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VLOV olo/JLevo^ /Jiev KO\ouctv, i]yvoet 3e apa TW
Ovepyiviov ^pr/crra* BCIL/J.OVL avvepycov, jjSt) roi>

a 7TO\/J-(i)V KOi KdK(JOV, OCTU TOL>? d'\XoL'9 7/76-

/carecr^ev, e/cros e/? /9tor atcvfipva KCU



ypas eprfvri^ KOI i]<jv\ias fiecrrov



XI. Yd\(3av 8e Trepl Nap/3a>^a, TTQ\LV Ya\ari-
rfV, ol Trapd rfjs avyK\,rjrov Trpea/Beis e
r)(T7rdovTO, real TrapefcdXovv em^avrjvat, ru>
TToOovvri TaY^co?. o ^ Ta? T6 aXXa? rrapei^ev
KCU crvvovcrias avrols (f)i\av0pu>7rovs KCU



226



GALBA x. 2-xi. i

equal to his, since he had exercised the greatest in-
fluence in ridding the Roman state alike of a grievous
tyrant and of Gallic wars. But in the present crisis
he was true to his original resolves and maintained
the senate's right to choose the emperor. And yet
when Nero's death was known for certain, the mass
of his soldiery were insistent again with Verginius,
and one of the military tribunes in his tent drew his
sword and ordered Verginius to choose between
imperial power and the steel. But after Fabius
Valens, commander of a legion, had led off in taking
the oatli of allegiance to Galba, and letters had come
from Rome telling of the senate's decrees, he suc-
ceeded at last, though with the greatest difficulty,
in persuading his soldiers to declare Galba emperor ;
and when Galba sent Flaccus Hordeonius to succeed
him, Verginius received that officer, handed over his
army to him, and went himself to meet Galba as he
advanced, and turned back in his company without re-
ceiving any clear mark either of his anger or esteem.
This was due, in the one case, to Galba himself, who
had a wholesome respect for Verginius, and in the
other to Galba's friends, especially Titus Vinius.
Vinius was jealous of Verginius, and thought to block
his career ; but without knowing it he was aiding the
man's good genius, which was now removing him
from all the wars and miseries which encompassed
the other leaders, and bringing him into a calm
haven of life, and an old age full of peace and quiet.
XI. At Narbo, a city of Gaul, Galba was met by
the deputies from the senate, who greeted him and
begged him to gratify speedily the eager desire of
the people to see him. In his general interviews
and meetings with them he was kind and unassuming,

227



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



ds, Trpo? re Ta? e<JTitt<ret9 TToXX/y? Kara-
KOI Oeparreias /3aai\iKi)s rrapova-rj^, T)V K
rwv Nepcoi/o? 6 Nf/z(/>t&o? avru) rrpoaerre^^rev,
ovBevl xpaifievos KLva)V, aXXa rot? eavrov rraa-iv,
evBoKi/jLet, fieya\6<ppa)v dvrjp KOI KpeiTTtov aTrei-
2 poKaKias (fraivo/jLevos. Ta%v ^VTOL ra yevvata
ravra KOI arvfya Kal iro\LTLKa



KOI



avrrjv, 7rei(Te '^pt^aa'i re %pricrOai rot? Nepa>i>o.<j
teal Trepl ra? L7roSo^a? /xrj (fieiSecrdai T^? /3acri\.i-
tcr)$ 7ro\VT6\ia<$. Kal oXco? aicr0v}(TLV aurov Kara
VTTO TO) OVLVLW ^vi}G o^kvov TTapel^ev 6



XII. *H^ Be Qvivios apyvpiov /j.ev eV^ar&x?
Trap* OVTLVOVV IITTWV, eVo^o? Se Kal rot? Trepi
<yvvaiKas afjLapTijfjLaaiv. en jap &v Wo? Kal
(TTparevo/jLevos VTTO KaX/5tcrt&) ^afBlvw rrjv 7rpd)Trjv
crTpareiav aKoXacnov ovaav rrjv yvraiKa rov
rjye/jiovos TrapeKTtjyaye vvKrwp els TO crrparoTreBov
ev laBrfTi crTpaTiwTiKfj Kal Bi([email protected] ev rot?

