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yu-a TW ^epovtcov olrcov, auro? <f)povei /Jiet^ov eiri
rfj KarXof crvyyeveia, Trpwrevcravros dvBpos
apery KOI $>o%r] rwv /cad' eavrov, el KOI TO Suva-
2 <r^at /j,a\Xov KO>V erepois Trap^Kev. r]v Be ri teal
ta ry Kaicra/jo? yvvaircl Kara yzvos
o I\X/3a9, Kal Bid rovro A//9ta?



1 Plutarch uses the Greek word drachma for the corre-
sponding Roman denarius, a silver coin about equivalent to

210



GALBA ii. i-in. 2

it was clear that he was going to run away to Egypt,
persuaded the soldiery, as though Nero were no
longer there but had already fled, to proclaim Galba
emperor, and promised as largess seventy-five hundred
drachmas apiece for the court, or praetorian, guards,
as they were called, and twelve hundred and fifty
drachmas l for those in service outside of Rome, a
sum which it was impossible to raise without in-
flicting ten thousand times more evils upon the
world than those inflicted by Nero. This promise
was at once the death of Nero, and soon afterwards
of Galba : the one the soldiers abandoned to his fate
in order to get their reward, the other they killed
because they did not get it. Then, in trying to find
someone who would give them as high a price, they
destroyed themselves in a succession of revolts and
treacheries before their expectations were satisfied.
Now, the accurate and circumstantial narration of
these events belongs to formal history ; but it is my
duty also not to omit such incidents as are worthy
of mention in the deeds and fates of the Caesars.

III. That Sulpicius Galba was the richest private
person who ever came to the imperial throne, is
generally admitted ; moreover, his connection with
the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige,
although he prided himself more on his relationship
to Catulus, who was the foremost man in his time in
virtue and reputation, even if he gladly left to others
the exercise of greater power. Galba was also some-
how related to Li via, the wife of Augustus Caesar,
and therefore, at the instance of Li via, he was made

the franc. But a Roman writer would reckon by sestertii,
the sestertius being worth about a quarter of the denarius.



211



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

e/e Ha\ariou TTporj\6e. \eyerai, Be
real (TTparevfjiaTOS ev Pep/jLai'ia KO\,W$ aptai Kal
\i/3vti$ dvOujraro^ y6i>6/J,evos avv o\iyoi<s eTraive-
Ofjvai. TO Be evKO\ov avrou r^5 Siairrj^ KOI <>i-
Ba)\bv ev ScnrdvaLS KOI aTrepiTTOV alriav ea")(ev
avrotepdropos yevo/Aevov ^LiKpoXoyia^, rjv eco\6v

evTa^ias etyepe real
Be VTTO Nepwt'O? ^\{3r}pias ap%cov,
BeBiBay/jievov fyolBelcrBai, TOVS ev d%id)/.iacn

XOL*? 1 TWV TToXtTCO^. eKGlVti) ^ KOI <plJ(Tl, &OKOVV-

TL Trpaw yeyovevai TrpoaeriOei iridTiv v\a/3eia^
TO yrjpas.

IV. 'E-Trel 2 Be, TWV d\iTr)pia)v eTTirpoTrcov co/zco?
/cal dypiws T? eVayO^ta? exeivcp Biafopovvrcov,
d\\o /JLV el\ev ovBev jSo^Oelvy avry Be
elvai crvva\ r y(i)v real (rvva^iKov^evo^ a/zco? ye

