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he was vehemently angry and gave orders that the
man should be beheaded. Whereupon the king's
mother, who was present, said to him : " O King, do
not let this accursed Carian off so easily, but leave
him to me, and he shall receive the fitting reward
for his daring words." So the king consigned the
man to Parysatis, who ordered the executioners to

159



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

av0po)7rov (/>' rj/nepas BeKa crrpelSXovv, elra TOi/9
o(f)9a\iJLOVs e!;opi>j;avTas 669 ra WTO. OepfJiov e
Kav %a\Kov eW airoQavri.

XV. Ka/eco9 e a7ra)\ero KOI M.idpi8drr
o\iyov ^povov e/c TT}? avrfjs d/3e\Tpias. K\rj0el<;
yap eVt Seiirvov evda Kal fiacri\a)<; /cat TT}?



l? e\aj3e irapa

i? TO TTiveiv a(f)LKovTO, \eyei TT/^O? avrov 6 yueyt-
CTTOJ/ Svvd/jievos TWV [lapvcrdriSos evvov^wv "'Qs
/caXr/i/ yae^ (T0rJTa croi TavTrjv, a> Mt^yOiSara, o
)? BeBcotce, Ka\a Be aTpe-jna Kal tjreKia'
o dvivaKr)*?. ?) aKapLOV a~6 Kal



< T 1 ' ^ v ^ ' ' )> ? tt ?

o iupioanj^, It oe raura eanv, enrev, (a
; p,ei^ovu>v yap eyco Kal Ka\\tovwi>
TTJV rj^epai' eice'iv^v CI^LOV e^avrov Trap-
3 6(7^07^." Kal o 'S.Trapa/jLifys drrt/nei&idcras,
, to M.L0piSuTa" etTrev " eVel
olvov Kal d\i]9cLai> elvai, ri \a/j,7rpov, a>
TCLV, f) /jLeya, TTL\OV evpelv 'LTTTTOV TrepLppvevra Kal
TOVTOV dveveyxelv ; ' ravra Se OVK dyvowv TO






7019 Trapv-as VTreKivei TIJV KovoTrjra rov v-
\d\ov Kal aKparovs yeyovoros Sia TOV



4 olvov. eljrev ovv fj,rj KaTaa%a)V "'T/zei9 /J.ev, o TI

Be



\eyw BiappijBrjv VTTO
K.vpov TT}? ^tpo9. ov ydp 009 ^

Kvov Kal /jidraiov, aXXa ToD fj.ev 6



1 60



ARTAXERXES xiv. 5 -xv. 4

take him and rack him on the wheel for ten days,
then to gouge out his eyes, and finally to drop molten
brass into his ears until he died.

XV. Mithridates also came to a miserable end a
little while after, owing to the same folly. For
being invited to a banquet at which eunuchs of the
king and of the queen-mother were present, he
came decked out with raiment and gold which he
had received from the king. And when the company
were at their cups, the chief eunuch of Parysatis
said to him : " Mithridates, how beautiful this
raiment is which the king gave thee, and how
beautiful the collars and bracelets ! Costly, too, is
thy scimitar. Verily the king has made thee happy
in the admiring eyes of all men." Then Mithridates,
now flushed with wine, replied : "Sparamizes, what
do these things amount to ? Surely my services to
the king on that day were worthy of greater and
more beautiful gifts." Here Sparamizes smiled at
him and said : " There's no grudging them to thee,
Mithridates ; but since, according to the Greek
maxim, there is truth in wine, what great or brilliant
exploit was it, my good fellow, to find a horse's
trappings that had slipped off, and bring them to the
king ? " In saying this, Sparamizes was not ignor-
ant of the truth, but he wished to unveil Mithridates
to the company, and therefore slyly stirred up his
vanity when wine had made him talkative and
robbed him of self-control. Accordingly, Mithridates
threw away constraint and said : " Ye may talk as
ye please about horse-trappings and such nonsense ;
but 1 declare to you explicitly that Cyrus was slain
by this hand of mine ; for I did not, like Artagerses,
make a futile and an idle cast of spear, but I