2 ap%eioi<;, a TrpiyKLTTia Ka\ovcn 'Pw/^aloi. 7rl
TOVTM Be Tdios Katcrap eBrjaev av-rov CKCLVOV Be

avovros evrv^La xprjcrdjj,evo<; aireKvOr). Bei- 1058
Be irapaK\avBi(D Katcrapt TTOTrjpiovdpyvpovv

v(f)ei\TO' TTvdofJLevos Be 6 KaZ<rap rfj varepaia

Trd\iv avTov 7rl BCITTVOV eKaXecrev, e\66vrL Be

eKeXevarev eKeivw i^rjBev apyvpovv, a\\a

Trdvra Trpoafyepeiv Kal TrapanOevai rovs v

3 TOUTO [lev ovv Bia rrjv KatVapo? //-eryOto
Kcorepav yevo/jLev^v -yeA,&>TO?, OVK opyfjs a%iov eBo-

a Be rov Yd\/3av e^wv vfi avry, Kal



22%



GALBA xi. i-xn. 3

and when he entertained them, though there was an
abundance of royal furniture and service at his com-
mand, which Nyrnphidius had sent him from Nero's
palace, he used none of it, but only what was his
own, thus winning a good repute, and showing him-
self a man of large mind who was superior to
vulgarity. Vinius, however, by declaring to him
that this dignified, simple, and unassuming course
was merely a flattery of the people and a refinement
of delicacy which thought itself unworthy of great
things, soon persuaded him to make use of Nero's
riches, and in his receptions not to shrink from a
regal wealth of outlay. And in general the aged
man let it be seen little by little that he was going
to be under the direction of Vinius.

XII. Now Vinius was to the last degree and
beyond all compare a slave of money, and was also
addicted to loose conduct with women. For when
he was still a young man and was serving his first
campaign, under Calvisius Sabinus, he brought his
commander's wife, an unchaste woman, by night
into the camp in the garb of a soldier, and had
commerce with her in the general's quarters (the
Romans call them "principia "). For this offence
Caius Caesar put him in prison ; but on the death of
the emperor he had the good fortune to be released.
While he was at supper with Claudius Caesar, he
purloined a silver drinking-cup, and Caesar, learning
of it, invited him to supper again the next day, and
when he came, ordered the attendants to set before
him no silver plate at all, but only earthenware. This
misdeed, it is true, owing to the comic turn which
Caesar's moderation took, was thought worthy of
laughter, not of anger ; but what he did when he had

229



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

erfl^prjfJiacrLV, errparre, rpayitewv rraO&v
KOL arv/ji(f)opc0v /jieyd\wv rot? fjiev air lav, rot? Be
rcpo^acnv Trapecr^ev.

XIII. 'O yap Nv/j<j)iBios evOvs eiraveKOovro^
rov TeX\,iavov TT^O? avrov, bv erre^^re rov FaX/9a
rpoiTOV rivd KardafcoTroi', axovcras T/)? pev atXf;?
KCU TWV Sopvfyopwv eTrap^ov aTTO^e^el^Oai Ko/o-
vi]\iov Ad/cwva, TO Be av^irav eivai rov QVIVLOV
tcpdros, avTW Be fjujBeTroTe rov FaX/9a <nr}vai
Tr\rj(jiov eyyeyovevai fj,tjBe evrv^elv IBia, Trdvrwv
avrov v<f)Op(i)/jLevwv KOI Sta<f)V\arr6vr(i)v, eOo-

