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must carry on the war with Agesilaiis, and sent
Timocreon the Rhodian into Greece with a great
sum of money, bidding him use it for the corruption
of the most influential men in the cities there, and
for stirring up the Greeks to make war upon Sparta.
Timocrates did as he was bidden, the most important
cities conspired together against Sparta, Peloponnesus
was in a turmoil, and the Spartan magistrates sum-
moned Agesilaiis home from Asia. It was at this
time, as we are told, and as he was going home, that
Agesilaiis said to his friends ; " The king has driven
me out of Asia with thirty thousand archers " ; for
the Persian coin has the figure of an archer stamped
upon it. 1

XXI. The king also expelled the Lacedaemonians
from the sea, employing Conon the Athenian as his
commander along with Pharnabazus. For Conon

1 Cf. the Agesilaiis, xv. 6.

175



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

oiTpi/3e fiev ev Ku7rp&> /zero. rrjv ev Atyo? Trora-

/tot? vav^a^LaVt ov TIJV da<t)d\iav ajairwr, aXXa

TTJV TWV Trpayfj-drcov /j,Td/3o\tjv, wffTrep ev Tre-

2 \djei Tpomjv, Trept^vwv. op&v Be teal



KCU



dvSpbs t'yLt^poyo? Seofievrji', e
r]V fiacriXel irepl &v Sievoeiro. KOI ravrrjv

K6\VO' TOV KOJUL^OVTO. fjidXiCTTa /JLV aTToEoVVai

Bia Ziijvayvo? TOV K/3^TO? rj \\6\vtcpiTov rov Mei>-
Baiov TOVTWV 8' r]v o /j,ev Tt^vwv op^arr;?, o
Be Ho\vfCpiTO<; tarpo?' &i> Be OVTOI fj,rj Trapwai,

3 Bid l^TTjcriov TOV laTpov. Xe^erat Be 6 Kr?;<jta9
rrjv eTTi(TTo\^i' Xa/Bwv Trapeyypd^rai rot? VTTO
TOV Koz^wz'o? eVea'TaX/ieVoi? 6Va>9 KOI \^Ti](fiav

d7TO<TTi\.r) 77/309 dVTOV, ft)? tofyeklfJiOV OVTO, TCU9

. 6 Be Krr/<rta9 CLVTOV d$'
i TrpocrOeivat, Ti]V \eiTOvp-
yiav avTU) TavT>]V.

4 'A\X' eVe! /tpar/ycra? TT} vrepl Kt^'So^ vavf-ia^ia 1022
^m Qapvaftd^ov KOI Kofwi^o? a^etXero r?);>

ra 6d\a,TTav apyi]v ActKeBai/AOvi

Tcacrav 6/j,ov TTJV 'E\\dBa Trpo? aurov, to<jre

r^ TrepiftorjTOv elp/jv^v jSpafievcraL rot? "

5 T^/J; eV *Ai>Ta\KiBov Trpocra'yopevop l evr)v. o Be

r)v, Aeo^ro? i>/o?, /ca<
ra? eV 'Acrta
vtjcrous, ocrai.

'Acrta, Trapelvai A.aKe&aifJ<oi>iovs
KKTt)a6ai (fropwv i/TroreXet?, elptjvfys yevo-
rot? f/ EXX>;<Tt^, et Set T^/V T?}? 'EXXa^o?
v/3piv Kal TrpoBoaiav etpijvrjv Kd\Glv, ^? TroXe/xo?
ovSel? dfc\crTepoi> j'jiseyKe reXo? rot?

176



ARTAXERXES xxi. 1-5

passed the time at Cyprus, after the sea-fight at
Aegospotami, 1 not satisfied with mere safety, but
awaiting a reversal in the course of affairs, as he would
a change of wind at sea. And seeing that his own
plans needed a military force, and the king's force
needed a sagacious leader, he wrote a letter to the
king explaining his purposes. This letter he ordered
the bearer, if possible, to give the king by the hand
of Zeno the Cretan or Polycritus the Mendaean
(Zeno was a teacher of dancing, and Polycritus was
a physician) ; but if these were not at court, by the
hand of Ctesias the physician, And it is said that
Ctesias, on receiving the letter, added to the sug-
gestions which Conon made to the king a request
to send Ctesias also to him, as likely to be of service
in matters on the sea-coast. Ctesias, however, says
that the king of his own accord conferred upon him
this new duty.

