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walls, as in times of peace, walked about the streets in their
common dress ; the boys went to school, and were led by
their master to play and exercise about the town walls ; for
the Falerians, like the Greeks, used to have a single teacher
for many pupils, wishing their children to live and be
brought up from the beginning in each other's company.

This schoolmaster, designing to betray the Falerians by
their children, led them out every day under the town wall,
at first but a little way, and, when they had exercised,
brought them home again. Afterwards by degrees he drew
them farther and farther, till by practice he had made them
bold and fearless, as if no danger was about them; and at
last, having got them all together, he brought them to the
outposts of the Romans, and delivered them up, demanding
to be led to Camillus. Where being come, and standing- in
the middle, he said that he was the master and teacher of



CAMILLUS. 255

these children, but preferring his favor before all other
obligations, he was come to deliver up his charge to him,
and, in that, the whole city. When Camillus had heard
him out, he was astounded at the treachery of the act, and,
turning to the standers-by, observed that " war, indeed, is of
necessity attended with much injustice and violence ! Cer-
tain laws, however, all good men observe even in war itself,
nor is victory so great an object as to induce us to incur
for its sake obligations for base and impious acts. A great
general should rely on his own virtue, and not on other
men's vices." Which said, he commanded the officers to
tear off the man's clothes, and bind his hands behind him,
and give the boys rods and scourges, to punish the traitor
and drive him back to the city. By this time the Falerians
had discovered the treachery of the schoolmaster, and the
city, as was likely, was full of lamentations and cries for
their calamity, men and women of worth running in dis-
traction about the walls and gates ; when, behold, the boys
came whipping their master on naked and bound, calling
Camillus their preserver and god and father. Insomuch
that it struck not only into the parents, but the rest of the
citizens that saw what was done, such admiration and love
of Camillus's justice, that, immediately meeting in assembly,
they sent ambassadors to him, to resign whatever they had
to his disposal. Camillus sent them to Rome, where, being
brought into the senate, they spoke to this purpose : that
the Romans, preferring justice before victory, had taught
them rather to embrace submission than liberty ; they did
not so much confess themselves to be inferior in strength,
as they must acknowledge them to be superior in virtue.
The senate remitted the whole matter to Camillus, to judge
and order as he thought fit ; who, taking a sum of money
of the Falerians, and, making a peace with the whole nation
of the Faliscans, returned home.

But the soldiers, who had expected to have the pillage of
the city, when they came to Rome empty-handed, railed



256 PL UTAECR ' S LIVES.

against Camillus among their fellow-citizens, as a hater o!
the people, and one that grudged all advantage to the poor.
Afterwards, when the tribunes of the people again brought
their motion for dividing the city to the vote, Camillus ap-
peared openly against it, shrinking from no unpopularity,
and inveighing boldly against the promoters of it, and so
urging and constraining the multitude, that, contrary to
their inclinations, they rejected the proposal, but yet hated
Camillus. Insomuch that though a great misfortune befell
him in his family (one of his two sons dying of a disease),
commiseration for this could not in the least make them
abate of their malice. And, indeed, he took this loss with
immoderate sorrow, being a man naturally of a mild and
tender disposition, and, when the accusation was preferred
against him, kept his house, and mourned amongst the
women of his family.

His accuser was Lucius Apuleius ; the charge, appropria-
tion of the Tuscan spoils ; certain brass gates, part of those
spoils, were said to be in his possession. The people were
exasperated against him, and it was plain they would take
hold of any occasion to condemn him. Gathering, there-
fore, together his friends and fellow-soldiers, and such as
had borne command with him, a considerable number in
all, he besought them that they would not suffer him to be
unjustly overborne by shameful accusations, and left the
mock and scorn of his enemies. His friends, having ad-
vised and consulted among themselves, made answer, that,
as to the sentence, they did not see how they could help
him, but that they would contribute to whatsoever fine
should be set upon him. Not able to endure so great an
indignity, he resolved, in his anger, to leave the city and
go into exile ; and so, having taken leave of his wife and
his son, he went silently to the gate of the city, and, there
stopping and turning round, stretched out his hands to the
Capitol, and prayed to the gods, that if, without any fault
of his own, but merely through the malice and violence of



CAMILLUS.

the people, lie was driven out into banishment, the Romans
might quickly repent of it; and that all mankind might
witness their need for the assistance, and desire for the
return of Camillus.