Tiva Kal 7rapa/jiv0iav rot?
Kal 7Tfi\ovfJLevoL^ Trapea-^e' Kal
ei? Nepwva yivofjLevwv Kal 7ro\\a-)(ov
vcov Kal aBofj,evci)V, OVK Kco\vev ovBe crvvriyavaKTei
rot? CTT IT POTTO 1$' efi ol? en /JLO,\\OV rjyaTrdTo VTTO
2 Twvdv6po)7ru)V. Kal yap r\v 77877 crvvr)0r)S,eTo<;oyBoov
eKelvo rrjv dp^rjv e^&)^ ev w 'Ioiwo9 QvivBij; eirave-
crTrj Ne/3a)i'i, FaXaftia? wv arparrjyo^. \eyerai
/j,ev ovv Kal jrpo TT}? e/z^xxvoO? aTrocrTacreft)?
/jiara vryoo? avrbv dtyiKea&ai Trapd rov
ot? y^Te TTicrTevcrai utjre fjLrjvvaai Kal



1 fjLfyd\ovs Coraes and Bekker have ^6-yaA.ojj, after Reiske.

2 ^Tret Sint. 2 corrects to ^et (there).



213



GALBA HI. 2-iv. 2

consul 1 by the emperor. We are told also that he
commanded an army in Germany with distinction,
and that when he was pro-consul of Africa, 2 he won
such praise as few have done. But his simple and
contented way of living, the sparing hand with
which he dealt out money, always avoiding excess,
were counted unto him, when he became emperor,
as parsimony, so that the reputation which he bore
for moderation and self-restraint was an insipid
sort of thing. By Nero he was sent out as governor
of Spain, 3 before Nero had yet learned to be afraid
of citi/eris who were held in high esteem. Galba,
however, was thought to be of a gentle nature,
and his great age gave an added confidence that he
would always act with caution.

IV. But when, as the nefarious agents of Nero
savagely and cruelly harried the provinces, Galba
could help the people in no other way than by
making it plain that he shared in their distress and
sense of wrong, this somehow brought relief and
comfort to those who were being condemned in
court and sold into slavery. And when verses were
made about Nero, and men circulated and sang them
freely, he did not put a stop to it nor share in the
displeasure of Nero's agents ; wherefore he was still
more beloved by the inhabitants. For he was by
this time well known to them, since it was in the
eighth year of his governorship that Junius Vindex,
a general in Gaul, revolted against Nero. It is said,
indeed, that even before the open rebellion Galba
received letters from Vindex, and that he neither
put any trust in them nor gave accusing information

1 In 30 A.U. * In 45 A.D. 8 In 61 A.D.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



<w? Tpoi TWV

'ypafaicras eiref-i^av Trpos Ne'/owm KOI

oaov eV aurot? rrjv Trpci^iv, 77? vcrrepov

cr^o^re? a)^,o\6yr)crav aurcov ovBev YJTTOV r) e/cei-

3 vov irpo^orai yeyovevai. aXX' eTreibrj Xa/iTr/xw?

roi' TTQ\efiov eK^TJva^ 6 OuivBi^ ey pa-^rerS) Td\/3a

7rapaKa\a)v dva^e^aadai rrjv rjye/jLOviav Kal

7rapacr)iv eavrov Icr^ypw arti/j.ari fyrovvri /ce-

<$>a\i]v, Tat? FaXartai? 8e/ca //-uptaSa? dv&pcov

a>7r\i(T/jLeva)V e%ovaai$ aXXa? re TrXeiWa? o



rot? <ois. wv o



7repifj,veiv Kapa&OKOvvra Tiva Kivrjcnv 7;
4 'Pai/jiij Kal fyopav eei TTOO? TOV vewrepia/jiov Ttro?
Se Ovivios 6 TOV (TTparrpyi/cov ray/xaTO? i}y/jL<t)v
avrols 1 eliTev " T ft FaX/3a, nW Tpoirov ftov-
\evea9e ; TO yap %r)Ttv Nepwvi el TrtcrTol