But after Artaxerxes, by the sea-fight which
Pharnabazus and Conon won for him off Cnidus, had
stripped the Lacedaemonians of their power on the
sea, he brought the whole of Greece into dependence
upon him, so that he dictated to the Greeks the
celebrated peace called the Peace of Antalcidas. 2
Now Antalcidas was a Spartan, son of Leon, and
acting in the interests of the king he induced the
Lacedaemonians to surrender to the king all the
Greek cities of Asia, and all the islands adjacent to
Asia, to possess them on payment of tribute ; and
peace was thus established among the Greeks, if the
mockery and betrayal of Greece can be called peace,
a peace than which no war ever brought a more in-
glorious consummation to the defeated.

1 40oB.c. Cf. the Alcibiades xxxvii. 2.
* In 387 B.C. Cf. the Ayejilails, xxiii. 1 ff.

177



PLUTARCH'S LIVES
XXII. Ato teal TOI)? aXXot/9 ^TraTidras del



o roe?, /ca vojiiwvy a>?



elvai, ruv 'ArTa\Ki,Sav vTreprfydirrjcrev el? Ylepcra?
dvaftdvTa. nal TTOTC \aj3o)v eva TWV avQivwv
G-T$av<>v real ftdifras et? fjivpov TO TroXfreXecrTa-
TOV, OLTTO &iTTvov eTre/A'v^e TW ' AifraXfciBa* KCLL
2 Tra^re? eOav/jiacrav rrjv (f)i\o<f)poa'vvi')v. rjv $e, ft)?
eoi/cev, e7rtT/;8eo? ouro? VTpv<f>r)0yjvai KOI TOLOV-
TOV \a/3elv arefyavov, ^op^rjcrdfjLVO<; ev Hepcrai?
roi/ Aecui'tSa^ /cat roy Ka\\iKpariSav. o /JLCV yap



co? eoixe, TT/OO? TOI> eTrovra,
T/}? 'EXXaSo?, OTTOL' j^fj^t^ovar^y f][uv ol

ot

ro e p/zaro? ? KOfjiroTrj^ rrjv rou Trpdj /taro?
OVK afyeiKev, aXXa T^
ev A.evKTpois dya)vicrd/jLvot,



3 Ai j.ev ovv



67TOl6iTO KOi <$>'i\OV GOVO/jLCt^eV eaVTOV TOV *A.VTa\Kl-

evrel Se r)Trrjdr)(rai> ev Aev/crpois, raireiva

es eSeovro fJ^ev ^prujidroiv Koi TOV
cri\aov et? AiyuTTTOv e^eTre/JL'fyav, o Be '
Sa>? dveftr] TT/PO? Toy ' ApTO%ept;r)i
4 eirapKeaai rot? Aa/ceoai/noviots. 6 8' OUTW?
/ieX7;cre /cal TrapelSe real dTreppt-frev CLVTQV, wcrre
/caTaftdvTa teal %Xeu 'a^o/jievov VTTO T)V
(f>o/3ov/j,6i>ov Be KO\ rov? efyb



o



178



ARTAXERXKS xxn. 1-4

XXII. For tliis reason Artaxerxes, although he
always held other Spartans in abomination, and con-
sidered them, as Deinon tells us, the most shameless
of all mankind, showed great affection for Antalcidas
when he came up to Persia. On one occasion he
actually took a wreath of flowers, dipped it in the
most costly ointment, and sent it to Antalcidas after
supper; and all men wondered at the kindness. 1
But Antalcidas was a fit person, as it would seem, to
be exquisitely treated and to receive such a wreath,
now that he had danced away among the Persians
the fair fame of Leonidas and Callicratidas. For
Agesilaiis, as it would appear, when someone said
to him: "Alas for Greece, now that the Spartans
are medizing," replied, "Are not the Medes the
rather spartanizing ? " However, the wittiness of
the speech could not remove the shame of the deed,
and the Spartans lost their supremacy in the disastrous
battle of Leuctra, 2 though the glory of Sparta had
been lost before that by this treaty.