2 pv/3>[email protected])' KOI crvvayaycov TOU? i]ye/jLova<f rov arpa-
revjjLaros e(f)t] Yd\(3av /J,ev avrov elvat rrpecrj^vrriv
7rieiKr) teal /j,erpiov, e\d^iara Be rot? avrov
Xput^evov \oyia-jj,ois vrro OVIVLOV teal Adtcayvos
OVK ev BioiKeia-Qai. rrplv ovv \a6elv avrovs
eo")(e Tiye\\tvos Icr^vv ev rot? irpdyixacn
/jievovs, Tre/jLirreov elvai rrpos rov rjye/^ova rrpecr/3ei<;
LLTTO arparorreBov TOU? BiBd^ovras on rwv $L\wv
Bvo /JLOVOVS TOUTOU? aTro(TKvacrd/jLVo^ rjSicav rrape-

3 arai Trdcri teal rroOeivorepos. ewel Be ravra \eywv

' " /) '-v-\' 5 ' ' S" ' ^'-v-v'

OVK erreiuev, a\\ aroTrov eooieei tcai a\\otcorov
rrpecrjBvrriv, wcrrrep dpri yevo/jievov e^ov-



<na? /jLeipaKLOv, ol? xprfcrerai <^tXoi? r) /JLIJ,



s ' / ' v

? 6/^, erepav ooov

;, vvv /jiev ft)? vtTovXa teal
T?)? 7roX,eo)? e^ouo"?;?, vvv Be
ev Ai/3vr} ra crirriyd teare^eiv, av0i<$ Be
TrapaKivetv ra Pep/jiavited rdy/jLara, teal Trepl rwv
ev ^vpia teal'lovBaia BvvdfjLewv ojaota rrvvddveaOai.



230



GALBA xii. 3-xm. 3

Galba under his control and was most influential with
him in financial matters, was partly a cause and partly
a pretext for tragic events and great calamities.

XIII. For Nymphidius. as soon as Gellianus had
come back to him, whom he had sent to be a sort of
spy upon Galba, heard that Cornelius Laco had been
appointed prefect of the praetorian guard, and that
Vinitis was all powerful with Galba, while Gellianus
had never stood near him or seen him in private, but
had been looked upon with suspicion and distrust by
everyone. Nymphidius was therefore much disturbed,
and calling together the officers of the army, told
them that Galba himself was a well-meaning and
moderate old man, but did not follow his own
counsels in the least, and was badly directed by
Vinius and Laco. Therefore, before these men had
succeeded in secretly acquiring the power which
Tigellinus had held, a deputation should be sent to
the emperor from the camp, to inform him that if
he would put away from his company of friends
only these two men, he would be more acceptable
and welcome to all on his arrival. But this speech
of Nymphidius did not convince his hearers ; nay,
they thought it a strange and unnatural thing to
dictate to an aged emperor, as if he had been a
youth just tasting power, what friends he was to
have or not to have. Nymphidius therefore took
another course, and wrote to Galba messages in-
tended to alarm him now, that there was much
hidden distemper and unrest in the city, now, that
Clodius Macer was holding back the grain supplies in
Africa ; again, that the legions in Germany were
mutinous, and that like news came concerning the
forces in Syria and Judaea. But since Galba gave

231



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

4 TOV Be rdkfta /^r) Trdvu TOV vovv
avT(o p-jBe TTMTTevovTos eyvw TrpoeTTi^eipev' KCLLTOI
KXaiBios KeA,TO? 'A^rto^ei/?, dvrjp e^pwv, evvovs
Be efceivp teal TTICTTOS, aTrr/yopeve, \e<ywv ovtc av
o'lecrOai piav ev 'Yco/xrj crvvoiKiav Kaucrapa Trpotr-
i7relv Nvfj,<pi&iov* d\\a 7ro\\ol /careye^wv, real
Mi6pi&aTrjs 6 YiovTiKos eTriGKcoTTTtov TTJV <pa\a-
Kponjra KOI pvao-orrjra TOV TaXySa vvv effrrj TLVCL
Boxelv eLvai 'Pw/mi'oi?, o^Oevra be (pavelcrdai TWV
rjftepwv TOVTWV a? Ka\elrai, Kaiaap, oW^So?.

