time, to the catalogue of victims.
After performing, in the civil wars ensuing on
the death of Nero, the duties of praetor, he pub-
lished in Domitian's time a life of Thrasea, as did
Senecio one of Helvidius, and Tacitus, probably,
himself, that of Agricola : the bold language of
which insured his death. Among the teachers
who afterwards gave instruction to the youth-
ful Marcus Aurelius, we read the name of an
Arulenus Rusticus, probably his grandson, united
with that of Sextus of Chseronea, Plutarch's
nephew, " who taught me," says the virtuous
Emperor, " by his own example, the just and
wise habits he recommended," and to whose door,
in late life, he was still seen to go, still desirous,
as he said, to be a learner.

It does not, of course, follow from the terms
in which the story is related, that the incident
occurred in Domitian's time, and that it was to
Domitian's letter tliat Plutarch's discourse was
preferred. But that Plutarch was at Rome in or



PREFACE. Xvii

after Domitian's reign, seems to be fairly inferred
from the language in which he speaks of the
absurd magnificence of Domitian's palaces and
other imperial buildings.

His two brothers, Timon and Lamprias, are
frequently mentioned in his Essays and Dia-
logues. They, also, appear to have been pupils
of Ammonius. In the treatise on Affection be-
tween Brothers, after various examples of the
strength of this feeling, occurs the following
passage : " And for myself," he says, *' that
among the many favors for which I have to
thank the kindness of fortune, my brother Ti-
mon's affection to me is one, past and present,
that may be put in the balance against all the
rest, is what every one that has so much as met
with us must be aware of, and our friends, of
course, know well."

His wife was Timoxena, the daughter of Alex-
ion. The circumstances of his domestic life
receive their best illustration from his letter
addressed to this wife on the loss of their one
daughter, born to them, it would appear, late in
life, long after her brothers. " Plutarch to his
wife, greeting. The messengers you sent to an-
nounce our child's death apparently missed the
road to Athens. I was told about my daughter
on reaching Tanagra. Everthing relating to the
funeral I suppose to have been already performed ;
my desire is that all these arrangements may have



vYiJi PREFACE,

been so made as will now and in the future be
most consoling to yourself. If there is anything
which you have wished to do and have omitted,
awaiting my opinion, and think would be a relief
to you, it shall be attended to, apart from all ex-
cess and superstition, which no one would like
less than yourself. Only, my wife, let me hope
that you will maintain both me and yourself
within the reasonable limits of grief What our
loss really amounts to, I know and estimate for
myself But should I find your distress exces-
sive, my trouble on your account will be greater
than on that of our loss. I am not a ' stock or
stone,' as you, my partner in the care of our
numerous children, every one of whom we have
ourselves brought up at home, can testify. And
this child, a daughter, born to your wishes after
four sons, and affording me the opportunity of
recording yom' name, I am well aware was a
special object of affection."

The sweet temper and the pretty ways of the
child, he proceeds to say, made the privation pe-
culiarly painful. '* Yet why," he says, " should
we forget the reasonings we have often addressed
to others, and regard our present pain as obliter-
ating and effacing our former joys ? " Those who
had been present had spoken to him in terms of
admiration of the calmness and simplicity of her
behavior. The funeral had been devoid of any
useless and idle sumptuosity, and her own house



PREFACE. xix

of all display of extravagant lamentation. This
was indeed no wonder to liim, who knew how
much her plain and unluxurious living had sur-
prised his philosophical friends and visitors, and
who well remembered her composure under the
previous loss of the eldest of her children, and
again, " when our beautiful Charon left us." " I
recollect," he says, "that some acquaintance from
abroad were coming up with me from the sea
when the tidings of the child's decease were
brought, and they followed with our other friends
to the house ; but the perfect order and tran-
quillity they found there made them believe, as
I afterwards was informed they had related, that
nothing had happened, and that the previous
intelligence had been a mistake."

The Consolation (so the letter is named) closes
with expressions of belief in the immortality of
each human soul ; in which the parents are
sustained and fortified by the tradition of their
ancestors, and the revelations to which they
had both been admitted, conveyed in the mystic
Dionysian ceremonies.

There is a phrase in the letter which might be
taken to imply that at the time of this domestic
misfortune, Plutarch and Timoxena were already
grandparents. The marriage of their son Auto-
bulus is the occasion of one of the dinner-parties
recorded in the Symposiac Questions ; and in one
of the dialogues, there is a distinct allusion to



XX



PREFACE.



