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KVKXwdeLrf. rrjv yap dcrffcdXeiav ei; ajrarros &KO-
Kovra Kal TrXelcrTOV \6yov %ovTa TOV /jujSev
4 Tcadelv OIKOL neveiv r^v KpaTunov. o Be fj,vpiovs
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vayK(iovTos, d\\' OTTW? }Lvpov 6t? TOV
Opovov KaOicrr} TOV f3aa-i\iov, etra TrepiaKOTrwi'
^wpav fcal Ta^Lv, OVK a</>' ?y? crcocrefe TOP r]yefjiova
teal jjucrOoSoTrfv, aXX' ev Tin 6e/jievos eavTov


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5 viroOeaiv. OTL yap ovoels av VTre/jieive TMV
Trepl f3acri\ea TOVS f/

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fjba\\ov eu\d(3eiav r) TO TOV Kvpov
aiTiaTtov 009 ra Trpdy^aTa Kal Kvpov

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OTTOV Ttt^a? TOU? " EXXr^a? a^SXa/SecrTaTot?
creTai TToXe/Atoi?, OLVC ai/ eTepav e^evpev ?*/
aTTwrara) %o)pav eavTov Kal TWV Trepl eavTov, d<j)
>7? oirre viKr/Oels auro? rjaQeTO Kal KO/oo? e^Btj
KaTaKOTrels rj ^p^cra/zei^o? rt TT} KXeap^ou i/t/c?;.

7 KaiToi Ku/30? TO crv/jicfrspov OVK rjyvoijffev, aXX*
eVet KXeap^of edeXque TaTTecrOai KCLTCL [Mecroi>.
o & avTM fjieXetf elirwy QTTO)? e^i %d\XicrTa t TO



Greeks over against the king, and to keep his right
wing close to the river, that lie might not be sur-
rounded. For if he sought safety above everything
else and made it his chief object to avoid losses, it
had been best for him to stav at home. But he had


marched ten thousand furlongs up from the sea-coast
under arms, with no compulsion upon him, but in
order that he might place Cyrus upon the royal
throne ; and then, in looking about for a place and
position which would enable him, not to save his
leader and employer, but to fight safely and as he
pleased, he was like one who, through fear of instant
peril, had cast aside the plans made for general
success and abandoned the object of the expedition.
For had the Greeks charged upon the forces arrayed
about the king, not a man of them would have stood
his ground ; and had these been routed and the king
either slain or put to flight, Cyrus would have won
by his victory, not only safety, but a kingdom. This
is clear from the course of the action. Therefore the
caution of Clearchus rather than the temerity of
Cyrus must be held responsible for the ruin of Cyrus
and his cause. For if the king himself had sought
out a place to array the Greeks in which their attack
would be least injurious to him, he could have found
no other than that which was most remote from
himself and his immediate following, since he himself
did not know that his forces had been defeated there,
and Cyrus could take no advantage at all of the


victory of Clearchus, because he was cut down too
soon. And yet Cyrus well knew what was for the
best, and ordered Clearchus to take his position
accordingly in the centre. But Clearchus, after
telling Cyrus he would see to it that the best was
done, ruined everything.



IX. Oi fJLGv ydp r/ EA,X?7ye? ocrov {3ov\ovro roi>9
ISapftdpovs evitcwv KOI Biwteovres errl rrXelcrrov
rrporfkBov Kypw Be yevvalov '(rrrrov, dcrrofiov Be
teal v/3pio~rr/v eXavvovri, Tlaaarcav Ka\ovp,evov, &)?
KT77<7ia9 <f)r}(rtv, avre^i]\aa'ev o KaSoucrta)^ ap%tt>v

2 'ApTa<ypcrr)<; /^eya (Boon 1 , f ''O TO KaXXicrrov v
Hepcrai,? ovofxa K.vpou KaraLa-^yvwv, d

v KOI d^povecrrare, Ara/tou? /JLCV r/
V KaK *l v o&bv dywv eVl ra Ilepcrco

Be creauToO #al dBe\(f)Oi> e\7ria)i> avai-
pijcretv, 09 <rot) /jLvpid/cis [ivpiovs Bov\ov<; e^et
Kpeio-crovas. avru/ca Be Treipd&y Trporepov yap
aTroXet? evravOa rrjv creawrov Ked>a\rjv rj 6ed-

