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;mew in wars and contests, he proclaimed Dareius,
then fifty years of age, his successor to the throne, and
gave him permission to wear the upright " kitanis," as
the tiara was called. Now, there was a custom among

* O

the Persians that the one appointed to the royal
succession should ask a boon, and that the one who
appointed him should give whatever was asked, if it
was within his power. Accordingly, Dareius asked
for Aspasia, who had been the special favourite of
Cyrus, and was then a concubine of the king. She
was a native of Phocaea, in Ionia, born of free
parents, and fittingly educated. Once when Cyrus
was at supper she was led in to him along with other
women. The rest of the women took the seats given
them, and when Cyrus proceeded to sport and dally
and jest with them, showed no displeasure at his
friendly advances. But Aspasia stood by her couch
in silence, and would not obey when Cyrus called
her ; and when his chamberlains would have led her
to him, she said : " Verily, whosoever lays his hands
upon me shall rue the day." The guests therefore
thought her a graceless and rude creature. But
Cyrus was delighted, and laughed, and said to the
man who had brought the women : " Dost thou not
see at once that this is the only free and unperverted
woman thou hast brought me ? " From this time on
he was devoted to her, and loved her above all
women, and called her The Wise. She was taken
prisoner when Cyrus fell in the battle at Cunaxa and
his camp was plundered. 1

XX VII. This was the woman for whom Dareius

191



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Trarepa' Bvo-tyXa yap ra ftapjSapitcd Seivax; Trepi
TO aKo\a<JTOV, ware fxrj povov TOV 7rpocre\06vra
teal fliyovTa 7ra\\atcrj^ /3ao"fcXea>9, aXXa KOI TOV
ev Tropeia 7rpoe^e\06vTa teal Bie'geXd&avTa rav
dfjidtas $> al? Kopi^ovTaL,

2 KaiTOL Trjv fjL,ev "Arocrcray el%v e

<yvi>alrca Trapa TOV vofjiov, e^iJKovTa Be icai Tpta-
7rapeTpe(f)OVTO KaXXei biafyepovaat, 7ra\-
. ov /jLTjv aXXa KOI atr^^ei? fceivr)v
etprj&ev elvai /cal Xafjiftdveiv eVeXe^ae
/3ov\o/j,vt]v, afcovcrav Be /At] /3ideo-0ai. /zera-
7re/z<#etcr?7? Be TT}? ^AcrTracrta? teal Trap e
TOV /Sacr^Xea)? eXo/xe^??? TOV Aapelov, eBcatce
VTT' dvd\tcr]<; TOV VO/AOV, 801/5 Be o\iyov vcrTepov

3 d(j)ei\eTO. TT}? yap 'A/rre'/ziSo? T^? ev
VOLS, rjv 'AvaiTiv tcaXovcriv, iepeiav dve
avTi]v, OTT&)? dyvrj Sidyrj TOV 7ri\onrov (3iov,
olofjievos ov %a\e7rtjv, aXXa /cal neTpiav Tivd teal
TraiBia /JL/jii,y/j,evT]v TUVTTJV X^-^recr^at BLKI^V -rrapa
TOV TraiSo?. 6 8' rjveytcev ov fJLTpia)$, GLT e
r;}? 'AfTTracrta? TrepnraOrjs yeyovcos, erre v

ical K'X\vdo-Gai vo^l^wv VTTO TOV

4 A.la$0fievos 8' avTov OVT

CTI fid\\ov e^eTpd^vvev, ev TO?? e/cei'vov criviBcov
Ta tcaff' avTov. TJV Be TOiavTa. Tfkeiovwv ovcr(i)i>
{3aai\i Ovyarepwv a)/jLo\6yrjcre Qapraftd^w /j,ev
1 Aird^av BwereLv yvval/ca, 'PoBoyovvijv Be 'OpovTtj,
192