XIV. "E^o^er ovv irepl /xecra? VVKTCL<; eis TTJV
Trapfji/3o\r]v rrapayayovTas dvabei/cvveiv avTO-
icpaTopa TOV Nvfji<j>iSiov. TT^WTO? Be TCOV
'Az^rwwo? 'QvwpdTos ecrrrepcK;

<rTpaTitoTas crvi>ayaya)V
avTov, exdfCL^e Be etceivovs ev o\lyu)
T/oo7ra? rocraura? Tpeiro/jLevovs KCLT ouBeva \oyi-
Giwv ovBe aipeaiv dfJLeivovwv, d\\d Bai/j,ovos rtro?
aurou? CK TrpoBocTias eh TTpoSoaiav e\avvovTO<?.

2 KOI Ta /lev rrpWTa 7rpo<pdcris e)(iv TO, Ne/iwyo?
eyK\ijf^ara' vvv Be FaX/3a;/ TrpoBiBovai, TIVCL (frovov

eyKa\ovvTas rj ffcj)ay)]v yvvaifcos, rj Trolav
evovs 8v/A\r]v 77 Tpaya)Biav TOV
'A\X' ovBe ercelvov errl TOVTOIS v

aAAa Nvfj,<>iBifp rreia'devTe^ OTI
eyKaT\i7r teal rretyevyev et?

3 AiyvTTTOv. TTOTepov ovv Nepmvt Td\j3av TTI-
6vcr(i)/j,0a, teal TOV etc Nu/K/uS/a? e\6/jievoi Kat-
crapa TOV etc At/Bias dveXw/jiev, a>5 TOV eg 'Aypnr-
232



GALBA xiii. 4-xiv. 3

no heed to him whatever and put no confidence
in his reports, he determined not to wait before
making his attempt. And yet Clodius Celsus of
Antioch, a man of good sense, who was well-dis-
posed and faithful to him, tried to dissuade him,
saying that in his opinion not a single precinct in
Rome would give Nymphidius the title of Caesar.
But many ridiculed Galba, and especially Mithridates
of Pontus, who scoffed about his bald head and
wrinkled face, and said that now the Romans
thought him a great personage, but when they saw
him they would regard all the days in which he had
borne the title of Caesar as a disgrace to them.

XIV. It was decided, therefore, to bring Nym-
phidius into the camp about midnight and proclaim
him emperor. But when it was evening, the lead-
ing military tribune, Antonius Honoratus, calling
together the soldiers under his command, reviled
himself, and reviled them for changing about so
often in so short a time, not according to any plan
or choice of better things, but because some evil
spirit drove them from one treachery to another.
In the first instance, he said, they had an excuse in
the crimes of Nero ; but now, if they were to betray
Galba, what charge of murdering his mother or
slaying his wife could they bring against him, or
what feelings of shame that their emperor should
appear in public as musician or tragic actor ? " Nay,
not even with these provocations would we consent
to abandon a Nero, but we had to be persuaded by
Nymphidius that Nero had first abandoned us and
fled to Egypt. Shall we, then, sacrifice Galba after
Nero, and choosing the son of Nymphidia as our
Caesar, shall we slay the scion of the house of Livia,

2 33



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



TT 0*779 dvei\oiiev; ?} TOVTW SiK^v eV^eWe? ML> 1059
oeSpaKe, TL/jicopol fjiev Ne'pcovos, FaX/Ja Be (f)v
dyafloi /ecu TTicrrol (pavwfiev;"

Tavra \eyovTi TW ^iXidp^w TcpocrWevTO Trd
ol (TTpaTi&rai, teal TOU? aA-Xou? Trpocnovres /JL/JL-
vetv 7rap6/cd\ovv rfj ?rpo? TOV avTOKpdropa Tn