fAV, OVK 77877 fjLeVOVTtoV eCTTLV. ft)? OVV V

e%0pov Nepeoj^o? ov Srj 7rpOTOv Tr)v TOV

ATO? (f>i\iav, 7; Kal KaTrjyoprjTeov evdvs avTov Kal



OTl CT6



fjuaXXov r; Nepftwa Tvpavvov"
V. 'Er TOUTOI/ Trpoypd/jL/jiaTi jj,ev e87;Xa)cre^ o
FaX/3a? f)fjiepav ev fj ra? /car^ /zepo? e\evdepa>~ 1055
act? dirocxDaei rot? ^eo/zei^ot?, \a\ia 8e ^al </>77/i>;
TrpoeKTreaovcra 7rX?}^o? dvO ptoirtov ijflpoKre irpo-
Ovpwv 7rl TOV vewTepLo-fjiov. OVK e<f>0>j yovv
(jiavepos 7rl TOV /3^/za,T0? yev6/Avo$, Kal irdvTes
2 auTov Oyuo0ft)^ft)? avTOKpaTopa TrpocrelTrov. 6 $e
v9vs ov 'jrpoaeSe^aTO Ti]V Trpoa-
iav, KaTrjyoprjaas Be TOV Nepcoi/o?,
dvopwv VTT avTov TOL>? eVi

1 oiTo?s suggested by Sint. 1 for the aur<Jy of the MSS.

314



GALBA iv. 2-v. 2

about them, although other provincial governors sent
to Nero the letters written to them, and thus did
all they could to ruin the enterprise of Vindex ; and
yet they afterwards took part in it, and thus confessed
that they had been false to themselves no less than
to Vindex. But after Vindex had openly declared
war, he wrote to Galba inviting him to assume the
imperial power, and thus to serve what was a vigorous
body in need of a head, meaning the Gallic provinces,
which already had a hundred thousand men under
arms, and could arm other thousands besides. Then
Galba took counsel with his friends. Some of these
thought it best for him to wait and see what move-
ment Rome would set on foot in response to the
revolution ; but Titus Vinius, the captain of the
praetorian guard, said to them : " O Galba, what
counsels are these ? For to ask whether we shall
remain faithful to Nero means that we are already
unfaithful. Assuming, then, that Nero is an enemy,
we surely must not reject the friendship of Vindex ;
or else we must at once denounce him and make
war upon him because he wishes the Romans to
have thee as their ruler rather than Nero as their
tyrant."

V. After this, Galba issued an edict appointing a
day on which he would grant individual manu-
missions to all who desired them, and gossip and
rumour flying all abroad brought together a multi-
tude of men who were eager for the revolution.
At any rate, no sooner was Galba seen upon the
tribunal than all with one voice hailed him as
emperor. However, he did not at once accept this
appellation, but after denouncing Nero, and bewailing
the most illustrious of the men who had been put to

215



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



TOU9 o\o$>vpd[jLevo'5, 0)^0X07*7 crez* eTriB&HTGLV TTJ
rrarpiBt, rrjv eavrov Trpovoiav, oirre Kalaap OVT
avTOKparwp, (TTpaTrjybs 8e crvy/c\r)Tov Kal SIJ/ULOV



"On & opOws 6 Oviv$L% /cal XeXc>7cr/iei>ftK

rOV Yd\(3dV em rr)V

/j-dprupi TO> Ne/oowt.

yap eKeivov Karafypovelv xat, trap 1 ovdev f)'
TO, TaXarwv, d/xa TO* TrvOecrdai TO, irepl TdXftav
(eTv% 8e XeXof/zei^o? /cal dpLffrcov] dverpe^e TTJV
4 rpdjre^av. ov yttr/y aXXa a-vy/c\^rov tyr)<j)icra/jL6vr)<;
7ro\/jLLov TOf Yd\fBav avros re irai^eiv /cal 6pa-