ARTA XERXES xxvn. 1-4

asked, and he gave offence thereby to his father ; for
the Barbarian folk are terribly jealous in all that
pertains to the pleasures of love, so that it is death
for a man, not only to come up and touch one of the
royal concubines, but even in journeying to go along
past the waggons on which they are conveyed. And
yet there was Atossa, whom the king passionately
loved and had made his wife contrary to the law, and
he kept three hundred and sixty concubines also,
who were of surpassing beauty. However, since he
had been asked for Aspasia, he said that she was
a free woman, and bade his son take her if she was
willing, but not to constrain her against her wishes.
So Aspasia was summoned, and contrary to the hopes
of the king, chose Dareius. And the king gave her
to Dareius under constraint of the custom that
prevailed, but a little while after he had given her,
he took her away again. That is, he appointed her
a priestess of the Artemis of Ecbatana, who bears the
name of Anaitis, in order that she might remain
chaste for the rest of her life, thinking that in this
way he would inflict a punishment upon his son
which was not grievous, but actually quite within
bounds and tinctured with pleasantry. The resent-
ment of Dareius, however, knew no bounds, either
because he was deeply stirred by his passion for
Aspasia, or because he thought that he had been
insulted and mocked bv his father.

mf

And now Teribazus, who became aware of the
prince's feelings, sought to embitter him still more,
finding in his grievance a counterpart of his own,
which was as follows. The king had several
daughters, and promised to give Apama in marriage
to Pharnabazus, Rhodogune to Orontes, and Amestris

193



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



d^w Be "A/j,i]crrpii>. Kal Tols ^ikv a'XXot9
, r Y7)pi/3aov Be e^evaaro 7/7/1019 avTos TIJV
"A[irj(TTpiv, avr KLi>r)<f Be TCO Tripij3du> rrjv
5 vemTarrjv "ATOcrcrav tveyvricrev. eVet Be Kal rav-
rrjv epacrOels eyrjftev, &>? eip^rai, Travrdfracri
&vcrfj.evw<; 7T/3O? O.VTOV 6 Tijpi/Sa^o^ (r%v, ov&e
aXXtw? a-rda-i/jios wv TO 7)^09, aXX' aixw^a
7rapd<f) 0/009. ^o /cat z'Oi' yttez^ evrjfjiepwv



iji', aXXa

Tt/ioo / ttei'O9 y ea^9 TTO ^avvor^ro^, Kal
TO Ko\ov6fj,vov ov TaTreivbv ov$ r)(TV%aiov, aXXa
rpa\y Kal ayepay^oi' el^e.

XXVIII. II O/o oui^ eVt 7ri)p eyeveTo TW veavfatetp
7rpocrKi/j,Vos 6 Tr7/cu/3ab9 ael /cat \eytov <w? oubev
ovlvrjaiv fj KiTapis earwaa irepl TTJ Ke$a\f) roi/9
avTMV fj,rj ^riTovvras opOovadai ro?9 irpdy-
, KaKelvov d/3e\.T6pa fypovelv, el, rov fjiev
u$e\(f)ov Bid T>79 yvvaiKwvLTiBos evBvo/Jievov rois
Trpdy/jiacri, rov Be Trarpo? ovrcos e/ji7r\r]KTOv 77^09
/cal dfteftaiov e%ovTOS, o'terai fSeftaiov avrw rrjv
2 BiaBo%}jv VTrdp^eiv. o yap
yvvaiov TOP a^lreva-rov ev Oe/ocrai?

VO/JLOV OV 87; TTOf 7Ti(TT09 CTTi Ta? 7Te/)l

GTWV ofjLo\oylas efMTreBco&eiv. ov ravrb 8' el
TO /JLTJ TV%eiv "n^w KaKeivw TO o*T/oecr$at
/3acrtX6ta9* 'H^o^ /zei^ 7a/3 ovBeva
lBid)Ti]v ftiovv /jiaKapici)?, exeivw 8' aTr

/3a(Ti\eveiv dvdyKr]v rj /Lt7;8e ^T/i/ elvai.



1 Chap, xxiii. 2ff. 2 Cf. chap. xxvi. 2.



ARTAXERXES xxvn. 4 -xxvin. 2

to Teribazus. He kept his promise to the other two,
but broke his word to Teribazus and married Amestris
himself, betrothing in her stead to Teribazus his
youngest daughter, Atossa. But soon he fell
enamoured of Atossa also and married her, as has
been said, 1 and then Teribazus became a downright
foe to him. Teribazus was at no time of a stable
disposition, but uneven and precipitate. And so,
when he would be at one time in highest favour,
and at another would find himself in disgrace and
spurned aside, he could not bear either change of
fortune with equanimity, but if he was held in
honour his vanity made him offensive, and when he
fell from favour he was not humble or quiet, but
harsh and ferocious.