161



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

uiKpbv rjfAaprov, rov &e Kpord<f>ov rv^cov KCU 8ie\d-

<r9 KarejSdKov rov avSpa' Kal redvrjKev VTT* ercfi-

5 vov rov rpav/jiaros" ol fjiev ovv a\\ot, TO TeXo?

tj&r) rov MiOpiSdrov teal rr)v Kaico^ai^oviav 6pa)i>-

' \ )/ I t &1 t r* J / <{"T^

re? et? Tr]v yijv GKwyav o o ea-riwv aurou?, II
rat'," e<^)7;, " Midpi^dra, mivcbfjtev ev TW Trapovri
/cal eadico/jiev rov ySacriXew? oai/jiova Trpocrtcvvovv-
T69, \6<yov 9 5e fjLeifrvs

XVI. 'E/e TOUTOU TT;
rov \6yov 6 evvov^os, erceivr) Se /3acri\6i'
8e r)yavdtcrr)a-ev axrTrep e^eXe7%6/^^09 teal rb
tcdXXiarov /cal 'tjStarov cnro\\VMv
e(3ov\ero yap ftapfidpovs airavras TreireicrOai,
a>9 ev



^e e/ceiyov. Ke\eu<rv ovv rov '
aTToOavelv aKafavOevra.
2 To Se aKa^evdrjvac roiovrov ecrri" (TKacftas Bvo



^I* erepav KaraK\ivovcrt rov Ko\a^op>evov vrrnov
elra rrjv erepav ejrdyovres Kal crvvap/jLo&vres,
ware rr/v K(f>a\rjv Kal ra9 %elpas e^co Kal TOU9
7ToSq$ a7ro\a/uLf3dve(rdai, rb Be aXXo craiyaa rrav
dTTOK6Kpv(f)Oai, ciSoacriv ecrOieiv rw dvdpcoTrw, KCLV
/j,rj OeXrj, 7rpoa/3id%ovrai Ktvrovvres ra o/n/jLara"
Be melv fj,e\i Kal yd\a (TvyKKpa/jLevov



ey%ov(Tiv e9 TO crro/ia Kal Kara rov Trpocr&Trov



3 Kara-^eov&iv. elra frpbs rov r)\tov del
&iv
162



evavra ra 6/jL/j.ara, Kal /JLVIWV



ARTAXRRXES xv. 4 -xvi. 3

narrowly missed his eye, struck him in the temple,
pierced it, and brought the man down ; and it was
of that wound that he died." The rest of the com-
pany, then, who already saw the end of Mithridates
and his hapless fate, bowed their faces towards the
ground; and their host said: " My good Mithridates,
let us eat and drink now, revering the good genius
of the king, and let us waive discourse that is too
weighty for us."

XVI. Afterwards the eunuch told the matter
to Parysatis, and she to the king ; and the king
was incensed, as being openly convicted of false-
hood, and likely to forfeit the fairest and most
pleasing feature of his victory. For he wished that
all Barbarians and all Greeks should be fully
persuaded that when he and his brother had charged
and grappled with each other, he had given and
received a blow, being only wounded himself, but
killing his brother. He therefore gave orders that
Mithridates should be put to death by the torture
of the boats.

Now, this torture of the boats is as follows. Two
boats are taken, which are so made as to fit over one
another closely ; in one of these the victim is laid,
flat upon his back ; then the other is laid over the
first and carefully adjusted, so that the victim's head,
hands, and feet are left projecting, while the rest of
his body is completely covered up. Then they give
him food to eat, and if he refuse it, they force him to
take it by pricking his eyes. After he has eaten,
they give him a mixture of milk and honey to drink,
pouring it into his mouth, and also deluge his face
with it. Then they keep his eyes always turned
towards the sun, and a swarm of flies settles down