So long, then, as Sparta kept the first place in
Greece, Artaxerxes treated Antalcidas as his guest
and called him his friend ; but after the Spartans
had been defeated at Leuctra, they fell so low as to
beg for money, and sent Agesilaiis to Egypt, while
Antalcidas went up to Artaxerxes to ask him to
supply the wants of the Lacedaemonians. The king,
how r ever, so neglected and slighted and rejected him
that, when he came back home, being railed at by
his enemies, and being in fear of the ephors, he
starved himself to death.

Ismenias the Theban also, and Pelopidas, who hail

1 Cf. the Pelopidas, xxx. 4.

1 In 371 B.C. Cf. the Agesilaiis, xxviii. 5.

179



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



teal HeXoTTiSa? ?/; rrjv ev
iKrjKdbs. a\\* QVTOS fjLev ovBev aia%pbv
*Io~/jLT)vias Be TT poa 'Kvvrja at K\ev6p,evos
ej;e/3a\f: Trpb avrov ^a^a^e rov BaKrvXiov, elra
Kvilras avL\TO KCLI 7rapea"%e B6av TrpoaKvvovv-
5 TO?. Ti/j,ayopa Be rq> 'A^^^atco Bia Br^XouptSo?
rov ypa/jL/jLareays elaTre/ji'^a^ri ypafjLfJsariBiov aTrop-
pyjrov rjcrOels pvpiovs re Bapei/covs e'Bco/ce, KOI
yd\a.KTo<; ftoeiou Beo/j.ev(i) BS a&deveiav oyBoq-
KOVTCL /8oi)? djAeXyeadai 7rapr)KO\ou0ovv en Be
KCU crrpco/jLara /cat rou? Grpiovuvytras eVe/u,-
>9 ov fjLe{j,[email protected]]KOTO)v r Ei\\?jva)v vrroarputv-
vvvai, KOI <f>opel<s rou? teofAi^ovras avrbv /Lte^pt
$aXacr<7?79 yu,aXa/cw? e^ovra. irapovri Be Belirvov
eTTe/jLTrero XCLUTT porarov, axrre teal rbv dBeXfibv
rov /3acri\eci)<;, 'OcrrdvrjV, "*fi Ti/jLayopa," <f)dvai,
1 (lefjLvrfO'O ravrrjs TT}? rpaire^W ov ydp eVt /u-
s ovrco croi KeKoa-fMtjfj,ei>rj TrapaKeirai" rovro
bs e/9 TrpoBoaiav /jLci\\ov r) %dpiro^
T.ifidyop.ov fj.ev ovv Bid rrjv BcopoBo-
Kiav kOrjvaloi Odvarov Kareyvwaav.

XXIII. 'O Be ' Apro^ep^t]^ ev dvrl rrdvrwv &v
e\v7rei TOU? "EX\7;ra? eu^patve, Tio-cKfiepi'rjv rbv
aurois teal Bvcr/jLevecrraroi' drroKreivas.
Be Tat? S<a/3oXat? avrov TT}? Tlapvcrd-
crvveTride/jLevrjs. ov ydp eve/j,eii' rfj opyy
6 /5arrtXeu?, aXXa Bi^\\dy^j rf)
Kal fjiereirefji^aro, vovv fj,ev 6pa)v e^ovaav 1023