4 Kal TOL/? TrXetou? /jLT(TTrj(Tav. dp0L

el-re ireicrOels 6 Nu/^^tSio?, w? (pa(Tiv evioi, Ka\eiv
avrov r)8r; TOU? o'TpaTtGora?, etVe 7rpo\a(Belv <77rev-
TO 6opv/3ovi> GTI, Kal Bicrrd^ov, VTTO ^XWTI
w irporjei, \6yov TLVCL KOfjii^wv ev {BijSXKp
VTTO Kiyyayviov Rdppwvos, bv K/UL-

5 ULekerrjfcei TT/JO? TOU? a-TpaTidiras elirelv. ISwv Se

TOV (TTpaTOTre&ov ra9 Tru
ra Tei^i) TroXXoi)? &)7rXfcr fjievovs e
7rpo(Ti<Mv rjpcoTa TI /3ov\ovTai Kal Ttro? tc\ev-
aavTos ev oVXoi? yeyovacriv. aTravT(*)(Tr)<$ 6' avTW
rrapa 7rdvTO)v //.ta? (^tof/}?, l?d\(Bav avTOKpaTOpa






6 TOU? 7TO/JLVOV<$ Ke\6V. TWV > Tfapd T<Z?

TcapevTwv avTov elae\0elv /^er' o\,iywv auro?
dicovri^eTai ^oyxi}' Ka ^ L TUVTrjv fj,ev eBt^aTO Trpb
avTov dupew SeTrrt/^io?, a\,\a>v Se yvfAi'ois ^Lfyeaiv
(frwywv Kal &&>^#et? eV oiK>']/j,aTi
cr<paTTTaL. Kal TOV veKpbv et? yuecroi'
e\KV(ravTe<s Kal Trepif3a\QVTe<$ KijK\i$a Oea/na rot?
/SovXofievois fjieO* i}/jiepav Ttapkayjov.

XV. Oirra) Se TOU Ni/yu^tStou KaTaaTpetyavTos
o FaX/Sav rrvOo/jievos, Kal TWV crvvwfxoTwv avTov

2 34



GALBA xiv. 3-xv. i

as we have slain the son of Agrippina ? Or, shall
we inflict punishment on Nymphidius for his evil
deeds, and thereby show ourselves avengers of Nero,
but true and faithful guardians of Galba? "

So spoke the tribune, and all his soldiers took his
side, and visiting their fellow-soldiers, exhorted them
to maintain their fidelity to the emperor ; and they
brought over the greater part of them. But now
loud shouts arose, and Nymphidius, either because
he was convinced, as some say, that the soldiers
were already calling him, or because he was anxious
to win over betimes the element that was still
unruly and mutinous, came up in a glare of lights,
carrying in his hand a speech written out for him by
Cingonius Varro ; this he had got by heart to deliver
to the soldiers. But when he saw the gate of the
camp closed and a great number of men under arms
along the walls, he was struck with fear ; and drawing
near, he asked what they meant, and by whose
command they were under arms. One cry came to
him from the lips of all, and this was that they
acknowledged Galba as emperor, whereupon he also,
as he joined them, shouted in approval, and bade his
followers do the same. But after the soldiers at the
gate had permitted him to enter with a few followers,
a lance was hurled at him. This weapon Avas
received in the shield which Septimius interposed,
but others assailed him, with drawn SAvords, where-
upon he fled, was pursued, and was cut down in a
soldier's hut. His dead body was dragged forth,
surrounded with a paling, and exposed to public
view all dav.

v

XV r . Such was the violent end of Nymphidius. and
when Galba learned of it, he ordered such of his