163



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

vwv 7rX?}$o? TTCLV aTTOKpinrrcrat TO

eWo<? Se TrotoiWo? ocra Troielv avajfcalov ecrnv

ecrOiovras di>6p(i)7rovs Kal TrivovTas, ev\al Kal

(TKCt)\1JKS VTTO (f)0Opd<? Kal O^TTeSofO? K TOV

TreptTTco/iaro? ava^eovcriv, vfi aw dva\[crtcTai TO
4 aa>yua $ia$vojjLi>a)V et? ra efro?. orav yap

y re0v>iK(t)<f 6 avOpwTTOS, a^ai
Truv(O crKa(j)7j<; opaxri TT]V pep crdpfca
ecr/jiei]v, Trepl Be ra (TTT\dy%va TOIOVTWV 0rjpio}i>

kdfJiOVS e(T0LOVT(t)l> Ka\ TTpOGirefyvKOTWV. OUTO)?

o MtdpiBdrr)? e-TTTaKaibeKa 7;/xepa? <f>deip6/jLVo$



XVII. AoiTro? 6' TJV rf) TlapvcrdTi&i GKOTTOS o



evvov^os. co? ovv avrbs
* eavrov \aj3rjv Trape&i&ov, rotovrov

2 eV^ouXr/? rpOTTOv rj YlapvGaTts arvveO^Kev.
ra re aXXa Bv^oao^>o<^ yvvrj Kal Setvrj

810 Kal /3a<ri\i Trpb TOV 7ro\e/j,ov TroXXa/a? crvv-
Kv$ev' /zero. & TOV 7ro\e/jiov Sia\v0eicra
avrbv OVK <J)vy ra? t^Ckofypocrvvas, aXXa
(TuveTraL^e Kal T&V epwriKwv eKOLVwvet
Tovaa Kal Trapovcra, Kal oX&>? uiKpoTaTOv avTov
TTJ ^TaTeLpa ^ereS/Sou ^prjaOaL Kal o-uvelvai,
fjLicrovcrd re /zaXtcrra iravTwv CKeivTjv Kal /jL<yt,(TTOv

3 avTJ) /3ov\o/jLvr] &vvacr6at. \aftovcra Sij TTOTC TOV

A.pToepr]v wpfArj^evov d\vetv tr^oXr}? ovcrrjs
7rpovKa\eiTO irepl *%i\Lu>v BapeiKcov KvjSeitirdi' Kal



vutr\Gai Ka TO %pvar(Sv air-

Se



164



ARTAXERXES xvi. 3 -xvn. 3

upon his face and hides it completely. And since
inside the boats he does what must needs be done
when men eat and drink, worms and maggots seethe
up from the corruption and rottenness of the excre-
ment, devouring his body, and eating their way into
his vitals. For when at last the man is clearly dead

w

and the upper boat has been removed, his flesh is
seen to have been consumed away, while about his

< '

entrails swarms of such animals as I have mentioned
are clinging fast and eating. In this way Mithridates
was slowly consumed for seventeen days, and at last
died.

XVII. And now there was one mark left for the
vengeance of Parysatis the man who had cut off the
head and right hand of Cyrus, Masabates, an eunuch
of the king. Against this man, then, since he him-
self gave her no chance to get at him, Parysatis
concocted a plot of the following sort. She was in
general an ingenious woman, and greatly addicted
to playing at dice. For this reason she frequently
played at dice with the king before the war, and
after the war was over and she had been reconciled
with him, she dH not trv to avoid his friendly over-

* * >

lures, but actually joined in his diversions, and took
part in his amours by her cooperation and presence,
and, in a word, left very little of the king for
Stateira's use and society. For she hated Stateira
above all others, and wished to have the chief
influence herself. So, one day, finding Artaxerxes
trying to amuse himself in a vacant hour, she
challenged him to play at dice for a thousand darics,
allowed him to win the game, and paid the money
down. Then, pretending to be chagrined at her loss
and to seek revenge, she challenged the king to play