3 cracrdai TO /SacriXeco? Trpoffwrrov" ravra
%j*<qKQVTiCF&t eV avTOV. o Be 0wpa
ai/T6<7^e, al owe erpa)0rj fiev o KOpo?, e
Be Trjs 77X7777)9 lcr)vpa<; 7rpoo-7r(rovcrr)s.
(TTpe\lravTo<; Be rov 'LTTTTOV rov 'Aprayepcrov

6 KO/309 TV%, KOI $irj\a(T TTClpd TYjV K\?,Ba Bid

rov T/aa%r;Xof TTJV al^/jiijv.

4 Toi^ ^ei' ovv 'ApTayepa-rjv d-noOavelv VTTO rov
Kvpov a%e&bv a7ra/'Te9 6{io\oyov<ri' rrepl Be T?}9
avrov Kvpov reXevrij^ eVet z~,i>o(j)wv a7rXw9 ^at
avvro/jiws, are Br) yu-r; rrapwv auTO9, elrrev, ovBer
Tcr&)9 K(i)\vei rd Aeivwvos IBia Kal rrd\i.v rd

X. <l>77O'li/ oui^ o /uey Aetvtov on rov 'Apra-
yepaov rreaovros elcreXdcras /3fat<9 6 \\vpos eis
TOU9 TTporeray/xevovs rov /3ao-tXero? Karerpaxrev
avrov rov irrrrov, o Be aTreppvrj' 'Yijpifid^ov Be


ARTAXERXK3 ix. i-x. i

IX. For the Greeks were victorious to their hearts'
content over the Barbarians, and went forward a
very great distance in pursuit of them ; but Cyrus,
riding a horse that was high-bred, but fierce and hard
to guide (his name was Pasacas, as Ctesias tells us),
was met in full course by Artagerses, commander of
the Cadusians, who cried with a loud voice: "O
thou who disgracest the name of Cyrus, that noblest
name among the Persians, thou most unjust and
senseless of men, thou art come with evil Greeks on
an evil journey after the good things of the Persians,
and thou hopest to slay thine own brother and thy
master, who hath a million servants that are better
men than thou. And thou shalt at once have proof
of this ; for thou shalt lose thine own head here
before thou hast seen the face of the king." With
these words he hurled his spear at Cyrus. But the
breastplate of Cyrus stoutly resisted, and its wearer
was not wounded, though he reeled under the shock
of the mighty blow. Then, as Artagerses turned his
horse away, Cyrus hurled his spear and hit him, and
drove its head through his neck past the collar-bone.

Thus Artagerses died at the hands of Cyrus, as
nearly all writers are agreed in saying ; but as
regards the death of Cyrus himself, since Xenophon
makes simple and brief mention of it, 1 because he
was not present himself when it happened, there is
no objection perhaps to my recounting, first what
Deinon says about it, and then what Ctesias says.

X. Accordingly, Deinon says that after Artagerses
had fallen, Cyrus charged furiously into those drawn
up in front of the king, and wounded the king's
horse, and that the king fell to the ground ; but

1 Ana.b. i. viii. 26 f.


dva(3d\6vTO<> avrov eV a\\ov ITTTTOV Ta%v tcai

, " T fl /3acri\v, /jie^i'T/cro T^? rjf_iepa<s 1Q16
ov 'yap dia X?;'$?79 eoTi," Tfd\iv o KO/JO9
rw 'iTnrro Karef3a\e TOV ' A.pTO^ep^r)v.
2 7T}0? 8e TTV T'nrv eiT.\acnv &uo-avaa"Ti<Tas o

, Ka etTroov TT/OO? TO?;? Trapovras
eVrt yLtr; ^y, dvTe%i]\avve TW K
Kal drreiaKeinw^ els tvavria