235



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

cnroOavelv ocroi /zr/ Bi avrwv e
aTreOavov, ev oZ? r)v Kal Kiyycovios 6 TOV \6yov
Kal MiOpiBdTrjs 6 Hoim/co?, e'Boge /LIT)
, el KOL BiKaicoSi/ArjBe BIJ/JLOTLKMS dvypijKevaL
Trpo Kpiaews dvBpas OVK ao^/^ou?. erepov jap
fjye/jiovias cr^tj/uia TrpocreSe^oivTO Trdvres, e'^aTrarco-
2 fjivoi avvr^Ow^ VTTO TWV i> dp^fj \yo/jivcov. ert
Be /uia\\ov rjvlaaev auTOU? dvrjp viraTiicos teal

NepCOI^A TTtCTTO? ClTToOavelv K\V([email protected], TleTptoVlOS

Tovp7ri\iav6s. ^Idfcpov 1 yap ev Aiftvy 8ta Tpe-
J3a)vi6v* Kal <&ovn)iov ev TepfiavLa Bid Qvd\ei'TO<?
dve\a)v 7Tp6(f)a(Ttv el^ev eV oVXoi? KCU (npaTOTre-
Bois 6Vra? (f)o/3>)0>jvai. TovpTriXiavbv Be, yepovra
yv/Jivov Kal di'OTrXov, \6yov yueraXa/Sett' ovSev
eKw>\vev, el TL? >}v 7rayye\\erai /jLerpLor^ra rot?



2 epyra

3 TaOra pev ovv ro^ai/Ta? e^ei fjLe/^^rei,^. eVet Be
7rpo(Tia>v aTrel^e TT}? TroXew? irepl Trevre
araBiovs, eveTvy^avev dKoa-jjiia Kal OopvfBw
epe*ro)v T^V oBov Trpofare^ovrayv Kal irepiKe^v/jLe-
vwv Travra-^oOev. ovroi Be rjaav 01)9 et? ev rdy/ia

4 o Ne/30)^ auXXo^tVa? djrefyrive (TTparia)Ta<;' Kal
rore irapovres eK(3eftai<aGaaOai, rrjv cnpaTelav
OUT' ocf)0TJi>ai TOi? anavTMaiv ov-r dKOvaOrfvaL
Trapiecrav TOV avTOKpaTOpa, aXV edopv/3ovv ftofj
(Trjaeta TW TayuaTi Kal ^a)pav atroO^re?. eKeivov
Be VTrepTiOe/jLevov Kal Trd\iv eijrelv 3



1 Maxpov (as in xiii. 3), Tpefiwiov, suggested by Sint. 8 for

va and [email protected]>viavov of the MSS.

8 Trpd'y/j.acriv Sint. 2 has ypj.ju/j.ao'iv (in his letters], after
Emporius.

3 TtaXiv rlirtiv Bekker has wapfiftfiv (yield), after Corae's.

236



GALBA xv. 1-4

fellow-conspirators as had not at once taken their
own lives to be put to death. Among these was
Cingonius, who wrote the speech for Nymphidius,
and Mithridates of Pontus. But it was held to be
illegal and despotic, even though just, to put to
death without a trial men who were not without
distinction. For everyone expected a different mode
of government, being thoroughly deceived, as is
usual, by assurances made in the beginning. And
people took it still more amiss when Petronius
Turpilianus, a man of consular dignity who was
faithful to Nero, was ordered to take his own life.
For in having Macer taken off in Africa at the hands
of Trebonius, and Fonteius in Germany at the hands
of Valens, Galba could excuse himself with the fear
they inspired as commanders of armed forces. But
there was no reason why Turpilianus, a helpless old
man and unarmed, should not have a chance to defend
himself, if the emperor was really going to observe
that moderation in his dealings which he promised.