165



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



KCLV Ke\V(Tl> (IV1S % a PX^^ TTp

4 StaKvftevffai' KaKelvos VTnjKovcre. Troirjadfjievoi

TTCVTC fiev efcdrepov vfre^ekefrOai TOi'9
, CK Se TWV \OITTWV ov av 6 VIKWV
i, Sovvai TOV rjrrwfjbkvov, eVl TOVTOIS exv-
ftevov. a<j)6Spa Brj yevojjievr) 77/909 TW Trpdyfiari
l cTTrovbdcracra Trepl rrjv TraiBidv, V Se T
Kal TWV tcvfBwv Treaoi'Tayi', viKrfcraaa



vei TOV M.acra/3dTr)V' ov 'yap TJV ev rot? v

5 fJievoL?. Kal irplv ev v r rro^ria yevecrQai ftacri\a

TOV Trpdy/jLaTos cy^eipicracra rot? 67rl TWV ri/jLco-

piwv 7rpo<TTa%v (-KSeipai ^wvra, teal TO p^v <ra)/Jia

~ / f \ n t . > - N 5> v ?'

7T\.ayiov ota ipiwv crTavpwv avaTrrjgai, TO oe be



TOVTCOV



^a\7ra>9 (frepovros Kal
avrrfv, elpayvevo/JLevTj pera

" el Kal /jiaKaios, el



"



6 KvjSev&elcra SapeiKovs aiwrrw Kal o-Tepyw." fia&i-



ovv



y<jy'j(ldv r/yev, y; 5e ^rdreipa Kal irpos TaXXa
cfravepws rjvavTiovro Kal TOVTOIS eBva-^epaivev, 009
dvBpas evvoi/xovs Kal TTIO-TOVS {BacriXel Bid Kvpov
W/XW9 Kal 7rapav6/j,(0s dTroXkvovcnis avrf/f;.

XVIII. *E7rel Se K\ap%ov Kal rous d\\ov<$ 1Q20
or paryy ov<$ Tia-acfiepvrjs e^rjirdrrjcre Kal irap-
opKcov <yevofJ<vci)V Kal crvXXaftcov dv~
ev TreSais SeSeyLteVof?, BerjOrjvai,
avrov TOV K.\ap%ov 6 KT?;crta9 OTTO)?
V7ropijcrei. TV%6vTa Se Kal Trj/jie\rj(TavTa TTJV
K(f>a\rjv ycrdrjvai TC Trj 'ftp'etd Kal TOV SaKTvXiov

166



ARTAXERXES xvn. 3-xvm. i

a second game, with an eunuch for the stake, and
the king consented. They agreed that both might
reserve five of their most trusty eunuchs, but that
from the rest the loser must give whichever one the
winner might select, and on these conditions played
their game. Parysatis took the matter much to
heart and was in great earnest with her playing, and
since the dice also fell in her favour, she won the
game, and selected Masabates ; for he was not among
those who had been excepted. And before the king
suspected her design, she put the eunuch in the
hands of the executioners, who were ordered to
Hay him alive, to set up his body slantwise on
three stakes, and to nail up his skin to a fourth.
This was done, and when the king was bitterly
incensed at her, she said to him, with a mocking
laugh : "What a blessed simpleton thou art, to be
incensed on account of a wretched old eunuch, when
I, who have diced away a thousand darics, accept my
loss without a word." So the king, although sorry
that he had been deceived, kept quiet in the matter,
but Stateira openly opposed Parysatis in other things,
and above all was angry with her because, for the
sake of Cyrus, she was cruelly and lawlessly putting
to death eunuchs and others who were faithful to
the king.

XVIII. Now, when Clearchus and his fellow-
generals had been completely deceived by Tissa-
phernes, 1 and, contrary to solemn oaths, had been
seized and sent up to the king in chains, Ctesias
tells us that he was asked by Clearchus to provide
him with a comb. Clearchus got the comb and
dressed his hair, and being pleased at the service

1 Cf. Xenophon, Anab. ii. 5.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

avrw Sovvai <rvfJL(3o\ov <f)i\ia<? Trpo? TOU? ev
AaKeBaiuovi avyyeveis KOI olfceiow elvai &
y\v<f)t]V ev rfj &(j>pt$jt8i KapvdrtBas 6px&u/j,eva<s.