3 \ovffi Se ol Trepl avrov. TTLTrret Be o Kvpos, a.^
/jiev ei'ioi \<yovcn, TrXtjyel^ VTTO TOV /3a<7t\e(t)S,
a>9 8e erepoi Tives, Ka/oo? dvOpwirov
w <yepa<$ eBcoKe T% Tr/^a^eo)? ravrTj^ 6
d\KTpvova xpvcrovv eVt 8oparo9 aet Trpo
ra^cw? ey rat? ffTpareiai^ Ko/ni^eiv' Kal yap
aurou? rot/? Ka/3a9 dXeKrpvovas ol Tlep&ai Bid
roi>9 Xo<^ou9, ol9 Koa^ovat TO, Kpdvi], Trpoa-

XI. 'H 6e Kr^crtou Birjyrjcris, 009 7TLT/ji6vTi
7ro\\d cru^TO/i&)9 aTrayyeiXaL, TOiavrrj Tt9 ecrri.
K0po9 drroKrelvas 'ApTayeparjv ^\avvev 6/9 avTov
TOV ITTTTOV, Kal avTos et9 eKeivov, a/z<o-
<p0dvi Be fta\a>v ^Apiaios 6 K.vpov
(^1X09 ftaaiXia, KOI OVK eTpuxjG' ftaaiXevs oe
a^>6(9 TO
Be, TTKTTOV dvBpa Ky/3ft) /cat yevvalov, e/SaXe

2 inreKTeive. KO/OO9 8' eV avTov ej~aKovTiaa<$ Sia
TOV tfwpaKos eTpwae TO o~Tr/0os, ocrov ev&vvai Bvo


djro TOV ITTTTOV. <pvy?js Be Kal

Twit Trep avTov yevo^ev^, o [JLCV dvaaTas


ARTAXERXES x. i-xi. 2

Teribazus quickly mounted him upon another horse,
saying, " O king, remember this day, for it deserves
not to be forgotten " ; whereupon Cyrus again plunged
in and dismounted Artaxerxes. But at his third
assault, the king, being enraged, and saying to those
who were with him that death was better, rode out
against Cyrus, who was rashly and impetuously
rushing upon the missiles of his opponents. The
king himself hit him with a spear, and he was hit by
the attendants of the king. Thus Cyrus fell, as some
say, by a wound at the hands of the king, but as
sundry others have it, from the blow of a Carian, who
was rewarded by the king for this exploit with the
privilege of always carrying a golden cock upon his
spear in front of the line during an expedition ; for
the Persians call the Carians themselves cocks,
because of the crests with which they adorn their

XI. But the narrative of Ctesias, to give it in a
much-abbreviated form, is something as follows
After he had slain Artagerses, Cyrus rode against
the king himself, and the king against him, both
without a word. But Ariaeus, the friend of Cyrus,
was beforehand in hurling his spear at the king,
though he did not wound him. And the king,
casting his spear at Cyrus, did not hit him, but
struck and killed Satiphernes, a trusted friend of
Cyrus and a man of noble birth. But Cyrus threw
his spear at the king and wounded him in the
breast through the cuirass, so that the weapon
sank in two fingers deep, and the king fell from
his horse with the blow. Amid the ensuing
confusion and flight of his immediate followers, the
king rose to his feet, and with a few companions



ev ot9 teal Krrja-ias rjv, \ofyov rtva 7r\rj-
Kara\a/3wv rjcrv^a^e' }Lvpov Be roi<$ TTO\-
evei\ovfjievov o ITTTTOS e^ecfrepev vrro Ovfjuov
dv, fjBr) o~Korov? ovros ayvoovp^evov VTTO ra>i>

p6/jLVOS Se TTf VlKTj KOl yLte<TT09 O)V Op/jifjS Kdl

dcrovs Siet;)j\,avve fiowv, " 'E^tcrracr^e, irevL-
TOVTO & TLepaicrTl TTo\\aKi<i avrov