XXVIII. Accordingly, it was adding fire to fire
when Teribazus attached himself to the young prince
and was forever telling him that the tiara standing
upright on the head 2 was of no use to those who did
not seek by their own efforts to stand upright in
affairs of state, and that he was very foolish if, when
his brother was insinuating himself into affairs of state
by way of the harem, and his father was of a nature
so fickle and insecure, he could suppose that the
succession to the throne was securely his. Surely he
whom regard for a Greek courtesan had led to violate
the inviolable custom of the Persians, could not be
trusted to abide by his agreements in the most
important matters. Moreover, he said it was not the
same thing for Ochus not to get the kingdom and
for Dareius to be deprived of it ; for no one would
hinder Ochus from living happily in private station,
but Dareius had been declared king, and must needs
be king or not live at all.

195



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Ka0o\ov pev ovi> ''o-ws', TO

ra%eta rreiOft) TMV teatewv oBoirropel-

\eia yap Tt9 17 iropeia teal Karavr^ errl TO ftov\6-
fievov. /3ov\ovTai Be ol -rrXelvTot, ra favXa Si'



Ka\a>v KOI ayvoiav ov

TO ^76(909 TO Tt}? apX^ ai T0 'KP*

rov bapeiov 8eo? vnoOeaLv TW Ttipiftdty trap-
- KvTrpoyeveia 8' ov Trdpirav ammo?, rj






XXIX. 'ETreSw/ce^ QUV eauToi^ TW
teal TTO\\WV ij&l vvvicna^evcov, evvov X s
TW /3aai\el rr)i> 7TLJ3ov\rjv KOI TOV rponov, etdco?
OTL VVKTOS /vw>Ka(Tiv ev TO) 9a\dp,(f>
vov avaipelv avrov eVeKreX#(We9. drcov-
Be TO> 'ApTo&ptfo ical TO itap&fr iciv&vvov

deivov



TO



Seivorepov. OVTWS ovv eirolei' TOV

eK6\evcre Trapeivai^tcdl -rrap-
, Se TOU 6a\dp.ov TOV

rf;9 K\ivri<; Tol^ov etcKo^as real Ovpwvas
CKa\v^ev av\aia T9 dvpa*. &ff*a?w Be rfjs
w/?a9 teal <S>pdaavTos TOV evvovftpy TOV Kaipov,
errl T^ K\LV^ vTre^etve teal OVK e^aveffT^ rrpo-
Tepov rj T&V err' avrbv epxppivwv TCL rrpoawrra
3 tcaTioclv teal ^vwpiaai aa^wj e/eaaTov. &>9
elBev (T7racrfjivov<; TO, e^eip^ia teal
IV av\aiav V



1 Fiom an unknown play, Nauck, Trac/, Grace.
p. 315.



ARTAXERXES xxvni. 3-xxix. 5

Now, perhaps it is generally true, as Sophocles
says, 1 that

"Swiftly doth persuasion unto evil conduct make
its way ' ' ;

tor smooth and downward sloping is the passage to
what a man desires, and most men desire the bad
through inexperience and ignorance of the good.
However, it was the greatness of the empire and
the fear which Dareius felt towards Ochus that
paved the way for Teribazus although, since Aspasia
had been taken away, the Cyprus-born goddess
of love was not altogether without influence in the

O

case.

XXIX. Accordingly, Dareius put himself in the
hands of Teribazus ; and presently, when many were
in the conspiracy, an eunuch made known to the
king the plot and the manner of it, having accurate
knowledge that the conspirators had resolved to
enter the king's chamber by night and kill him in
his bed. When Artaxerxes heard the eunuch's
story, he thought it a grave matter to neglect the
information and ignore so great a peril, and a graver
still to believe it without any proof. He there-
fore acted on this wise. He charged the eunuch
to attend closely upon the conspirators ; meanwhile
he himself cut away the wall of his chamber behind
the bed, put a doorway there, and covered the door
with a hanging. Then, when the appointed hour
was at hand and the eunuch told him the exact time,
he kept his bed and did not rise from it until he saw
the faces of his assailants and recognised each man
clearly. But when he saw them advancing upon him
with drawn swords, he quickly drew aside the