Such, then, was the censure to which these acts
exposed Galba. Moreover, when, in his approach to
the city, he was distant from it about five-and-
twenty furlongs, he fell in with a disorderly and
tumultuous crowd of seamen, who beset his way and
encompassed him on all sides. These were men
whom Nero had formed into a legion and given the
title of soldiers. And now they were there to
enforce their just rights as soldiers, and would not
suffer the emperor to be seen or heard by those who
came to meet him, but with tumultuous shouts
demanded standards for their legion and regular
quarters. When Galba put off their demand and
told them to renew it at another time, they declared

237



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

dpvr}aeu>s a^r/aa rijv dva{3o\rjv elvai
tjyavd/cTOvv ical rrapelirovro urj (freiBo/Aevot, y3or}?.
eviwv Be Kal ra? fj,a%aipa<i (TTraa'a/Aevwv, Ke\vcre
TOZ;? tTrrrels eujSaXelv auroi? o FaX/3a9. vTrecrrr)
Be ovBels 1/eCvfov, aXX' ol IAW evOvs d



ol Be <>evovT<; &i()Qdt]crav, ov



aiaiov TTOiovvres ra> Yd\fBa, rov olwvov

Sia TTO\\OV (frovov KOI veicp&v roaovrcov et? rrjv

Tro\iv. aXX' el KO.I ris avrov reareifipovei Trpore-



pov ffevovs teal yepovTOS opw^evov, Tore Tracrt



Kal ^)0/Se/3o? eyevero.

XVI. Boi/Xo/uefo? be TJ}? irepl ra? Swpeas d
r/ota? Kal TToXfTeXeta? rou

fj,eyd\i]v p,eTafto\riv, ddTO^lv e&oKet, rov irpe-
irovros. Kai^of yap av\ii<javros avrw rrapd 1060
Seirrvov (d/cpoa/jia Be rjv o Kaz^o? 6vSoKifj.ov/j,evov}
Kal aTro^eaue^o? exeXevcrev avrw



TO



e'/reBfDKe ru> Kaz^w, ^>r;cra? IK rwv IBicov, OVK

2 K rwv Sij/jLOdiaiv ^apl^eaOai. ra? Be Bwpeds a?
Ne/cwj; e'BcoKe rot? rrepl (TKrjvrjv Kal rca\aiarpav,

crvvrovws /ceXeucra? rr\^v rov BeKarov
, elra fiLKpa Kal y\ia/%pa Kofju^onevos
(dvr)\(t)Keo~av yap ol TrXetcrroi raw Xaftovrcov,
e^fjiepoi Kal aarvpiKol rot? /Stof? avOpwrroC)
TOU? rcpiajJLzvovs reap* avrwv rj XaySoi^ra? 6riovi>

3 dve^reu Kal rrap etcGivwv e^irrparre. rov Be

opov OVK e^oi^ro?, aXXa
Kal irpo'Lovros errl vroXXoi^?, auro?
238



GALBA xv. 4-xvi. 3

that the postponement was merely a way of refusing
their demands, and were incensed, and followed
along with unremitted shouts. Some actually
drew their swords, and then Galba ordered his
horsemen to charge upon them. Not a man of
them stood his ground, but some were done to
death at once in the rout, and others as they fled,
nor was it a happy and auspicious omen that Galba
should enter the city through so much slaughter and
so many dead bodies. But whereas many had
before this despised him and looked upon him as a
weak old man, now all regarded him with shudder-
ing fear.

XVI. And now, in his desire, to display a great
change from Nero's immoderate and extravagant
manner of giving, he was thought to fall short of
what was fitting. For example, after Canus had
played on the flute for him at a banquet (now Canus
was a performer of high repute), he was loud in his
praises and ordered his purse to be brought to him ;
and taking from it a few gold pieces, he gave them
to Canus, with the remark that the gift was made
from his own, and not from the public moneys.
Again, he ordered that the gifts which Nero had
made to people of the theatre and palaestra should
be demanded back again with strictness, all but the
tenth part ; and then, when he got only slight
and grudging returns (for most of the recipients had
squandered their largess, being men of a loose and
improvident way of living), he had a search made for
such as had bought or received anything whatsoever
from them, and tried to exact it from these. The
business had no limits, but was far extended and
affected many ; it gave the emperor himself a bad