TT/OO? TOU? (^tA-OU? /3oV\6/jLVOS, OV (f>av~

Trpopprjaiv e/j,7r67rT(t)/c6vai \oyicruov Seo-
rifJidTWv avry- /cal ra p,ev Ta\ara>v, orav
yevwvrai, \a<f)Vpay(i)yij<Ta0ai, 1} Be
TdXfta rrdpeanv ovcria ^prjaOat /cal 7ra)\iv rjBtj

e/ceXeve, /cal FaX/Sav d/coiKTas, ova Ne-

evpicr/ce



VI. 'Atyicrrafj.evcov Be 7roXXa)z> rov Ne/jwt'o? Kal
eTTieiKws ra> FaX/3a rrpoarri6ep,(
Mtt/fy3O5 eV Aiftvy Kal Quepyivios c ]
ei/ FaXar/a rov Pep/naviKov arparevfjiaros rjyov-
/Ltez^o? avrot KaO^ kavrovs err parr ov, ov rr^v avrrjv
2 ai'pecriv e^ovres. aXX' o pev KXco^io?, eV d t



/cal Tr\OVJ;iav } 877X05 TJV cv TW /JLIJTC

fjiijTe d<fiievai rrjv dp^rjv ^vvacrBai

Ovepyivios Se ray/jbdrcov eTrKTrara

7roX\a/? avrov dvayopevovrcov avro/cpdropa /cat

216



GALBA v. 2-vi. 2

death by him, promised to devote his best powers to
the service of his country, taking as his title, not
Caesar, nor Emperor, but General of the Roman
Senate and People.

Now, that Vindex acted wisely and well in calling
upon Galba to be emperor, was convincingly proved
by Nero. For though he pretended to despise
Vindex and to regard matters in Gaul as of no
moment, as soon as he learned what Galba had done
Nero had just taken his bath and was at breakfast
he overturned his table. However, after the Senate
had voted Galba an enemy, Nero, with a desire to jest
and put on a bold countenance with his friends,
said that an excellent idea had occurred to him in
his need of money : the property of the Gauls would
not fall to him as spoil of war until after they should
be subdued ; but Galba's estate was ready to be used
and sold at once, now that Galba had been declared
a public enemy. So he ordered the property of
Galba to be sold, and Galba, when he heard of it,
put up at public sale all that Nero owned in Spain,
and found many readier buj ers.

VI. Many were now falling away from Nero, and
almost all of them attached themselves to Galba;
only Clodius Macer in Africa, and Verginius Rufus in
Gaul (where he commanded the German forces),
acted on their own account, though each took a
different course. Clodius, whose cruelty and greed
had led him into robberies and murders, was clearly
in a strait where he could neither retain nor give up
his command ; while Verginius, who commanded the
strongest legions and was often saluted by them as
emperor and strongly urged to take the title, declared

VOL. xi H 217



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



ovre ai)ro9 e</>*7 ^ijtyeaOai rrjv

viav OVTC. aXXa> Trepto^eadai biBo/jLevifv, ov av firj ?}
3 crvyK\r}TOS e'XijTai. ravra TOV Yd\ftav ov /J,T-
/?ia>9 etfopvftei TO TrpwTov eVel Se ra Ovepywiov
KOI OvivBiKos arpaTev/jLara rpoirov TLVCL ftia TOI)?



, et? /JLU^V e^eveyKovra /jijd\rjv avv-
eppa^av, fcal QVLV$I,KO<; kavrov ave\ovTO<$ em
bicrfjivpiois Ya\aTWV Trecrovcn, Siri\6e \6yos a>?
/SovXo/jievcov Trdvrwv eVl z/tA;?; roaavrrj TOV Ovep-
yiviov dva&e^aaOai TIJV rjje/jLoviav 77 7Tti\iv
4 ^eTaftaXov/jLevcov TT/OO? Ne'/oawa, Tore 5^ iravrd-
Traari 7TpL<f)O/3o<> yevo/Jievos o FaX/?a9 eypatye TO>
Ovepyiviw, 7rapaKaX,a)v Koivoirpayelv KOI Sia-
<$>v\d(T(reiv apa rrjv rjye/AOViav KOI rrjv e

' avdi<$ Se /xera TOJZ-' <$>i\wv et?
rjv 7ro\iv, dva^wptjcra^ ev TM
Trepl TWV ryeyovorcov real Tro&etv rrjv awr/fli] /cal
crvvrpotyov ci7rpajfjioa'vvi]v yuaXXoz/ rj Trpdrreiv TL
TWV dvayfcaiwv &teTpif3ei>.