197



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

et? TO eVro? ocKij/jLa tcai ra? 6vpa<? em')ppa%e
Kpd^wv. 6<p0evre<; ovv ol atfcayels UTT' avrov,
TT pd^avres Be fJirjOev, aTre^oopovv <j>vyfj Bia dvpwv,
teal TOI>? Trepl rov Tr)piftaov etce\evov aTro^wpelv
&)? fyavepovs yeyovoras. ol fjiev ovv a\\oi &ia\v-
6 ewes (>vyov 6 &e T?7/?i'/3ab? <TuXXa/zy9a^o^e^o?
TroXXoi;? cnreKTeive TWV /3aatXe&)? &opv(f>6pa)v teal
dtcovrio) 7rX?7<ya? irbppwOev eVetre. TW Se
ft) yuera TWI^ Tetcvcov ava%0evTi KaQicras rou?
/3a(Tt\LOV<f SttcaffTds, ov 7rapa)v avros, aXX'
Tepa)v KaTTjyopT](TdvT(i)v, e/ceXevaev virrfperas rrjv
etcda-rov <ypa\lra/j,i>ovs dirofyaatv a>? avrov eirave-

5 veytcelv. d7ro<J)r)va/J,ev(ov Be Trdvrwv o/toift
KarayvovTayv rov Aapetou Odvarov, ol fiev v

rai auXXaySo^re? avrbv et? OiK7)/j,a 7r\ijaiov OTT-
ijyayov, 6 Be Brf/jiios K\r)0el<{ 77 Are yaei' %vpbv e%(i)v,
co ra<? /cec^aXa? aTrore^vovai rwv /co\a%o/j,ev(0v,
iBo)v Be rov Aapeiov e^eTrXa^T/ /tat dve%<t)pt
ra? Bvpas

6 ToXyU7/cra)i'

Be TWV BiKacrT&v cnreiXovvTtdv teal BiaKe\evo/jLeva)v

as Kal TTJ erepa X i P tl Bpad/jievo$
avrov Kal /carayaywv aTrere^e rut
rov rpd%r)\ov.

"EiVioi Be <pacri rrjv tcpiaiv yevearOai
avrov rrapovros, rov &e Aapelov, &>? Kare\a/jL-
ftdvero rot? eXey^oi^, evrl crroyua rrecrovra Bei<T0ai
iKereveiv rov Be VTT opyfjs dvaardvra






cfiracr^evov rov tavaKrjv rvjrreiv ecu? rreKreivev
198



ARTAXERXES xxix. 3-7

hanging, retired into the inner chamber, closed the
door with a slam, and raised a cry. The murderers
accordingly, having been seen by the king, and
having accomplished nothing, fled back through the
door by which they had come, and told Teribazus
and his friends to be off since their plot was known.
The rest, then, were dispersed and fled ; but Teri-
bazus slew many of the king's guards as they sought
to arrest him, and at last was smitten by a spear at
long range, and fell. Dareius, together with his
children, was brought to the king, who consigned
him to the royal judges for trial. The king was not
present in person at the trial, but others brought in
the indictment. However, the king ordered clerks
to take down in writing the opinion of each judge
and bring them all to him. All the judges were of
one opinion and condemned Dareius to death, where-
upon the servants of the king seized him and led him
away into a chamber near by, whither the executioner
was summoned. The executioner came, with a sharp
knife in his hand, wherewith the heads of condemned
persons are cut off; but when he saw Dareius, he
was confounded, and retired towards the door with
averted gaze, declaring that he could not and would
not take the life of a king. But since the judges
outside the door plied him with threats and com-
mands, he turned back, and with one hand clutching
Dareius by the hair, dragged him to the ground, and
cut off his head with the knife.