2 ra Be rrefjirr6p.eva ffiria rw KXea/o^ro TOI>? avv-
&e&e[A6vovs (rrpaTKoras d(f)atpia'0ai teal Kar-
ava\iaKiv,b\Lya rut KXeapxroSiSovras OLTT aurcoi/.
lucracrOai 8e teal TOVTO (frrjaiv 6 Kr^cr/a?, 7r\eiova
TO) KXeap^ft) TrefjLireorOaL Stair pa'gd/Aevos, IBia ^t
erepa roi? orrpaTitoTats Si&oaQaf teal ravra fj,ev
VTrovpyrjcrai Kal Trapacr^iv ^dpin teal jvwfjLrj rfjs

rr ' ^ ' t 1 v /)' ' ' "

3 I lapvcraricos. 7T/j,7ro/JLevr>v ce Kdu rji^epav rw
KXedp^w Kw\yjvo<i tVl rot? cririoi^, TrapaKa^elv
avrov teal diSd<TKiv &>? ^pij [Uteppy et? TO tcpeas






jj,rj 7Tpii&LV ev rfj /3acrtXca>? ay/jLOTrjri TO TeXo?
avrov */evo[jivov auro? Be fyofiovfjievos fjirj e6e\r)-
ftaaikea Se rfj fjiev /j,rjrpl rrapairovnevy
Krelvai rov K\e'ap^oz> op.oXo'y^a-ai Kal o/j,6crai'
rrei(T0ei>ra Be avOis vrro rrjs ^raretpas drroKreivai

4 Tra/'Ta? Tr\r)i> Me^a)^o?. etc Be rovrov rrjv Tlapv-
aanv mf3ov\evGai rfj ^Lrareipa Kal ffvaKevd-
fraaOai rrjv ^apjJLaKelav Kar HUT/}?, OVK LKora
\rf(tiV, d\\a rco\\rjv d\oyiav e~)(pvra TT}? atVta?,
el Beivov epyov ovrws eBpaee Kal rrapeKivBvvevcrev
r) Ylapvcrans Bid K\eap%ov, dve.\elv ToX^t?;cracra
rr]V ryvrjcriav /3acri\ea>? yuvaiKa Kal reKvwv

-3 vov errl /3acrt\eia rpe(j)O[4va)v. d\\d ravra
OVK dBij\ov co? emrpaymBeLrai rfj
fjivtip.y. Kal yap dvatpe.6evrwv tbijcrl rwr <rrpa-
rrjywr TOU<? fiev a/XXof? vrro KVV&V



168



ARTAXERXES xvm. 1-5

rendered, gave Ctesias his ring as a token of friend-
ship which he might show to his kindred and friends
in Sparta ; and the device in the seal was a group of
dancing Caryatides. Moreover, as Ctesias says, the
provisions sent to Clearchus were seized by the
soldiers in captivity with him, who consumed them
freely and gave only a small part of them to Cle-
archus. This hardship also Ctesias says he remedied,
by getting more provisions sent to Clearchus, and a
separate supply given to the soldiers ; and these
services he says lie rendered and performed to please
Parysatis, and at her suggestion. He says further
that a flitch of bacon was sent to Clearchus every
day to supplement his rations, and that Clearchus
earnestly advised him that he ought to bury a small
knife in the meat and send it to him thus hidden
away, and not allow his fate to be determined by the
cruelty of the king ; but he was afraid, and would
not consent to do this. The king, Ctesias says, at
the solicitation of his mother, agreed and swore not
to kill Clearchus ; but he was won back again by
Stateira, and put all the generals to death except
Menon. It was because of this, Ctesias says, that
Parysatis plotted against the life of Stateira and
prepared the poison for her. But it is an unlikely
story, and one that gives an absurd motive for her
course, to say that Parysatis thus risked and wrought
a dreadful deed because of Clearchus, and dared to
kill the king's lawful wife, who was the mother by
him of children reared for the throne. Nay, it is
quite evident that he add- this sensational detail out
of reir^rd for the memory of Clearchus. For he says