01 fll> %L(TTaVTO TTpOtTKVVOVVreS, tlTTO-

Be TT)<? /ce<J)a\fjs r; rtdpa rov Ku/3ou. real
Trapar peewit veavias TLepa-rjs ovofjia MiOpiSdrr)*;
ax.ovTi(f {3d\\ei TOV Kporafyov avrov Trapd TOV

4 o<j)@d\,/jiov, dyvowv oarts ecr). TTO\V Be alp,a rov
rpav/jiaro^ eK(3a\ovros IXiyyidaas teal /capcoflels
o KO/oo? errecre. tcai o [Jiev tTTTro? v7T6K<pv<y(DV eVXa-
^ero, TOI^ 8' efyiTTrceiov rrl\ov drroppvevra \aju./3di>i
rov rov Kvpov /3aXo^ro? dKO\ov9os aifxaros rrepi-
7r\a>. rov Be K.vpov GK rrjs TT\r)ytjs dvatfiepovra

real /ioXi? evvov^oi rives 6\iyoi rrapovres
eir a\\ov LTTTTOV dvaOecrOai Kal

5 dBvvdrcos B' e%ovra Kal Bi avrov rrp

ftaBi^etv vrro\a(3ovres fjyov, ru> p,ev o-(ap,ari Kaprj-
{Bapovvra Kal o~<fia\\ofji6vov ) olo/Jievov Be VLKCIV
aKovovra rwv fyewyovrwv dvaica\ovfJLev<i)v Kvpov
/SacrtAea Kal (freiBeaflai, Beo/j,va)v. ev Be rovrto
Y^avviol rives dvOpwrroi KaKoftioi Kal arropoi Kal
rarreiv&v VTrovpy^/jidr(Dv eveKa rfj rov /3aai\,e(os
arparia rrapaKO\ov6ovvr<$ erv%ov a

6 re? &><? (j)i\,ois rots 1 Trepl rov Kvpov- a)? Be



among whom also was Ctesias, took possession of
a certain hill near by and remained there quietly ;
but Cyrus, enveloped by his enemies, was borne on
a long distance by his spirited horse, and since it
was now dark, his enemies did not recognize him
and his friends could not find him. But lifted up
by his victory, and full of impetuosity and confi-
dence, he rode on through his foes, crying out,
" Clear the way, ye beggars ! ' Thus he cried out
many times, in Persian, and they cleared the way,
and made him their obeisance. But the turban of
Cyrus fell from his head, and a young Persian,
Mithridates by name, running to his side, smote him
with his spear in the temple, near the eye, not
knowing who he was. Much blood gushed from
the wound, and Cyrus, stunned and giddy, fell .to
the ground. His horse escaped and wandered
about the field, but the horse's saddle-cloth, which
had slipped off, was captured by the attendant of
the man who had struck Cyrus, and it was soaked
with blood. Then, as Cyrus was slowly and with
difficulty recovering from the blow, a few eunuchs
who were at hand tried to put him upon another
horse and bring him to a place of safety. But since
he was unable to ride and desired to go on his own
feet, they supported him and led him along. His
head was heavy and he reeled to and fro, but he
thought he was victorious because he heard the
fugitives saluting Cyrus as king and begging him
to spare them. Meanwhile some Caunians low
and poverty-stricken men who followed the king's
army to do menial service chanced to join the
party about Cyrus, supposing them to be friends.
But when at last they perceived that the tunics



ra)v j3acn,\iKwv drrdvrwv, eyvuxrav rro\e-
6Vra?. el? ovv efceivwv er6\/j,r)aev djvocov
e^bm&dev fiaXeiv rbv ivpov dteovriw. TT}<? Se
Trepl rrjv iyvvav </)Xe/3o? avappayeio")^ TTCCTC/DV o
KO/30? a/na Traiet TT/JO? TIVI \idu) rbv

teal (iTrodi'/icrKei. roioOro? /j.ev 6
^0709, to Kaddjrep d/jt/BXei %i<f)iBi(ii
dvaipwv rbv avOpwrrov dvyprj/cev.