Thus, like Achilles, having left his imprecations on the
citizens, he went into banishment ; so that, neither appear-
ing nor making defence, he was condemned in the sum of
fifteen thousand asses, which, reduced to silver, makes one
thousand five hundred drachmas ; for the as was the
money of the time, ten of such copper pieces making the
denarius, or piece of ten. And there is not a Roman but
believes that immediately upon the prayers of Camillus, a
sudden judgment followed, and that he received a revenge
for the injustice done unto him ; which though we cannot
think was pleasant, but rather grievous and bitter to him,
yet was very remarkable, and noised over the whole world;
such a punishment visited the city of Rome, an era of such
loss and danger and disgrace so quickly succeeded ; whether
it thus fell out by fortune, or it be the office of some god
not to see injured virtue go unavenged.

The first token that seemed to threaten some mischief
to ensue was the death of the censor Julius ; for the
Romans have a religious reverence for the office of a cen-
sor, and esteem it sacred. The second was, that, just be-
fore Camillus went into exile, Marcus Caedicius, a person
of no great distinction, nor of the rank of senator, but
esteemed a good and respectable man, reported to the
military tribunes a thing worthy their consideration : that,
going along the night before in the street called the New
Way, and being called by somebody in a loud voice, he
turned about, but could see no one, but heard a voice
greater than human, which said these words, " Go, Marcus
Csedicius, and early in the morning tell the military trib-
unes that they are shortly to expect the Gauls." But the
tribunes made a mock and sport with the story, and a little
after came Camillus's banishment.
17



25b PLUTARCH' S LIVES.

The Gauls are of the Celtic race, and are reported ta
have been compelled by their numbers to leave their coun-
try, which was insufficient to sustain them all, and to have
gone in search of other homes. And being, many thousands
of them, young men and able to bear arms, and carrying
with them a still greater number of women and young
children, some of them, passing the Riphsean mountains,
fell upon the Northern Ocean, and possessed themselves of
the farthest parts of Europe ; others, seating themselves
between the Pyrenean mountains and the Alps, lived there
a considerable time, near to the Senones and Celtorii ; but,
afterwards tasting wine which was then first brought
them out of Italy, they were all so much taken with the
liquor, and transported with the hitherto unknown delight,
that, snatching up their arms and taking their families along
with them, they marched directly to the Alps, to find out
the country which yielded such fruit, pronouncing all others
barren and useless. He that first brought wine among
them and was the chief instigator of their coming into
Italy is said to have been one Aruns, a Tuscan, a man of
noble extraction, and not of bad natural character, but in-
volved in the following misfortune. He was guardian to
an orphan, one of the richest of the country, and much ad-
mired for his beauty, whose name was Lucumo. From his
childhood he had been bred up with Aruns in his family,
and when now grown up did not leave his house, profess-
ing to wish for the enjoyment of his society. And thus
for a great while he secretly enjoyed Aruns's wife, corrupt-
ing her, and himself corrupted by her. But when they
were both so far gone in their passion that they could
neither refrain their lust nor conceal it, the young man
seized the woman and openly sought to carry her away.
The husband, going to law, and finding himself overpowered
by the interest and money of his opponent, left his country
and, hearing of the state of the Gauls, went to them, and
was the conductor of their expedition into Italy.



CAMILLUS. 259

At their first coming they at once possessed themselves
of all that country which anciently the Tuscans inhabited,
reaching from the Alps to both the seas, as the names them-
selves testify ; for the North or Adriatic Sea is named
from the Tuscan city Adria, and that to the south the
Tuscan Sea simply. The whole country is rich in fruit-
trees, has excellent pasture, and is well watered with rivers.
It had eighteen large and beautiful cities, well provided
with all the means for industry and wealth, and all the
enjoyments and pleasures of life. The Gauls cast out the
Tuscans, and seated themselves in them. But this was
long before.