O / /

that after the generals had been put to death, the
rest of them were torn by dogs and birds, but that

169



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

l opveu>v, TO) Be KXedp^ov vefcpM Oue\\av dve-
fiov 777? diva 7ro\\i)v (pepovcrav eV/^wcrat real

7TiKpvtyai TO (TtofJLCL- <f)OlVLK(i)V & TIVWV SiaffTTa-

pevrwv 6\iyu) ^povw Oav/jLacrrov aXcro? avafyvvai
Kal KaracrKtdcrai rov TOTTOV, ware teal /SacriXet

,TaiJ.e\iv, a>? avbpa ^eoi? <f>i\ov

rov KXeapxov.

XIX. 'H 8' ovv TLapvcrcms, fueovs re rrpos
^Tareipav % dpxfo vTrofcei/jievov teal fy
opaicra rrjv fiev avTrjs Byva/Aiv aiSovfiiei'ou
ffal Ttfjiwvros ovaav, rr]v 8' exelvijs epwn /cal TT/<TTC<.
fte/Baiov teal Icr'^ypdv, eTreftovXevaev vrrep TU>V
2 /jiyi<TT(ov, a>9 (aero, Trapa/3a\\o/j,evr). Oepd-Traivav
el^e Tnarr/v teal SvvafJLevfjv Trap* av-rfj fjieyicrrov
OVO/JLCI TLJIV, r)v o IJLCV keivwv vTrovpyrj&at. TTJ

fricri, avyyvwvai 8e IJLOVOV uucovcrav 6
ta?. TOV Se Sovra TO (frappa/cov OUTO? /ACV

e\ndpav, 6 8e AetVwi^
Be TT;? irpoaOev vjTO^-ia^ Kal &i,a<f)opas d
ird\iv ei? TO atTO fyouTav Kal (Tvv&enrvelv a
Xa*?, o/ia>9 TO) BeBievai, Kal (j>v\dTTadai



Ka 7ro TWV ainwv



3 yiverai Be fJiLKpov ev Ue/xrat? opvLOiov, w
Tai/xaTO? ov&ev ea-riv, dX,V 0X0^ BiaTrXewv T
T<X evros' Kal vo/j,i^ov<Tiv dvefJiw Kal Spocrct)
crQai TO q)ov ovo/nd^erai $e pvvrdKrjs. TOVTO
o KT?/crta? ^LLKpa /j,a%aipi$i Ke^pia fJievr) TOJ
aKra Kara ddrepa rrjv Ylapvaariv Siaipovcrav
rw zrett) jieei TO djiaKOV Kal TO



a^pavrov Kal KaOapov et<? TO crro/jta /3a\ov(rav
170



ARTAXERXES xvm. 5-xix. 3

in the case of Clearchus, a blast of wind carried a
great mass of earth and neaped it in a mound which
covered his body ; upon this some dates fell here
and there, and in a short time a wonderful grove of
trees sprang up and overshadowed the place, so that
even the king was sorely repentant, believing that in
Clearchus he had killed a man whom the gods loved.
XIX. Parysatis, accordingly, who from the outset
had a lurking hatred and jealousy of Stateira, saw
that her own influence with the king was based on
feelings of respect and honour, while that of Stateira
was grounded fast and strong in love and confidence ;
she therefore plotted against her life and played for
what she thought the highest stake. She had a
trusted maidservant named Gigis, who had most
influence with her and assisted her in preparing
the poison, according to Deinon, although Ctesias
says she was merely privy to the deed, and that
against her will. The poison was actually given by
a man named Belitaras, according to Ctesias ; Deinon
gives his name as Melantas. After a period of dis-
sension and suspicion, the two women 1 had begun
again to meet and eat with one another, although
their mutual fear and caution led them to partake of
the same dishes served by the same hands. Now,
there is a little Persian bird which has no excrement,
but is all full of fat inside ; and the creature is
thought to live upon air and dew ; the name of it is
"rhyntaces." It was a bird of this species, according
to Ctesias, that Parvsatis cut in two with a little

/

knife smeared with poison on one side, thus wiping
the poison off upon one part only of the bird ; the
undefined and wholesome part she then put into her

1 i.e., Pary satis and Stateira.