1 Cf. the Pelopidas, xxx. 1-3.
Cf. the Pelopidas, xxx. 6 f.
s Cf. the Agesilaus t x. 3 f.



180



ARTAXERXES xxn. 4 -xxin. i

just been victorious in the battle of Leuctra, went
up to the king. 1 Pelopidas did nothing to disgrace
himself; but Isinenias, when ordered to make the
obeisance to the king, threw his ring down on the
ground in front of him, and then stooped and picked
it up, thus giving men to think that he was making
the obeisance. With Timagoras the Athenian, how-
ever, who sent to him by his secretary, Beluris. a
secret message in writing, the king was so pi eased
that he gave him ten thousand darics, and eighty
milch cows to folloAV in his train because he was sick
and required cow's milk ; and besides, he sent him a
couch, with bedding for it, and servants to make the
bed (on the ground that the Greeks had not learned
the art of making beds), and bearers to carry him
down to the sea-coast, enfeebled as he was. More-
over, during his presence at court, he used to send
him a most splendid supper, so that Ostanes, the
brother of the king, said : " Timagoras, remember
this table ; it is no slight return which thou must
make for such an array." Now this was a reproach
for his treachery rather than a reminder of the king's
favour. At any rate, for his venality, Timagoras was
condemned to death by the Athenians. 2

XXII I. But there was one thing by which
Artaxerxes gladdened the hearts of the Greeks, in
return for all the evils which he wrought them, and
that was his putting Tissaphernes to death, their
most hated and malicious enemy. 8 And he put him
to death in consequence of accusations against him
which were seconded by Parysatis. For the king
did not long persist in his wrath against his mother,
but was reconciled with her and summoned her to
court, since he saw that she had intellect and a lofty

181



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

Kal (^povrjfjia /3acrtXei'a9 aj;iov, atrt'a? Be






2 aXX??Xo9 rj \VTrr)GOvaiv. UK Be TOVTOV rrdvTa
7rpo9 %dpiv vTrovpyovcra /3ao~i\i, fcal T&> Trpos
/jLTjSev wv eKeivos cTrparre &vcrKo\.aiviv eyovcra
TO Svva<r0ai Trap* avrw KOI Tvy^dveLV aTrdvrcov,
rjaOero TT}? ere/ja? rwv OvyaTepwv, A.rocr(Trj^,
epwvros epwra Seivov, eTTiKpvTTTOpevov 8e $i IKCL-
vrjv ov% iJKiara KOI KO\d^ovTo<s TO TrdOos, w?
fyaaLv evioi, KCLITOI yeyevij/Jievt]*; ij&ij TT/QO? rrjv

3 Trapdevov o/.itXia? ainCo \a9paias. &)? ovv VTTO)-
Trrevaev fj TLapvffaris, r^v TraiSa, /Ma\\ov f) irpo-
Tepov TjaTrd^ero, Kal TT/OO? TOV \\pro%pj;r)v eTrrjvei
TO T /caXXo? avrfjs Kal TO ^09, w? ftacri\ifcris Kal

reXo? ovv yrf/jiai, Trjv Kopijv
Kal yvijoriav dTroBei^ai yvi'aLKa, yalpziv
So^a? 'EXX^z/coz/ Kal vofjiovs, Hepaais Se
avTov vrrb TOV 6eov Kal BiKaiWTrjv atV^/Jwi/
Ka\wv d7rooe$iy/jLVov. evioi ^kvTOi \jov-
a)v eVrl Kal 'H-paKXei&rjs 6 Kuyuato?, ov [ii'av
TWV 0wyaTepa)v, aXXa Kal SevTepav, A/iiy-
'yrifj.ai TOV ' ApTo^ep^ijv, rrepl ^9 o\iyov
vcrTepov dTrayyekovfjiev. T^V S' "ATocraav ovrws
o rraTrjp avvoiKovo'av cocrre d\<>ov KaTa-
S av~r/<> TO cr&i^ta &vo"%epdvai fj-ev errl

5 TOVTW fjLr}& QTIOVV, V^6 fJLZVOS & 7Tpl a\JTr}S TTf

a TtpoaK,vvr]Gai fjLOvrjv Oewv efceivrjv, rai9 X e P a ^
77)9 d-fydfjievos, &a)pd re T?J 0(t> TocravTa
TOU9 craTpdrra? Kal (f)i\ovs avTov K\ev-
crai/TO9 wcrTe ra /xera^u TOV lepov Kal TWV /3acr/-