The Gauls at this time were besieging Clusium, a Tus-
can city. The Clusinians sent to the Romans for succor,
desiring them to interpose with the barbarians by letters
and ambassadors. There were sent three of the family of
the Fabii, persons of high rank and distinction in the city.
The Gauls received them courteously, from respect to the
name of Rome, and, giving over the assault which was then
making upon the walls, came to conference with them ;
when the ambassadors asking what injury they had received
of the Clusinians that they thus invaded their city, Brennus,
king of the Gauls, laughed and made answer : " The Clu-
sinians do us injury, in that, being able only to till a small
parcel of ground, they must needs possess a great territory,
and will not yield any part to us who are strangers, many
in number, and poor. In the same nature, O Romans, for-
merly the Albans, Fidenates, and Ardeates, and now lately
the Veientines and Capenates, and many of the Faliscans
and Yolscians, did you injury ; upon whom ye make war if
they do not yield you part of what they possess, make
slaves of them, waste and spoil their country, and ruin
their cities ; neither in so doing are cruel or unjust, but fol-
low that most ancient of all laws, which gives the posses-
sions of the feeble to the strong ; which begins with God
and ends in the beasts ; since all these, by nature, seek the



260 PLUTARCH 1 S LIVES.

stronger to have advantage over the weaker. Cease, there,
fore, to pity the Clusinians whom we besiege, lest ye teach
the Gauls to be kind and compassionate to those that are
oppressed by you." By this answer the Romans, perceiv-
ing that Brennus was not to be treated with, went into
Clusium, and encouraged and stirred up the inhabitants to
make a sally with them upon the barbarians, which they
did either to try their strength or to show their own. The
sally being made, and the fight growing hot about the
walls, one of the Fabii, Quintus Ambustus, being well
mounted, and setting spurs to his horse, made full against
a Gaul, a man of huge bulk and stature, whom he saw rid-
ing out at a distance from the rest. At the first he was
not recognized, through the quickness of the conflict and
the glittering of his armor, that precluded any view of
him ; but when he had overthrown the Gaul, and was go-
ing to gather the spoils, Brennus knew him ; and, invoking
the gods to be witnesses, that, contrary to the known and
common law of nations, which is holily observed by all man-
kind, he who had come as an ambassador had now engaged
in hostility against him, he drew off his men, and bidding
Clusium farewell, led his army directly to Rome. But not
wishing that it should look as if they took advantage of
that injury, and were ready to embrace any occasion of
quarrel, he sent a herald to demand the man in punish-
ment, and in the mean time marched leisurely on.

The senate being met at Rome, among many others that
spoke against the Fabii, the priests called fecials were the
most decided, who, on the religious ground, urged the sen-
ate that they should lay the whole guilt and penalty of the
fact upon him that committed it, and so exonerate the rest.
These fecials Numa Pompilius, the mildest and justest of
kings, constituted guardians of peace, and the judges and
determiners of all causes by which war may justifiably be
made. The senate referring the whole matter to the people,
and the priests there, as well as in the senate, pleading



CAMILLAS. 261

against Fabius, the multitude, however, so little regarded
their authority, that in scorn and contempt of it they chose
Fabius and the rest of his brothers military tribunes.
The Gauls, on hearing this, in great rage threw aside every
delay, and hastened on with all the speed they could make.
The places through which they marched, terrified with their
numbers and the splendor of their preparations for war,
and in alarm at their violence and fierceness, began to give
up their territories as already lost, with little doubt but
their cities would quickly follow ; contrary, however, to
expectation, they did no injury as they passed, nor took
anything from the fields ; and, as they went by any city,
cried out that they were going to Rome ; that the Romans
only were their enemies, and that they took all others for
their friends.