171



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

avrrjv ecrOieiv, Sovvai Be rfj ^rareipa TO T

4 IJLZVOV o Be AetVtoi/ ov rrjv Hapvaariv, aXXa TOV
MeXaz>Taz> Te/jiVovTa r&> pa^ai plo) TO,

aofjieva TWV Kpewv riOevai Kara TTJV
cnroOvrjcrKovcra 8' ovv ?} yvvr) /JLCTO, TTOVWV /jLeydXwv 1021
fcal (nrapayfACOv avrrj re (rvvr)cr0dveTO TOV KCIKOV
KOI ftacri\.L Trapea"%ev viro^jriav KCLTCL T^? /x?;T/9o?,

5 etSoTi TO 0ijpiw&6s avTr/s real &vo~/jLei\ifCTOV. o6et>



KOI TaTceOKOLOVs TTJS /jLrjTpos arvvi\af3e tcai

Trjv &e Tijii' fj TIapvcraTis TTO\VV



%aiTovi>TO<? OVK eBayfcev, aXV vo~Tepov

e/? TOV ol/cov a^ed'fjvai VVKTOS, alaOo-
\6%ov v<f>cls avvy]fiTrave Kal KdTeyvco
tiTcoQvr](TKOV(Ji '6e oi </>a/3yU,a/cet? ev
KCITO, vopov OVTWV \i0os ecrrl



ov



iraiovai Kal TTLe^ovcnv, ci^pi ov crvvOXdcrwcri TO
rrpocrwTrov KCLI TTJV K(f)a\ijv. rj fjiev ovv
OL/T&)? drreOave, TTJV B Ylapvo-aTiv 6
aXXo fz^ ov&ev oure eljre KaKov OVT. e






eo)? e/ceivr) < n;epi.G<rriv ai>To<; OVK o^recrOaL Baftv-
\wva. Ta tt.tv Kara Tr)V oiKiav OVTQJS el^ev.

XX. 'Eiret Be rou9 Ku/)&) <rvvavaSdv-as f/ E\-
\i]vas <T7rofStt(7a9 \aftelv 6 /3aai\v<; ovBev TJTTOV
rj Kvpov TrepiyevecrOai KOI TTJV (3acrL\eiav
o")(elv OVK eX&fiei*, d\\a Kvpov TOV rjye/jiova
rot'9



172



ARTAXERXES xix. 3 -xx. i

own mouth and ate, but gave to Stateira the poisoned
part. Deinon, however, says it was not Parysatis,
but Melantas who cut the bird with the knife and
placed the flesh that was poisoned before Stateira.
Be that as it may, the woman died, in convulsions
and great suffering, and she comprehended the evil
that had befallen her, and brought the king to suspect
his mother, whose fierce and implacable nature he
knew. The king, therefore, at once set out upon the
inquest, arrested the servants and table-attendants
of his mother, and put them on the rack. Gigis,
however, Parysatis kept for a long time at home with
her, and would not give her up at the king's demand.
But after a while Gigis herself begged to be dismissed
to her own home by night. The king learned of
this, set an ambush for her, seized her, and condemned
her to death. Now, the legal mode of death for
poisoners in Persia is as follows. There is a broad
stone, and on this the head of the culprit is placed ;
and then with another stone they smite and pound
until they crush the face and head to pulp. It was
in this manner, then, that Gigis died; but Parysatis
was not further rebuked or harmed by Artaxerxes,
except that he sent her off to Babylon, in accordance
with her wish, saying tiiat as long as she lived he
himself would not see Babylon. Such was the state

ml

of the king's domestic affairs.