crTaSia xpvcrov Kal dpyvpov Kal



182



ARTAXERXES xxm. 1-5

spirit worthy of a queen, and since there was no
longer any ground for their suspecting and injuring
one another if they were together. After this she
consulted the king's pleasure in all things, and by
approving of everything that he did, acquired
influence with him and achieved all her ends. She
perceived that the king was desperately in love with
one of his two daughters, Atossa, and that, chiefly on
his mother's account, he was trying to conceal and
restrain his passion, although some say that he had
already had secret intercourse with the girl. When,
accordingly, Parysatis became suspicious of the
matter, she showed the girl more affection than
before, and would speak to Artaxerxes in praise of
her beauty and her disposition, saying that she was
truly royal and magnificent. At last, then, she per-
suaded the king to marry the girl and proclaim her
his lawful wife, ignoring the opinions and laws of the
Greeks, and regarding himself as appointed by
Heaven to be a law unto the Persians and an
arbitrator of good and evil. Some, however, say,
and among them is Heracleides of Cyme, that
Artaxerxes married, not one of his daughters only,
but also a second, Amestris, of whom we shall speak
a little later. 1 Atossa, however, was so beloved by
her father as his consort, that when her body was
covered with leprosy he was not offended at this in
the least, but offered prayers to Hera in her behalf,
making his obeisance and clutching the earth before
this goddess as he did before no other ; while his
satraps and friends, at his command, sent the goddess
so many gifts that the sixteen furlongs between her
sanctuary and the royal palace were filled with gold
and silver and purple and horses.

1 Chap, xxvii. 4.

183



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

XXIV. Yl6\e/jiov Be 777)09 fjiev AiyvTTTiovs Bid
^apvaftd^ov KOI 'Ityixpdrovs e^eveyKcov ajreTv^e,
aTa<TiacrdvTU>v Kivwv' eVl Be KaBovcriovs avros






(7Tprevcr Tpifcovra [Jivpt&i Tcewv Ka

Be



Ka /jLi%a)r) Ka TCOV airo <nropov
Kapirwv ayovov, CLTTLOL^ Be Kal /ULIJ\OI<; Kal roiov-
rot? d\\oi$ ciKpoSpvois rpeffcovcrav dvOpooirovs

TTOXe/jLLKOVS Kal 0U/J.Ql&l$, \a&6 fJLyd\CUS CLTTO-

2 piai<; Kal Kii'&vvois Trepnrecrwv. ovSev jdp eBcaBt,-
H.QV TJV \a/jL/3dviv ov&e ea)0v eTreicrdyco-dai, rd
Se VTTo^vyta JAOVOV KareKOTrrov, were ovov KCffra-
Xrjv yu-oXt? Bpaxfiwv e^tJKovra WVLOV elvai. TO Be
&a(TL\iKov BelTrvov el;\et<j)&)]- Kal TWV 'LTTTTWV
L Trept-rjcrav eri, TOU? Be a\\ov<? i



Tr}piBa%o$, dvrjp 7roXXa#9 fj,ev ev
f j>Tr) Bt dvBpayadiav Ta^ei yevofiievos, TroXXaArt?
Be drroppKfrels Bid KOV(f)OTijTa Kal Tore Tarreivd
TrparTtov KCII 7repiopa)/*ievo$, eaaxje /3a(Tt\ea Kal

3 TOV aTpaTov. OVTWV yap Bvelv ev rot9 KaBov-

BevovTos, evTvyoov TW 'Aprofep^?? Kal

/V t ^ / 5 * . ,

Trept (t)v 6tevoeiTO TrpuTTeiv, e/3dBiei> auro? TTOO?
TOV eTepov TWV KaBovdLtov, Kal Trpo? TOV erepov
Kpv(f>a TOV vlov eTrefJLTTev. e^Trara Be eKaTepov
e/carepo?, \eya)V eo? arepo? eTrirrpecrfieueTai Trpo?
TOJ^ ApToepr)v (fciXiav /j,6v(> TrpaTTtav eavTw Kfil
crvfjL[4,a%iav OVKOVV, el crwifipoveL, ^pr\vai TrpoTepov
evTvy^civetv etceivq), auTov Be wfjiTrpd^eLV diravTa.