Whilst the barbarians were thus hastening with all speed,
the military tribunes brought the Romans into the field to
be ready to engage them, being not inferior to the Gauls in
number (for they were no less than forty thousand foot),
but most of them raw soldiers, and such as had never han-
dled a weapon before. Besides, they had wholly neglected
all religious usages, had not obtained favorable sacrifices,
nor made inquiries of the prophets, natural in danger and
before battle. No less did the multitude of commanders
distract and confound their proceedings ; frequently before,
upon less occasions, they had chosen a single leader, with
the title of dictator, being sensible of what great impor-
tance it is in critical times to have the soldiers united under
one general with the entire and absolute control placed in his
hands. Add to all, the remembrance of Camillus's treat-
ment, which made it now seem a dangerous thing for
officers to command without humoring their soldiers. In
this condition they left the city, arid encamped by the river
Allia, about ten miles from Rome ; and not far from the
place where it falls into the Tiber ; and here the Gauls came
upon them, and, after a disgraceful resistance, devoid of



2G2 PL UTARCW S LIVES.

order and discipline, they were miserably defeated. The
left wing was immediately driven into the river, and there
destroyed ; the right had less damage by declining the
shock, and from the low grounds getting to the tops of the
hills, from whence most of them afterwards dropped into
the city ; the rest, as many as escaped, the enemy being
weary of the slaughter, stole by night to Veii, giving up
Rome and all that was in it for lost.

This battle was fought about the summer solstice, the
moon being at full, the very same day in which the sad
disaster of the Fabii had happened, when three hundred of
that name were at one time cut off by the Tuscans. But
from this second loss and defeat the day got the name of
Alliensis from the river Allia, and still retains it. The
question of unlucky days, whether we should consider any
to be so, and whether Heraclitus did well in upbraiding
Hesiod for distinguishing them into fortunate and unfort-
unate, as ignorant that the nature of every day is the
same, I have examined in another place ; but upon occasion
of the present subject, I think it will not be amiss to annex
a few examples relating to this matter. On the fifth of
their month Hippodromins, which corresponds to the
Athenian Hecatombseon, the Boeotians gained two signal
victories, the one at Leuctra, the other at Ceressus, about
three hundred years before, when they overcame Lat-
tamyas and the Thessalians, both which asserted the liberty
of Greece. Again, on the sixth of Boedromion, the Per-
sians were worsted by the Greeks at Marathon ; on the third,
at Plataea, as also at Mycale ; on the twenty-fifth, at Arbela.
The Athenians, about the full moon in Boedromion, gained
their sea-victory at Naxos under the conduct of Chabrias ;
on the twentieth, at Salamis, as we have shown in our
treatise on Days. Thargelion was a very unfortunate
month to the barbarians, for in it Alexander overcame Da-
rius's generals on the Granicus ; and the Carthaginians, on
the twenty-fourth, were beaten by Timoleon in Sicily, on



CAM1LL US.

which same day and month Troy seems to have been taken,
as Ephorus, Callisthenes, Damastes, and Phylarchus state.
On the other hand, the month Metagitnion, which in Boeotia
is called Panemus, was not very lucky to the Greeks ; for
on its seventh day they were defeated by Antipater, at the
battle in Cranon, and utterly ruined ; and before, at Chse-
ronea, were defeated by Philip ; and on the very same day,
same month, and same year, those that went with Archida-
mus into Italy were there cut off by the barbarians. The Car-
thaginians also observe the twenty-first of the same. month,
as bringing with it the largest number and the severest of
their losses. I am not ignorant that, about the Feast of
Mysteries, Thebes was destroyed the second time by Alex-
ander ; and after that, upon the very twentieth of Boedro-
mion, on which day they lead forth the mystic lacchus, the
Athenians received a garrison of the Macedonians. On the
selfsame day the Romans lost their army under Csepio by
the Cimbrians, and in a subsequent year, under the con-
duct of Lucullus, overcame the Armenians and Tigranes.
King Attains and Pompey died both on their birthdays.
One could reckon up several that have had variety of fort-
une on the same day. This day, meantime, is one of the
unfortunate ones to the Romans, and for its sake two
others in every month ; fear and superstition, as the custom
of it is, more an^' more prevailing. But I have discussed
this more accurately, in my Roman Questions.