Some say, however, that the trial was held in the
presence of the king, and that Dareius, when he was
overwhelmed by the proofs, fell upon his face and
begged and sued for mercy ; but Artaxerxes rose up
in anger, drew his scimitar, and smote him till he

199



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



elra 6t? Tr/v av\.rjv Trpoe\9oi>Ta TOV "\i\tov Trpoar-
Kvvfjcrai teal eiTrelv' " EvcfrpaLvecrQe aTTiovres, &>
Hepa-ai, teal \ejere rot? aXXcu? ort rot? a
teal Trapdvo/jia Biavoij0ei(Tiv o jueyas '



XXX. 'H fJLev ovv tri/3ou\r) TOLOVTOV e
6 8e 'n^o? tfSij [lev TJV rat? eXvrtcrt

rr}? 'ATOO"(77;9 eTraipofj.ev
/3etro TWI^ fjLevyvrjalcov TOV vTrb\onTov J
Be voOwv ^A.oad/jL'rjv. 6 [J.ev yap

TO TT peer ft VT epos elvai TOV
$e KOL aTrXou? /tat <f)i\d^0pw7ros, i^iovro fta&i-
\evtiv VTTO rwv Ilepcrwf 6 3e 'Ayocrayit?;? /cat
e)(iv eSofcei real (JLaKicrra ru> Trarpl
2 wj^ OVK e\av6ave TOV *O^o^. emfBovXevwv ovv

l &o\pb<? a)v 6/jLoi) teal



'Apcrd/j,r)v, Trj Se tca/covpyia teal SeivorijTi TT/DO?
TOV 'Apido-Trrjv. VTreTrefjL'^re ydp TT/OO? avTov ev-
vov%ous teal 0t\ou? /9acrtXea)5 aTre^Xa? Tivas del
teal Xoyou? ^>o/3e/3ou? aTrayyeXXoi'Ta?, co?
Trarpo? eyvdy/coTos drro/CTivvveiv avTov co^w

3 <f>v(3pi,crTa)$. ol Be raura /ca^' rjfjiepav
BOKOVVTCS <o? djropprjTa, Kal ra /iei^ /jLe\\eiv,

TrpdcraeLv /3acri\ea \e
TOV avdpwirov Kal TocravTrjv eve&aXov
TTToiav avTU) KOI Tapa^rjv Kal Bva0vuiav et? rot;?
Xoyfcr/ioy?, wcrre (f)dpjj,aKov aKevdcravTa TWV Oava-

4 aifjiwv Kal TriovTa TOV ^rjv d7ra\\ayrji>ai. TivOo-
pevos Be 6 ySacrtXeu? roy Tpoirov T

Kelvov uev aTreKXavcre, TTJV S' alriav v
e\y%eiv Be Kal r]Teiv e^a&vvaTwv Bid yrjpas G
200



AUTAXERXES xxix. 7 -xxx. 4

had killed him ; then, going forth into court, he
made obeisance to the sun and said : " Depart in joy
and peace, ye Persians, and say to all whom ye meet
that those who contrived impious and unlawful
things have been punished by great Oromasdes."

XXX. Such, then, was the end of the conspiracy.
And now Ochus was sanguine in the hopes with
which Atossa inspired him, but he was still afraid of
Ariaspes, the only legitimate son of the king remain-
ing, and also of Arsames among the illegitimate sons.
For Ariaspes, not because he was older than Ochus,
but because he was mild and straightforward and
humane, was deemed by the Persians worthy to be
their king ; Arsames, however, was thought to have
wisdom, and the fact that he was especially dear to
his father was not unknown to Ochus. Accordingly,
he plotted against the lives of both, and being at
once wily and bloody-minded, he brought the cruelty
of his nature into play against Arsames, but his
villainy and craft against Ariaspes. For he secretly
sent to Ariaspes eunuchs and friends of the king,
who constantly brought him word of sundry threaten-
ing and terrifying utterances implying that his father
had determined to put him to a cruel and shameful
death. Since they pretended that these daily re-
ports of theirs were secrets of state, and declared,
now that the king was delaying in the matter, and
now that he wa<; on the point of acting, they so
terrified the prince, and filled his mind with so great
trepidation, confusion, and despair, that he drank a
deadly poison which he had prepared, and thus rid
himself of life. When the king was informed of the
manner of his death, he bewailed his son. He also
suspected what had caused his death, but being

201



PLUTARCH'S LIVES
fjia\\ov r]cnrd^ero rov 'AptrdjjLYjv, teal Brj\os r)v



KLV(t) KOI



oOev ol Trepl rov ^^l^ov OVK aveftd\ovTO rrjv
, aX-X' 'ApTrdrrjv vlov Tr)pij3<i%ov Trapa-
dTreK-reivav St' /cLvov TOV avOpwirov.