4 Tourot? GTreta'Qrjfrav d/^<f)6rpoi, Kal <pOdi>eiv <iXX^-



184



ARTAXERXES xxiv. 1-4

XXIV. In the war which Pharnabazus and
Iphicrates conducted for him against Egypt lie was
unsuccessful, owing to the dissensions of these
commanders ; against the Cadusians, therefore, he
made an expedition in person, with three hundred
thousand footmen and ten thousand horse. But the
country which he penetrated was rough and hard to
traverse, abounded in mists, and produced no grains,
although its pears and apples and other such tree-
fruits supported a warlike and courageous population.
Unawares, therefore, he became involved in great
distress and peril. For no food was to be got in the
country or imported from outside, and they could
only butcher their beasts of burden, so that an ass's
head was scarcely to be bought for sixty drachmas.
Moreover, the royal banquets were abandoned ; and
of their horses only a few were left, the rest having
been consumed for food.

Here it was that Teribazus, a man whose bravery
often set him in a leading place, but whose levity as
often cast him down, so that at this time he was in
disgrace and overlooked, saved the king and his
army. For the Cadusians had two kings, and each
of them encamped separately. So Teribazus, after
an interview with Artaxerxes in which he told him
what he purposed to do, went himself to one of the
Cadusian kings, and sent his son secretly to the
other. Each envoy, then, deceived his man, telling
him that the other king was sending an embassy to
Artaxerxes to secure friendship and alliance for him-
self alone : he should, therefore, if he were wise,
have an interview with Artaxerxes before the other
did, and he himself would help him all he could.
Both kings were persuaded by this argument, and

VOL. XL G l8 5



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Xoi9 vofjil^ovres 6 i^ev T>

TrpealSeis, 6 Be T> TraiSl TOV Trjpi/Bd^ov. Biarpt-
/}9 Be yevo/jLevrjs vTro^iai /cal Bia/3o\al Kara TOV



Be BvaOvfjiws ?X 6 Ka ^ /AGTevoei Trta rev eras
Trjpifid^q), teal rot9 <j)0ovovo-iv ey/caXelv Trapel

5 eVel Be rjicev o Tijplfta^os, rfKe Be teal 6 uto? aurov 1024
TOU? K.aBovcriov<s a^o^re?, eyevovro Be aTrovBal
TT/JO? a/A^)OT6/)Of9 :al elpijvrj, /^eya? wv 6 T^pi-
/3ao9 Ifi)} Kal Xayu-7r/3O9 are^ewY^ue /-tera roi)
ySacr^Xea)9, eiTL^eLKW^evov Tracrav rrjv BeL\iav /cat

T^ fJLa\aKiav ov Tpv<j)ij<i /cal ?roXL'TXeta9, wcrirep
ol TroXXot vofjLi^ovGiv, eK<yovov ovaaVf aXXa
/ja9 0ucrea>9 /cat ayevvovs teal Bogais

6 7ro/ue'j'??9. oi^re 7ap %pvao<$ ovre KavBvs ovre o
TWV jjLVplwv teal Bi(r%i\ict)v raXdvTwv

ael T&) /3acriXeo)9 crco/^aTi /cocr/.to9 ercelvov

Xue Trovelv /cat Ta\ai7rwpelv t oxnrep ol

aXXa TT/I* re (fiaperpav evrj/jL/jievo^ teal rrjv 7re\rj]i>



atro9 efidBL^e 7r/3coro9 6Sov9 opeivas teal

TOV i'Tnrov, WCTTC



aXXoi/9 7TTepov(T0ai teal
eteeivov TrpoOvpiav teal pci)/jLrjv op&VTas' teal yap
Btateoaicov teal TrXeiovwv aTacicov teaTr^vvev r}/j.epas
e/tacrTA/9 TTopeiav.