XII. "HS^ ^e aurov r60^TjKOTO<i 'Apracrvpas 6

ovv TOI)?

TOV Triffrorarop avT&v, " TLva rov- 1017
TOV, a) TlapiffKa, rc\aieis TrapaKaOi'ujLevos ; " 6 3e
eiTrev " Qv% bpas t w 'Apracrvpa, KOpoi' r
tcora ; * & av pda a<$ ovv 6 'Apracrvpas TW
evvov^a) Oappelv irapeicekevaaro teal (f)v\aTTtv

2 rbv veicpbv, avros Be a vvr civets TT/JO? rbv '
%eprjv, direyvto/cora p,ev i]^i] ra rrpdynara, tca/cw^
oe teal TO crco/ta StaKi/Avov vrrb re Styr]*; teal
rov rpavfiaros, ^aipcov <ppdei, a>? auro? iBot,

Kvpov. 6 Be rrp&rov fjiev evOus a>p-
avro? levai, /cal rbv 'Apracrvpav ayeiv
K^evcrev ejrl rbv rorrov' errel Be TroXu? rjv \6yos
ra)v 'EXX?;Va)^ teal $o/3o? a>? 8ia)Kovra)v teal rrdvra
vifcwvrcov teal Kparovvrwv, eBo^e rr\eiovas rre/n^at
TOL? Karo^o^evov^' teal rpidtcovra \a/j,7rdBas

3 exovres errepfydriaav. avry Be futepov drro\el-
TTOvri rov reOvdvai Sta TO Bi\lrffv ^.


ARTAXERXES xi. 6-xn. 3

over their breastplates were of a purple colour,
whereas all the king's people wore white ones, they
knew that they were enemies. Accordingly, one
of them, not knowing who Cyrus was, ventured to
smite him from behind with his spear. The vein
in the ham of Cyrus was ruptured and he fell, and
at the same time struck his wounded temple against
a stone, and so died. Such is the story of Ctesias,
in which, as with a blunt sword, he is long in killing
Cyrus, but kills him at last.

XII. When Cyrus was now dead, Artasyras, the
king's Eye, 1 chanced to pass by on horseback, and
recognizing the eunuchs as they lamented, he asked
the trustiest of them, " Who is this man, Pariscas.
by whom thou sittest mourning?" And Pariscas
answered : " O Artasyras, dost thou not see Cyrus
dead?" Astonished at this, then, Artasyras bade
the eunuch be of good courage and guard the dead
body, but he himself went in hot haste to Artaxerxes
(who had already given up his cause for lost, and
besides was physically in a wretched plight from
thirst and from his wound), and joyfully told him
that with his own eyes he had seen Cyrus dead.
At first the king promptly set out to go in person
to the place, and ordered Artasyras to conduct him
thither; but since there was much talk about the
Greeks, and it was feared that they were pursuing
and conquering and making themselves masters
everywhere, he decided to send a larger company
to see where Cyrus lay. So thirty men were sent,
with torches. Meanwhile, since the king was
almost dead with thirst, Satibarzanes the eunuch

1 A confidential officer of high rank, a Superintendent of
the Realm.

VOL. XT. F *53


o evvovs TfepiOewv efyjTei TTOTOV' ov yap el

TO j(wpiov vSayp, ovBe r)v eyyvs TO

ovv TriTvy%dv6i TWV Kavvicov e/ceaxov TWV


vBcop KCLL TTOvripov e^o^TO?, oaov OKTW KOTU\a<;'
teal \aj3a)v TOVTO KOI tco/j.i(Tas ry /3a<n,\el Si

e u iravv

4 paivei TO TTOTOV. 6 Be wfjiocre TOU? Oeoix;

olvov rjc'ews OUTGO? TTCOTTOTC TreTrcorcevat, /LLJJTC


SwrjOco ^ijTrjcra? df.ieL^raa'dai, rov? Oeovs ev
TTOirjcrai fjiafcdpiov KOL f rr\ovcrLOv"