Autobulus's son. Plutarch inscribes tiie little
treatise in explanation of the Timaeus to his two
sons, Autobulus and Plutarch. They must cer-
tainly have been grown up men, to have anything
to do with so difficult a subject. In his Inquiry
as to the Way in which the Young should read
the Poets, ''It is not easy," he says, addressing
Marcus Sedatus, '' to restrain altogether from
such reading young people of the age of my
Soclarus and your Oleander." But whether So-
clarus was a son, or a grandson, or some more
distant relative, or, which is possible, a pupil, does
not appear. Eurydice, to whom and to Polli-
anus, her newly espoused husband, he addresses
his Marriage Precepts, seems to be spoken of
as a recent inmate of his house ; but it cannot
be inferred that she was a daughter, nor does it
seem likely that the little Timoxena's place was
ever filled up.*

The office of Archon, which Plutarch held in
his native municipality, was probably only an
annual one ; but very likely he served it more
than once. He seems to have busied himself
about all the little matters of the town, and to
have made it a point to undertake the humblest
duties. After relating the story of Epaminondas

* That he had more than two sons having staid too long at the

sons who grew up, at any rate, theatre, and being, in conse-

to youth, appears from a passage quence, too late at supper,
where he speaks of his younger



PREFACE. Xxi

giving dignity to the office of Chief Scavenger,
"And I, too, for that matter," he says, "am
often a jest to my neighbors, when they see me,
as they frequently do, in pubHc, occupied on
very similar duties ; but the story told about
Antisthenes comes to my assistance. When some
one expressed sui'prise at his carrying home some
pickled fish from market in his own hands. It is,
he answered, for myself. Conversely, when I
am reproached with standing by and watching
while tiles are measured out, and stone and mor-
tar brought up. This service, I say, is not for
myself ; it is for my country."

In the little essay on the question, Whether
an Old Man should continue in Public Life,
written in the form of an exhortation to Eu-
phanes, an ancient and distinguished member of
the Areopagus at Athens, and of the Amphic-
tyonic council, not to relinquish his duties, " Let
there be no severance," he says, "in our long
companionship, and let neither the one nor the
other of us forsake the life that was our choice."
And alluding to his own functions as priest of
Apollo at Delphi, "You know," he adds in
another place, " that I have served the Pythian
God for many pythiads* past, yet you would not
now tell me, you have taken part enough in the
sacrifices, processions, and dances, and it is high

* Periods for four years elaps- the Pythian games, like the Oly m-
ing between the celebrations of piads for the Olympic games.



Xxii PREFACE.



timey Plutarch, now you are an old man, to lay
aside your garland, and reti7'e as superannuated
from the oracled

Even in these, the comparatively few, more
positive and matter-of-fact passages of allusion
and anecdote, there is enough to bring up some-
thing of a picture of a happy domestic life, half
academic, half municipal, passed among affection-
ate relatives and well-known friends, inclining
most to literary and moral studies, yet not cut off
from the duties and avocations of the citizen.
We cannot, of course, to go yet further, accept
the scenery of the fictitious Dialogues as his-
torical; yet there is much of it which may be
taken as, so to say, pictorially just ; and there is,
probably, a good deal here and there that is
literally true to the fact. The Symposiac, or
After-Dinner Questions, collected in nine books,
and dedicated to Sosius Senecio, were discussed,
we are told, many of them, in the company of
Sosius himself, both at Eome and in Greece, as,
for example, when he was with them at the
marriage festivities of Autobulus. Lamprias and
Timon, the author's brothers, are frequent speak-
ers, each with a distinctly traced character, in
these conversations ; the father and the elder
Lamprias, the grandfather, both take an oc-
casional, and the latter a lively part ; there is one
whole book in which Ammonius predommates;



PREFACE. xxiii

the scene is now at Delphi, and now at Athens,
sometimes perhaps, but rarely, at Rome, some-
times at the celebrations of the Games. Plutarch,
in his priestly capacity, gives an entertainment in
honor of a poetic victor at the Pythia, there is an
Isthmian dinner at Corinth, and an Olympian
party at Elis. As an adopted Athenian citizen
of the Leontid tribe, he attends the celebration
of the success of his friend, the philosophic poet
Serapion. The dramatis persojice of the various
little pieces form a company, when put together,
of more than eighty names, — philosophers, rhet-
oricians, and grammarians, several physicians,
Euthydemus his colleague in the priesthood,
Alexion his father-in-law, and four or five other
connections by marriage, Favorinus the philos-
opher of Aries in Provence, afterwards favored
by Hadrian, to whom he dedicates one of his
treatises, and who in return wrote an essay called
Plutarchus, on the Academic Philosophy. Sera-
pion entertains them in a garden on the banks of



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