XXV. 'E-Tret 5e e/9 (JTaQ^ov teaT/3
TrapaBeicrovs e^ovTa davfjiaffTov^ teal
vov<$ BiaTrpeTrws V rcu Trepii; dBevBpq) teal
^wptco, tepvovs OVTOS, TTTpetye Tot9 (TTpaTKaTais e/e
TOV TrapaBeivov ^vXi^eaOat rd BevBpa KOTi'TovTas,

6te-



186



ARTAXERXES xxiv. 4 -xxv. 2

each thinking that he was anticipating the other, one
sent his envoys along with Teribazus, and the other
with the son of Teribazus. But matters were
delayed, and suspicions and calumnies against
Teribazus came to the ears of Artaxerxes ; he himself
also was ill at ease, and repented him of having put
confidence in Teribazus, and gave occasion to his
rivals to malign him. But at last Teribazus came,
and his son came too, both bringing their Cadusian
envoys, and a peace was ratified with both kings ;
whereupon Teribazus, now a great and splendid
personage, set out for home with the king. And
the king now made it plain that cowardice and
effeminacy are not always due to luxury and ex-
travagance, as most people suppose, but to a base
and ignoble nature under the sway of evil doctrines.
For neither gold nor robe of state nor the twelve
thousand talents' worth of adornment which always
enveloped the person of the king prevented him
from undergoing toils and hardships like an ordinary
soldier ; nay, with his quiver girt upon him and his
shield on his arm he marched in person at the head
of his troops, over precipitous mountain roads,
abandoning his horse, so that the rest of the army
had wings given them and felt their burdens
lightened when they saw his ardour and vigour;
for he made daily marches of two hundred furlongs
and more.

XXV. At length he came down to a royal halting-
place which had admirable parks in elaborate cultiva-
tion, although the region round about was bare and
treeless ; and since it was cold, he gave permission to
his soldiers to cut the trees of the park for wood,
sparing neither pine nor cypress. And when they



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

VOVVTWV Be fcai (pL^ofj,evu)v Bid TO, Ka\\ri KOI ra
ueyeOrj, \a/3tov ireXeKvv auros ojrep TJV ^eyLffTOV
KOI tca\\i(jTov TWV fyvT&v GKO^rev. K Be TOVTOV
Kai 7ro\\d irvpd TTOLOVVT^ ev
. ov y^v a\\a 7ro\\ov<t teal a
avSpas, tTTTrov? 8e O/JLOV
3 liravri\6e. KOI 86j;as KarafypovelcrOai Bia

KOL rr-jv drrorev^iv rrjs crrpareta?, ev
eZ^e rou? TT/JCOTOU?' /cat TTO\\OV<; /zer
dvrjpet, Bi* opyrjv, TrXetWa? 3e <f>o/3ov/Aevo<f. 7; jap
&6i\ia <^ovt,K(ttTarov eariv tv rat? ivpavvlcnv^
i\a)V Se KOI irpaov ical avviroirrov i] 6appa\eo-
Bio Kal ra)v 6i]piu>v TO, drifldcrevTa /ecu
^o<poBefj KOI BeiXd, ra Be <yevvala

TTKTTCVOVTa /J.O\\OV BlCL TO 6appelv OV <pVJl TU?



XXVI. 'O Be 'ApTO^epgrjs ijB^ TT pea jBv-r 'epos a

roi/9 vious dy&va TTcpl TT}? ySacr^Xetav
ev rot? <^)tAoi9 Kai rots Bvvarols e^oz^ra?. ol aev
yap evyva>/AOve$ rjgiovv, &>? ekaftzv auro?, OI/T&)?
a7ro\i7reiv Trpeafiela Aapetw r^ ap%rjv. o Be
^ecoraro? *n^;o9 o^v? wv Kai ySta^o? e?
rwv Trepl TO j3aGi\eiov ov/c 6\iyov<}
i]\Tri^e Be ^aKicria KaTepydaeaBat, TOV
2 5m r^5 'ATOO-CTT;?. etceivrjv yap eQepaTrevev a>?

Kai crvu/3acrt\,6vcrov<Tav avTw /zera
TOV 7raT/oo9 Te\evTr)V. TJV Be \6yos oil KO.L
e\dv6avev avTrj 7r\r)o~id(t)v. d\\a TOVTO
188



ARTAXERXES xxv. 2 -xxvi. 2

hesitated and were inclined to spare the trees on
account of their great size and beauty, he took an
axe himself and cut down the largest and most
beautiful tree. After this the men provided them-
selves with wood, and making many fires, passed the
night in comfort. Nevertheless, he lost many and
brave men, and almost all his horses before he
reached home. And now, thinking that his subjects
despised him because of the disastrous failure of his
expedition, he was suspicious of his chief men ; many
of these he put to death in anger, and more out of
fear. For it is cowardly fear in a tyrant that leads to
most bloodshed ; but bold confidence makes him
gracious and mild and unsuspicious. So also among
wild beasts, those that are refractory and hardest to
tame are timorous and fearful, whereas the nobler
sorts are led by their courage to put more confidence
in men, and do not reject friendly advances.