VII. ^Hv be 6epos tf&r}, ical {3pa%v Trpo
avro



Be TOV YdXftav dvaTravecrQai
eavrbv e/3aSt^6 avvrovcos evrl TO Sco/naTiov avrov,
teal (3lq TWV 0d\a/Jir]7r6\u>i> dvoi^as KCL\ Trape\0o)v
2 aTn^yyetA.ei' ori KCU ^w^T09 eri TOV Nepw^o?, ou:
Se (fravepov, TO crTpaTev/j^a irpWTov, etra 6
al 77 <rvryK\r)TOS avTOtcpaTopa TOV
dvayopei>(TiV, 6\i<yov Se v<JTepov

e/ceivos' ov firjif auro9 ye



T069

vercpw KOI Kei/Jievov (teacrd/j.evos, OVTWS %\0elv.
218



GALBA vi. 2-vn. 2

that he would neither assume the imperial power
himself, nor allow it to be given to anyone else whom
the senate did not elect. These things greatly dis-
turbed Galba at first ; but presently the armies of
Verginius and Vindex in a manner forced their
leaders, like charioteers who had lost control of the
reins., into the crash of a great battle, and Vindex,
after the loss of twenty thousand Gauls, died by his
own hand, and a report was current that all the
soldiers desired Verginius, in view of the great
victory he had won, to assume the imperial power,
or they would go back again to Nero. Then indeed
Galba was all alarm, and wrote to Verginius inviting
him to join in efforts for the preservation alike of
the empire and the freedom of the Romans. But
after this he retired with his friends to Clunia, a city
in Spain, and spent his time in repenting of what he
had done and in longing for his habitual and wonted
freedom from care, rather than in taking any of the
steps now made necessary.

VII. It was now summer, 1 and shortly before sun-
set there came from Rome a freedman named Icelus,
who had made the journey in seven days. Having
learned that Galba was reposing by himself, he went
in hot haste to his chamber, opened the door in spite
of the chamberlains, entered, and announced that
while Nero was still alive, but in hiding, that the army
first, and then the senate and people, had proclaimed
Galba emperor, and that a little while afterwards it
was reported that Nero was dead; Icelus himself,
however, as he said, had not believed the report, but
had gone and seen the dead body where it lay, and
then had set out on his journey. This announcement

1 Of 68 A.D.

219



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



3 TO.UTO- dirayyeXho/jLeva \a^Trpov fjpe TOV Td\(3av,

KOI 0-vveBpa/u.e 7r\r)0o<$ dvBp&v eVl Ovpas eKTedap- 1056



avrov e/ata)9. /cairoi TO



CLTTMTTOV. O\\CL KOi

Qvivios Ttro? 2 CLTTO (TTparoTreSov /j,& erepcov
ra So^avra rfj avyK\iJT<p Ka9^ e/caarov
ouro? fiev ovv et? rd^iv evrifjiov
TO) 3' direX^evOepci) Sa/crvXiovs re
e$a>K teal Mapteiavos 6 "l/ce/Vo? ij
rrjv Trpwr^v ev TO??



VIII. 'Ez/ Be 'Pco/jiTj Nf/u,^)/SfO9 ^aftivos, OVK
real /card fjiLKpov, d\\d a~u\\i']/3$r]V 6/xoO,
7rpdyfj.ara <pepcov Trepnjvey/cev et? eavrov,
Td\ftai> /lev ovra irpea-fBv'T^v KOI /^oXf? et?
Ta (fcopdStjv Ko^i(jQr\vai Sid
' ijv jdp erwv rpiwv Kal /3So/j,i]KovTa' rd
Be avTo6i arparevf^ara, Kal TrdXai TT/JO? avTQV
vv6ws e^ovra Kal vvv evos e^rjptijfjLeva [JLOVOV, Bid
TO T?}? Bwpeds /jLeyeOos evepyerrjv Kivov f)yeia0ai,
Be %pe(i)(j)i\eTr)v. evOij<; ovv TiyeXXiva*
TW (rvvdpxovTi TrpocreTa^ev diroOea-Oai TO
Be