And now, after the battle, had the Gauls immediately
pursued those that fled, there had been no remedy but Rome
must have wholly been ruined, and those who remained in it
utterly destroyed ; such was the terror that those who es-
caped the battle brought with them into the city, and with
such distraction and confusion were themselves in turn in-
fected. But the Gauls, not imagining their victory to be so
considerable, and overtaken with the present joy, fell to
feasting and dividing the spoil, by which means they gave
leisure to those who were for leaving the city to make their



26 4 PL UTARCB ' S LIVES.

escape, and to those that remained, to anticipate and pre-
pare for their coming. For they who resolved to stay at
Rome, abandoning the rest of the city, betook themselves
to the Capitol, which they fortified with the help of missiles
and new works. One of their principal cares was of their
holy things, most of which they conveyed into the Capitol.
But the consecrated fire the vestal virgins took, and fled
with it, as likewise their other sacred things. Some write
that they have nothing in their charge but the ever-living
fire which Nurna had ordained to be worshipped as the
principle of all things ; for fire is the most active thing in
nature, and all production is either motion, or attended
with motion ; all the other parts of matter, so long as they
are without warmth, lie sluggish and dead, and require the
accession of a sort of soul or vitality in the principle of
heat ; and upon that accession, in whatever way, immedi-
ately receive a capacity either of acting or being acted
upon. And thus Numa, a man curious in such things, and
whose wisdom made it thought that he conversed with the
Muses, consecrated fire, and ordained it to be kept ever
burning, as an image of that eternal power which orders and
actuates all things. Others say that this fire was kept burn-
ing in front of the holy things, as in Greece, for purification,
and that there were other things hid in the most secret part
of the temple, which were kept from the ' r iew of all, except
those virgins whom they call vestals.. Tue most common
opinion was, that the image of Pallas, brought into Italy by
JEneas, was laid up there; others say that the Samothracian
images lay there, telling a story how that Dardanus carried
them to Troy, and, when he had built the city, celebrated
those rites, and dedicated those images there ; that after
Troy was taken, ^Eueas stole them away, and kept them till
his coming into Italy. But they who profess to know more
of the matter affirm that there are two barrels, not of any
great size, one of which stands open and has nothing in it,
the other full and sealed up ; but that neither of them may



CAMILLUS. 265

be seen but by the most holy virgins. Others think that
they who say this are misled by the fact that the virgins
put most of their holy things into two barrels at this time
of the Gaulish invasion, and hid them underground in the
temple of Quirinus ; and that from hence that place to this
day bears the name of Barrels.

However it be, taking the most precious and important
things they had, they fled away with them, shaping their
course along the river-side, where Lucius Albinius, a simple
citizen of Rome, who among others was making his escape,
overtook them, having his wife, children, and goods in a
cart ; and, seeing the virgins dragging along in their arms
the holy things of the gods, in a helpless and weary condi-
tion, he caused his wife and children to get down, and, tak-
ing out his goods, put the virgins in the cart, that they might
make their escape to some of the Greek cities. This de-
vout act of Albinius, and the respect he showed thus signally
to the gods at a time of such extremity, deserved not to be
passed over in silence. But the priests that belonged to
other gods, and the most elderly of the senators, men who
had been consuls and had enjoyed triumphs, could not en-
dure to leave the city ; but, putting on their sacred and splen-
did robes, Fabius the high -priest performing the office, they
made their prayers to the gods, and, devoting themselves,
as it were, for their country, sate themselves down in their
ivory chairs in the forum, and in that posture expected the
event.

On the third day after the battle, Brennus appeared with
his army at the city, and, finding the gates wide open and
no guards upon the walls, first began to suspect it was
some design or stratagem, never dreaming that the Romans
were in so desperate a condition. But when he found it to
be so indeed, he entered at the Colline gate, and took
Rome, in the three hundred and sixtieth year, or a little
more, after it was built ; if, indeed, it can be supposed
probable that an exact chronological statement has beeu



66 PL UTAECU' S LIVES.

preserved of events which were themselves the cause oi
chronological difficulties about things of later date; of the
calamity itself, however, and of the fact of the capture,
some faint rumors seem to have passed at the time into
Greece. Ileraclides Ponticus, who lived not long after
these times, in his book upon the Soul, relates that a
certain report came from the west, that an army, proceed-
ing from the Hyperboreans, had taken a Greek city called
Rome, seated somewhere upon the great sea. But I do not
wonder that so fabulous and high-flown an author as
Heraclides should embellish the truth of the story with ex-
pressions about Hyperboreans and the great sea. Aristotle
the philosopher appears to have heard a correct statement
of the taking of the city by the Gauls, but he calls its



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