239



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



T)B6$;i, (f)06i>ov Be KCU /tucro? el^ev OVLVIOS, o>?
rot? /lev a'XXot? ajracriv dve\ev0epov
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l Beiv, 6 Be Out wo? op&v daOevrf Kal <yepovra
TOV



XVII. 'O ^e TrpecrflvTr]? rjBiKeiro ra fj,ev
Trpcora TOV Qviviou Ara/tco? IOIKOVVTO<S, a Be auro?



olov rjv TO rrepl ra? K0\daeis TWV

2 aTreKTeive yap TOL*? Trovripovs, ev ol? ^ 6 f/

/cal IIoXu/cXeiTO? /tal Ilert^o? ^at IIaTyoo/3to?.
6 Se Brj/Jios eKpoTei, Kal Bi dyopas avTwv dyo-
fjiivwv e/3oa KaXrjv JAW elvai Kal 6eo(f)t\TJ Tro^TTijv,
drraiTelv Be Kal 06ov$ Kal dv6pci)Trovs TOV BiBdcrKa-
\ov Kal rraiBaywybv TT}? Tvpavvl&os Tiye\\ivov.
e(f)0dKei Be 6 yevvalos 7rp06i\r)<f)a)? appa

3 fj.eyd\ois TOV Oviviov. etra Tovp7rL\iavbs

OIL /jiT) irpoeBiBov fMfjBe e/jLicret, TOV rjyefjiova
TOLOVTOV ovTa fJucTovfjievos, aXXo Be ^Be ev p,eya
crvvaBiKija-as, aTreOavev 6 Be Kal Tron]o~a$ aiov
OavaTov Nepcova Kal yevo/^evov TOLOVTOV e
Kal rrpoBovs Trepifjv, fj-eya



1 Works and Days, 366.
240



GALBA xvi. 3-xvn. 3

name, and brought envy and hatred upon Vinius
as having made the emperor ungenerous and sordid
with everybody else, while he himself used money
lavishly, taking everything that was offered and
selling freely. For Hesiod l bids men to

" Drink without stint at the beginning and end of
the cask,"

and so Vinius, seeing that Galba was old and feeble,
sated himself with the good fortune which he
thought was just beginning and at the same time
was soon to end.

XVII. But the aged emperor suffered injustice not
only when Vinius, as at first, administered affairs
badly, but also when he brought into odium or pre-
vented wise measures set on foot by Galba him-

/

self ; as, for instance, in the matter of punishing the
adherents of Nero. For Galba set out to kill the bad
ones, among whom were Helius and Polycleitus and
Petinus and Patrobius. And the people applauded
the act, and shouted, as the culprits were dragged
through the forum, to their doom, that it was a
goodly procession indeed, and acceptable to the gods,
but that gods and men alike demanded justice on
the tutor and teacher of the tyrant, namely, Tigel-
linus. That worthy minister, however, had won the
protection of Vinius betimes, by means of large
advances. Again, Turpilianus, who was hated merely
because he would not betray nor show hatred to
Nero in spite of all that emperor's crimes, but apart
from this had participated in no one serious offence,
was put to death ; whereas the man who had made
Nero worthy of death, and betrayed and forsook him
when he had come to that pass, was left alive a great

241



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

rov fwjoev arcpaKrov eivai rrapa Qvivlw

4 av\TTLGTOv TOi? SiSovcriv. ovSevb? yap ovrco
ded/Jiaro^ epaaQel? 6 'Pco/^aiwv 8rj/j,os &)? rov
Tiye\\.ivov l&eiv aira^o^vov, ovoe

ev iracri OedrpOL^ Kal crraStot?

eTreTrXr/^r; Siaypd/jL/^art. rou avrofcpdropos Ti-

<ye\Xivov /ULCV ov TTO\VV ert (Bi&crea-Oai,

TO? %pbvov VTTO <f)divd&os vovov

etceivovs Se TrapairoujjLevov /JLTJ

5 /AijSe TVpavviKrjV iroielv rrjv



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