XIII. 'Ei/ &e TOVTCO TrpotjrfXavvov ol rpidtcovTa
\afjLTrpol KOI Trepi^apel?, dvayyeX\ovT<; CLVTW Tr)i>
i>TV)(iav. r;8?7 Se KOI


vwv 0dppet, KOL KdTe/Baivev diro TOV
2 TroXXft) 7Tpi\a/ji7r6/Ji6vo<?. co? Be e7reo~Trj TW verepw,
KOI tcaTa Sij Tiva VO/JLOV Tlepawv rj Se^ia %elp
drreKoTrrj teal i; /ee<aXr/ TOV era) yuaro?, e/ceXeucre
Trjv KetyaXrjv avTW KOU^idQr]vai' Kal rr/?
&pad/j,vos ovcrrjs ftaOeias Kal Xauta? cTre
rot? d/ji(f)iBoovo-iv eTL Kal (>vyovo-iv. 01 Be
Kal TrpoaeKvrovv, waTe

3 et? TO crTpaTOTreBov. e%eKr)\dicei 8e, co? o

(fiiiali', eVl TTJV fjLa)(r)v Tea-crapdKOVTa fjivpidcriv
ol Be rrepl AetVwi'a Kal tzevofywvTa TTO\V
yev([email protected] \eyovai Ta? ^e^a^rjiJieva^. dpiOjmov

ARTAXKRXRS xn. 3 -xm. 3

ran about in quest of a drink for him ; for the place
had no water, and the camp was far away. At last,
then, he came upon one of those low Caunians, who
had vile and polluted water in a wretched skin,
about two quarts in all : this he took, brought it to
the king, and gave it to him. After the king had
drunk it all off, the eunuch asked him if he was not
altogether disgusted with the drink. But the king
swore by the gods that he had never drunk wine,
or the lightest and purest water, with so much
pleasure. "Therefore," said the king, "if I should
be unable to find and reward the man who gave
thee this drink, I pray the gods to make him rich
and happy."

XIII. And now the thirty messengers came riding
up with joy and exultation in their faces, announcing
to the king his unexpected good fortune. Presently,
too, he was encouraged by the number of men who
flocked back to him and formed in battle array, and
so he came down from the hill under the light of
many torches. And after he had halted at the dead
body of Cyrus, and its right hand and head had been
cut off (in accordance with a law of the Persians),
he ordered the head to be brought to him ; and
grasping it by the hair, which was long and bushy,
lie showed it to those who were still wavering and
disposed to fly. These were amazed, and made
obeisance to the king, so that very soon seventy
thousand men were about him and marched back
with him to their camp. He had marched out to
the battle, as Ctesias says, with four hundred
thousand men. But Deinon and Xenophon say that
the army which fought under him was much larger.
As to the number of his dead, Ctesias says that it

J 55


L 7T/9O9 TOV ' ApTO^ep^rfv, avTO) Be &KT (j,v piwv
OVK e'XaTTOi>9 avr)vai rou9 Kei/Jievovs. ravra pev
ovv e^et Biaf.KJua-ffriT'rjcriv' etcelvo Be TOV Krrja-iov
\afMTrpov ijBi) tyevcr/jia, TO rre/ji^OjjvaL $avai rrpos
rovs' f tLXXrjvas avrov yLtera <&a\ivov TOV TmtivvQlov
4 (cai TIVWV a\\wv> o yap Hero(/>&)^ ^mcrraro
crvt'Siarpi/3ovTa j3acri\el K.Trj<riaV fJLejJtviji'ai yap