5 rjv p,ev ovv eVl poirr^ jju/cpas 6 'Apro^epgijs &ia TO



rov



Tore' Trpoa-TreaovTOs Se avrw rov Trepi



VTTO \V7rrs fcal



fj,ev evevr/covra KOI reacrapa ertj, acrt-
Be &vo KOI e^KOvra, So^a? 8e Trpaos elvai
l (j>i~\,v7TiJKOo<f ov% -fJKicrra Bid rov vibi> T O^ot'
Kal fjuaufrovia rrdvras VTrpfta\6jjLvop.



202



ARTAXERXES xxx. 4-5

unable by reason of his age to search out and
convict the guilty one, he was still more well-
affectioned towards Arsames, and clearly made him
his chief support and confidant. Wherefore Ochus
would not postpone his design, but set Arpates, a
son of Teribazus, to the task and by his hand slew
the prince. Now Artaxerxes, by reason of his age,
was already hovering between life and death ; and
when the sad fate of Arsames came to his ears, he
could not hold out even a little while, but straight-
way expired of grief and despair. He had lived
ninety-four years, and had been king sixty-two, and
had the reputation of being gentle and fond of his
subjects ; though this was chiefly due to his son
Ochus, who surpassed all men in cruelty and blood-
guiltiness.



403



GALBA



TAABA2



I. 'O /AW ' AOrjvalos 'ItyiKpaTrjs TOV fjLiaOo(f)6- 1053
pov rj^iov (TTpaTitoT'rjv teal <$>i\oTr\oVTOv elvai
, OTTO)? rat? eVt^u/uat? ^oprjyiav 7r

7rapa(3o\(i)Tepov, ol &e
eppMjJL&vov awfia, TO crrpartajTiKov d^iov-
aiv i&la fnjBeTTore ^po^^evov op/jifj crvyKiveLffflai

2 TTI rov crrparriyov. &ib teal l\av\ov AifiiKtov
\eyovcri TT)I> eV Ma/teSoi/ta &vva/j,iv TrapaXaflovTa

/cal Trepiepyuas, olov Biacnparrjyovcrav,
Trapeyyvfja-ai, rrjv %t/oa TTOICIV eroL-
/cal TTJV [idxaipav o^etav e/cacrrov, avrw Se

3 TWV aXX-cov [Jie\,vjcreiv. 6 Be H\dra)v ovbev epyov
opwv ap^ovros djaOov Kal aTparrjyov arpancts

fj,r)8e ofJiOTTaOovd^y d\\a rrjv
dperrjv oyu,ota)? rfj /3



TO



re TrdBr) TroXXa Kal TO, 'Pw/zatot?



TOV jitev elvai (oeWTeov rrai-



1 With Plutarch's Galba may be compared Suetonius,
Gatba; Dion Cassius, Ixiv, 1-9 ; Tacitus, Hist. i. 1-45.



206



GALBA 1

I. IPHICRATES the Athenian used to think that the
mercenary soldier might well be fond of wealth and
fond of pleasure, in order that his quest for the
means to gratify his desires might lead him to fight
with greater recklessness ; but most people think that
a body of soldiers, just like a natural body in full
vigour, ought to have no initiative of its own, but
should follow that of its commander. Wherefore
Paulus Aemilius,as we are told, finding that the army
which he had taken over in Macedonia was infected
with loquacity and meddlesomeness, as though they
were all generals, gave out word that each man
was to have his hand ready and his sword sharp,
but that he himself would look out for the rest, 2
Moreover, Plato 3 sees that a good commander or
general can do nothing unless his army is amenable
and loyal ; and he thinks that the quality of
obedience, like the quality characteristic of a king,
requires a noble nature and a philosophic training,
which, above all things, blends harmoniously the
qualities of gentleness and humanity with those of
high courage and aggressiveness. Many dire events,
and particularly those which befell the Romans after
the death of Nero, bear witness to this, and show
plainly that an empire has nothing more fearful to