Kal TOU? ejioviKovs, Ti TO



is ovofjia Tat? K^jcrecrtv, ev Te TW crTpaTO-

rapecrKevaae \eyeiv &>?
777309 Td\/3av aLTOVfiAvovs

dvev o~vvdp"%ovTO<;.
Be t'j (TvyK\tjTo^ et9 TifJirjV eirpaTTev avTOV



supplied by Coracs, after Amyot.

2.'iO



GALBA vii. 2-vni. 3

highly elated Galba, and there came running to his
door a multitude of men who had gained complete
confidence as the result of Icelus' report. And yet
the messenger's speed was incredible. But two days
afterwards Titus Vinius with others came from the
camp and reported in detail the decrees of the senate.
Vinius, accordingly, was advanced to a position of
honour, and as for the freedman, he was allowed to
wear the gold ring, received the name of Marcianus
instead of Icelus, and had the chief influence among
the freedmen.

VIII. But at Rome Nymphidius Sabinus was
forcing; the entire control of affairs into his own

o

hands, not slowly and little by little, but all at once.
He thought that Galba was an old man and would

O

hardly have the strength to be carried to Rome on a
litter, by reason of his age, for he was in his seventy-
third year ; moreover, he knew that the soldiery in
the city had long been well disposed towards him
and were now devoted to him alone, regarding him
as their benefactor because of the large gifts which
lie promised, but Galba as their debtor. Straight-
way, therefore, he ordered his colleague Tigellinus
to lay down his sword, gave receptions at which he
banqueted men who had been consuls or in high
command (although he still affixed the name of
Galba to his invitations), and instigated many of the
soldiers to declare that a deputation ought to be sent
to Galba demanding that Nymphidius be made pre-
fect for life without a colleague.

Moreover, the senate did much to enhance his

* TITOS after this name the words TTO\\O. ruv, deleted by
Coraes and Bekker, are retained by Sint.* with indication
of a lacuna (iroXXct . . . rS>v}

221



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

, dvaKa\ovcra evepyerqv K.CLI crvvrpe-
vovcra [email protected]' rj/jiepav eVl dvpas KCU rravros e^dp^eiv
B6y/j,aro<; d^iovaa Kal ftefiaiovv, en Trepairepco
rokfjiris avrpyev avrov, wcrre 6\iyov ^povov
0epa7Tvovcri /j,rj JJLOVOV Tri<$>6ovov, a\\a KOI </>
4 pov elvai. TWV 8' VTTCLTWV ot/cera?



ra Sozara /coxtoyTa? TM avro-



Kpdropi, /cal TO, Ka\ov/Aeva

SOVTWV, a ryvwpl^ovTes ol Kara iroKiv
eV rat? TWV o^rjfJLarcov d/jLOi/3ais eVtra-
ra? 7r/oo7royU7ra? TWV <ypa/j,uaTT](f)6pu)i>, ov
rjyavaKTTjcrev ore yu,?; Trap avrou Kal
Kal crTpaTidiTas Xa^o^re? averreiJi^rav,
a\\a \eyerai Kal (3ov\evcraa6ai irepl rwv inrdrwv,
eira rrjv opyrjv



5 dv?)Ke. TO) Be BIJ/JLCO ^apt^oyLte^o? OVK eKa)\ve rbv
a rcov Ne/jcoi/o? dTrorv/ATravL^eiv.
pev ovv rov ^ovo^d'^pv dv^pidcri Nep&n'o?
vrrof3a\,ovTe<; ev dyopa &i(f)@eipai>,
Be riva ra)i> Kar^yopiKtov dvarpe'\lravT<;
i6o$>bpovs eTrrjyayov, aXkovs Be Bie<r7ra-
<rav TroXXoi/?, eWou? /jwjBev dBiKovvras, wcrre Kal
WavpiKOV, civBpa TWV dpi&Twv Kal ovra Kal Bo-
Kovvra, TT/oo? rr;^ crvjK^roi 1 elirelv OTI <^o/3eiTat
; ra^v Nepwj^a r)Tqa'G>aiv J .