1 ' OVK civ ovv e\66vTa ical \bywv
TOCTOVTWV epfirjvea yevo/nevov 7raprjKv dvci)vv/jLOv,
<\>a\lvov 8e TOV Tiaicvvdiov wi'oiac;'. aA,Xa Bai-

o Kr?;crta,?, &>? eoifce, (^tXor^o? wv teal

OV X } rr v (>ioaK(t)V fcal (f)/,\OK\eap^o<; aei

as eavTw BLSaxriv, ev


XIV. Merd & rijv /jid^v owpa Ka\\iaTa
Trefji-^fe fcal nzyiara TW ' Aprayepaou iraioi TOV
rreaovTos inro Kvpov, AraXw? oe KOI Kr?;<ria2'
real T0i9 aXXof? e'rt/^o-e. TOV Be Kavviov eKetvov
%avevpu)V, 09 CTreBw/ce TO daKiov, e iiSo^ov KCL\
VTif.Lov /cal TT\OV(TLOV erroiija-ev. TJV Be TJ9
KOL Trepl TO9 TWV e^a/napTovTcov BIKCU-
. *Ap/3aKr)v fjiv ydp Tiva M7}Soi/eV Ty fJ-d^rj
bs Kvpov (pvyovTa KCU rrd\iv efceivov nreaovTos
IJieTaaTavTa, Bei\iai> Kal fjLaXa/ciav KdTayvovs, ov
TrpoBocriav ovBe KaKovoiav, e/ceXevcre yv/j,vrjv dva-
Topvrjv 7repi{3dBr)v errl TOV Tpa%)j\ov 8i'
oX7;9 ev dyopa rrepufrepeiv- cTepov Be 77/509

1 Aiutb. ii. 1. 7-23.

ARTAXEHXES xin. 3 -xiv. 2

was reported to Artaxerxes as nine thousand, but
tiiat he himself thought the slain no fewer than
twenty thousand. This matter, then, is in dispute.
But it is certainly a glaring falsehood on the part of
Ctesias to say that he was sent to the Greeks along
with Phalinus the Zacynthian and certain others.
For Xenophoii knew that Ctesias was in attendance
upon the king, since he makes mention of him and
had evidently read his works ; if, then, Ctesias had
come to the Greeks and served as an interpeter in
so momentous a colloquy, Xenophon would not
have left him nameless and named only Phalinus
the Zacynthian. 1 The truth is that Ctesias, being
prodigiously ambitious, as it would seem, and none
the less partial to Sparta and to Clearchus, always
allows considerable space in his narrative for himself,
and there he will say many fine things about
Clearchus and Sparta.

XI V. After the battle, the king sent the largest
and most beautiful gifts to the son of that Artagerses
who fell at the hands of Cyrus ; he also gave gener-
ous rewards to Ctesias and others, and when he iiad
found out the Caunian who had given him the skin
of water, he raised him from obscurity and poverty
to honour and wealth. There was much watchful
care also in his punishment of those who had
gone wrong. For example, in the case of Arbaces, a
Mede, who had run away to Cyrus during the battle,
and, when Cyrus fell, had changed back again, the
king pronounced him guilty, not of treachery, nor
even of malice, but of cowardice and weakness, and
ordered him to take a naked harlot astride his neck
and carry her about in the market-place for a whole
day. And in the case of another man, who, besides



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going over to the enemy, had lyingly boasted that
he had slain two of them, the king ordered that his
tongue should be pierced with three needles.
Moreover, believing, and wishing all men to think,
and say, that he had killed Cyrus with his own hand,
he sent gifts to Mithridates, the one who first hit
Cyrus, and ordered the bearers of the gifts to say :
"This is thy reward from the king because thou
didst find and bring to him the trappings of the
horse of Cyrus." Again, when the Carian, from
whom Cyrus received the blow in the ham which
brought him down, asked that he also should receive
a gift, the king ordered its bearers to say : " The
king gives thee these things as a second prize for
good tidings ; for Artasyras came first, and after him
thou didst come, with tidings of the death of Cyrus."
Now, Mithridates went away without a word,
although he was vexed ; but the wretched Carian, in
his folly, gave way to a common feeling. That is,
he was corrupted, it would seem, by the good things
which he had, and led by them to aspire at once to
things beyond his reach, so that he would not deign
to take the gifts as a rew r ard for good tidings, but
was indignant, calling men to witness and crying in
loud tones that it was he himself, and no one else,
who had killed Cyrus, and that he was unjustlv
robbed of his glory. When the king heard of this,

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