2 See the Aemiliits, xiii. 4.

3 Of, e.g. Republic 376 C.

207



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

^pa)fievrj<; KCLI d\6yoi<; op^ats ev



yap






pO)l> KlVlffeiS CLTCLKTOVS Ktt

TI-JV Be r Pa>/jiaia>v rjye/jioviav o/xota
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6 7/76/Ltoi^a? eKxpovovros. KCILTOI kiovvaios Qepalov
ap^arra TTa\wi' Se/ca /Ltr}^a?, etra evOvs dv-
aipeOevra, rov rpayifcbv dvercdXei -rvpavvov, C
crKci)7TTa)v TO ra^o? rr}? /Ltera/^oXr)?. 77 ^e
Kai(T(ipfi>v earia, TO IlaXaTiov, eV zXdaraovi
v((> TeVcra/oa? avrofcpdropas VTreBe^aro, TOV /JLIV
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1 An allusion to the provorb fjAy 6 ijxos
208



GALBA i. 3-11. i

show than a military force given over to untrained
and unreasoning impulses. Demades, indeed, after
Alexander had died, likened the Macedonian army
to the blinded Cyclops, observing the many random
and disorderly movements that it made; but the
Roman Empire was a prey to convulsions and dis-
asters like those caused by the Titans of mythology,
being torn into many fragments, and again in many
places collapsing upon itself, not so much through
the ambition of those who were proclaimed emperors,
as through the greed and licence of the soldiery,
which drove out one commander with another as nail
drives out nail. 1 And yet the Pheraean 2 who ruled
Thessaly for ten months and was then promptly killed,
was called the tragedy-tyrant by Dionysius, with
scornful reference to the quickness of the change.
But the house of the Caesars, the Palatium, in a
shorter time than this received four emperors, the
soldiery ushering one in and another out, as in play.
But the suffering people had one consolation at least in
the fact that they needed no other punishment of the
authors of their sufferings, but saw them slain by one
another's hands, and first and most righteously of all,
the man who ensnared the soldiery and taught them
to expect from the deposition of a Caesar all the good
things which he promised them, thus defiling a mo. c ;t
noble deed by the pay he offered for it, and turning
the revolt from Nero into treachery.

II. It was Nymphidius Sabinus, prefect of the court
guard along with Tigellinus, as 1 have already stated, 3
who, when Nero's case was altogether desperate, and

8 Alexander, tyrant of Pherae. See the Pelopidas, xxiv.-
xxxv.
" Probably in the lost Life of Nero.

209



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



beeves e/9 AiyvTrrov, eTreicre TO arpanw-

TIKOV, O)? /jLtJKert, TTClpOVTOS, ttXX* ^BlJ TretyeVJOTOS,

2 avrofcpdropa rd\/3av dvayopevcrai, KOI Bcopedv

rear* dvBpa rot? av\iKois teal arparTj-
7rpocrayopeuo/.tvoi,$ S pampas eTrr

rot? 8e eVro? arparevo/Jievoi^
KOVTO, teal SiaKocrias eVl ^tXtat?, ocroi^
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3 cr^oi'Ta Trdaiv dvdpcoTrois wv Nepwv Trapecr^e. rov- 1054
TO 7<z/o eu^u? /if aTTcoXecre Ne/?a>i'a, /Lter' o\iyov Be
Td\ftav rov [JLZV yap co? \rj^ro[J,evoi irporfKavro,

rov Se /Jirj \anj3dvovres drreKretvav. elra rov
ro&ovrov Bcocrovra tyirovvres e(j)07j(rav eV rat?
aTTOcrracrecrt /cat TrpoBoa-iais dvaXwcravres ai/rou?
17 Tf^oi'Te? cot' r)\m<rav. rd /uev ovv KaO* eKacrra
ra)v yevofJievwv d,Trayy6X\,eiv a^/ot/3w? rr)? Trpay-
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rwv Kaicrdpwv epyois KOI TrdOecn <rv/n7r7rra)K6V t
ovBe 6fj,ol Trpocnjfcei 7rape\0elv.

III. FaX/3a? SouXTU/ao? on f.iev lSi(i)rij<; TrXof-
<Tto)TaTO9 drravTcov et? TOI^ Kcu&dpwv TraprjXOev
OLKOV, 6/j,o\oyelrai' fieya 8e e^toi; evyeveias d^iw-



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