IX. Oi/ra) Be 7rpO(rdya)v 6 N v/j,d>iBio<; eyyvrepa)
e\7riaiv OVK efyevye Yatov Katcra/oo? u/o?
\eyea0ai rov fjierd Tiftepiov ap^avros. eyvwKei
yap 6 Fato?, &)? eoiKe, rrjv re/fovaav avrbv eri

1 Caligula.
222



GALBA vin. 3~ix. i

honour and power, giving him the title of benefactor,
assembling daily at his door, and allowing him the
privilege of initiating and confirming all their
decrees. This raised him to a still higher pitch
of boldness, so that within a short time those who
paid court to him were filled, not only with jealousy,
but also with fear. When the consuls provided
public servants to carry the decrees of the senate to
the emperor, and gave to these the diplomas, as they
were called, sealed with their official seal (in order
that the magistrates of the various cities, recognising
this, might expedite the supply of fresh vehicles for
the journey of the couriers), hew r as vexed beyond all
bounds because the decrees had not been sent under
his seal and in charge of his soldiers, nay, it is said
that he actually thought of proceeding against the
consuls, but put away his wrath when they excused
themselves and begged for forgiveness. Again, in
his desire to gratify the people, he would not
prevent them from beating to death any follower of
Nero who fell into their hands. Accordingly, they
cast Spiculus the gladiator under statues of Nero
that were being dragged about in the forum, and
killed him ; Aponius, one of Nero's informers, they
threw to the ground and dragged waggons laden
with stone over him ; and many others, some of

* *

whom had done no wrong, they tore in pieces, so
that Mauricus, who was justly deemed one of the
best men in Rome, told the senate that he was afraid
they would soon be searching for a Nero.

IX. Thus coming in his hopes nearer and nearer to
his goal, Nymphidius was not averse to having it said
that he was the son of the Caius Caesar 1 who succeeded
Tiberius. For Caius, as it would appear, while still

223



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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224



GALBA ix. i-x. 2

a young man, had been intimate with the mother of
Nymphidius, a woman of comely appearance and a
daughter of Callistus, Caesar's freedman, by a hired
sempstress. But this intimacy, as it would seem,
was later than the birth of Nymphidius, and it was
believed that he was a son of Martianus, the gladiator
(with whom Nymphidia fell in love on account of his
fame), and his resemblance to Martianus was thought
to favour this connection. But although he certainly
admitted that Nymphidia was his mother, he took to
himself sole credit for the overthrow of Nero, and
thinking himself insufficiently rewarded for this by
the honours and wealth which he enjoyed, and by
the company of Sporus, Nero's favourite (whom he
had sent for at once, while Nero's body was yet
burning on its pyre, and treated as his consort, and
addressed by the name of Poppaea), he aspired to
the succession in the empire. Some secret steps to
this end he himself took at Rome through the agency
of his friends, and certain women and men of sena-
torial rank secretly assisted him, and one of his
friends, Gellianus, he sent to Spain to keep an eye
upon matters there.

X. But everything went well with Galba after the
death of Nero. Verginius Rufus, it is true, who was
still hesitating, gave him anxiety. For besides com-
manding a large and most efficient army, Verginius
had the added prestige of his victory over Vindex
and his subjugation of all Gaul, which was a large
part of the Roman Empire and had been in the
throes of revolt. Galba therefore feared that Ver-
ginius might listen to those who invited him to take
the supreme power. For no man's name was greater
than that of Verginius, and no man had a reputation

225



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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