XX. Now, the king was no less eager to capture
the Greeks who had come up with Cyrus than he
had been to conquer Cyrus and preserve his throne.
Nevertheless, he could not capture them, but though
they had lost Cyrus their leader and their own com-
manders, they rescued themselves from his very
palace, as one might say, thus proving clearly to the

173



PLUTAHCH'S LIVES

l a7TO(j)t]vavT<; ra Yiepcrcov teal /3acrtXea>? irpdy-
fiara j^pvcrov ovra rro\vv teal rpvcfrrjv /cal yv-

2 valicas, TCI Be aXXa rvtfrov teal d\aoveiai>, rcacra
uev r) 'EXXa? e^e^dpprjae Kal Kare^povrjae raif
fiapftdptov, Aa/ce&aifjioviois Be KOI Seivbv (f>aivro
/AT) vvv je 8of\eta? H^eXeaOai rou? TTJV 'Acriav
Karoifcovvras f/ Ei\\rjv a? ^Se Travcrai, TrpO7ni\atci-
ofievov<$ vir' aura)v. Trporepov Be Bia ^i^l3pwvo<;,
elra $ia Aepfcv\\iBov TroXeyctou^re?, ovBev Be
TTpaTTovres uio\o>yov, ' Ay^a-^day TO) {3acrL\ei

3 rbv iroKefJiov eirerpe-^rav. o Be TrGpaico&eis vavarlv
et? 'Acr tar 6v0i>s TJV evepybs /cal Bo^av el^e /ieya-
\rjv Kal Ticraffrepvijv Trapara^d^evo^ eviicrjcre /cat
ra? TroXfi? d(j>icrTT]. TOVTWV Be yevop,eva)V cvfji-
(frpovijcras 6 'ApTO%epj~T]<; bi> rpoTrov avrois ean
7ro\/JU]Teov, eTTCfji^e Tt/jLO/cpdTrjv TQV 'PoBiov t?
TTJV 'EXXa^a xpvaiov iro\v KOfJii^ovra, BiBovai

l Bia(f)0Lpeiv TOI)? 7T\6Lcrrov ev rat?



4 Kivelv eirl rrjv Aa/ceBai/iova. TOV Be
ravra TrpdrrovTos Kal ra)v /AeytcrTcov
crvviaTap.evwv Kal rtjs Tle\OTTovvijcrov Biarapar-
rofjLevi^t /jLereTre/jLTTOVTo rbv 'Ayr]cri\aov e/c rr)?
'Atrta? ol ap%ovTS. ore Br) /cal fyaaiv avrbv
dmovra TT/JO? roi/? <$t,\ovs elrrelv a>?
ro^oraf? e^e\avi'Oiro rr}s ^Acrta? L'TTO
TO yap TLepcri/cbv vo/jLicr/jLa ro^orrjv



XXI. 'E^e/SaXe Be Kal T/}? ^aXarr?/? AaK-
vs K.OVWVI TO) 'Adrji'aia) /zera Qapva-
crrpart]y(j> xpijcrdfjLei'os. 6 yap Kovcov



174



ARTAXERXES xx. i-xxi. i

world that the empire of the Persians and their king
abounded in gold and luxury and women, but in all
else was an empty vaunt. Therefore all Greece took
heart and despised the Barbarians, and the Lacedae-
monians in particular thought it strange if now at
least they could not rescue the Greeks that dwelt in
Asia from servitude, and put a stop to their outrage-
ous treatment at the hands of the Persians. The
war they waged was at first conducted by Thimbron,
and then by Dercyllidas, but since they accomplished
nothing worthy of note, they at last put the conduct
of the war in the hands of their king, Agesilaiis.
He crossed over to Asia with a fleet, went to work
at once, won great fame, defeated Tissaphernes in a
pitched battle, and set the Greek cities in revolt.
This being the case, Artaxerxes considered how he



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