XXVI. But Artaxerxes, being now advanced in
years, perceived that his sons were forming rival
parties among his friends and chief men with
reference to the royal succession. For the con-
servatives thought it right that, as he himself had
received the royal power by virtue of seniority, in
like manner he should leave it to Dareius. But his
youngest son, Ochus, who was of an impetuous and
violent disposition, not only had many adherents
among the courtiers, but hoped for most success in
winning over his father through the aid of Atossa.
For he sought to gain Atossa's favour by promising
that she should be his wife and share the throne with
him after the death of his father. And there was a
report that even while his father was alive Ochus
had secret relations with Atossa. But Artaxerxes

189



PLUTARCH'S LIVES





;? e\7rt'So9 TOV 'lyov, OTTO)? /XT) TO,

TT"' / 5^*^"v V

KvpM TO\/jLi)cravTos avTov TTO\,/JLOI Kai
KaTa\dj3a)(Ti TTJV {3aai\,eiav, avk-
TOV kapelov ftaaiXea TTVTIJKO(TTOV eVo?
yeyovoTa, Kal TTJV Ka\ov /Jievrfv KiTapiv opOi-jV

3 <f)epeiv $WK. vofjLov $e ovTO<$ ev Ilepcrat? Baypedv
aiTelv TOV dva$eL~)(6evTa Kal BiSovai TOV dvabel-
%avra TCO.V TO aiTrjOev, avTrep f/ SvvaTOv, yT7](TV
'AcTTracriav 6 Aa/3to9 TTJV fjidXicTTa aTrov&acrdei-
<rav V7TO Kvpov, TOTC 5e TOO /3aai\L 7ra\\aKV-

4 e\v0pwi> yovecav Kal TeOpa^L^evr] KOCT/JLLW^. eVei
be Kvpov &6i7rvovvTos ^.l(j'Y]^(B i r] fied^ Tpa)v yvvai-
KWV, at fjLcv d\\ai TrapaKadefyfJievai Trpocnrai-
,OVTO$ avTov Kal aTTTO/jievov Kal (TKO)TTTOVTOS OVK

Trapd Trjv K\ivrjv el&TtJKei o-iwirrj Kal Kvpov

Ka\OVVTO<$ OU% V7T1JKOV6' /3oV\OfAV(i)V O TTpOO~-

dyeiv TCOV KaTevvaaT&v, " Ol/jbca^erai (JLCVTOI TOV- 1025
TWI/," elTrev, " 6? av /jiol TTpoaaydyrj Trt? ^etpa?."
eSo^ev ovv a^apt? TOi? TrapoLKTiv elvai Kal dypoi-

5 KO<$. o 8e KO/30? rio~6els ey\aae, Kal CITTC
TOV dyayovTa Ta? yvvalKas, "*Apa 77877

OTL pot /JLovrjv TavTijv e\v6epav Kal dSid(j)@opov



TOVTOV



9 avTr), KOI fjid\LO~Ta Traacov earTep^e Kal
rfv Trpocnjyopevcrev. kd\w &e Kvpov rrecrovTO^
ev Trj fJ.d^r) Kal Siap7rao/nevov TOV crTpaTOTrcoov.
XXVII. TavTrjv 6 Aa^oeto? atT?;cra? i]viao-e TOV

1 Cf. Xenophon, Annb. i. 10. 2 ; Plutarch, Pericles, xxiv. 7.
190



ARTAXERXES xxvi. 2-xxvn. i

was ignorant of this ; and wishing to shatter at once
the hopes of Ochus, that he might not venture upon
the same course as Cyrus and so involve the kingdom



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