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2 biifjiocTLOV 77 TroXt?,

cra)/Aa.To?, aura? re ra? dvocrlovs KOI dpptfrovs ev
yvvai^l TTopvaiS Kal aKaddprois ey/cvXivSijaets,
al? ert Trpocrea-Trcupe &va0avaTovvTO<i avrov TO
aKoKaaTov emSpaTTO/uevov, ecr^drijv Tiftrnpiav
etroiovvTo /cal TroXXwz; dvrd^ia Oavdrcov oi
<r(o<f)povovvTs. r]via Be roi/? TroXA-oi)? oyu,a>9 TW
rj\iov opwv fjLerd TOCTOVTOVS real TOIOVTOVS t'

3 avrov oi>% opwvras. eTrefji-^rev ovv eir avrov 6
*Q6a>v et? TOI)? Tre/ot 2,iv6e<Tcrav dypovs' etcel ycip
Biyrdro, TrXota)^ Trapop^ovvrwv, rt>? (^eu^o/ze^o?

Aral TOV 76 7re/-i<#eWa ^pvcriw vroXXa)
reveiprjffe Trapetvaf /JLIJ Treicrdevri Be
Bcopa /Jiev eBoa/cev ovBev rjrrov, eSetfOrj Be v
ew? av aTTOJ;vpr)Tai TO <yeveiov /cal \aficbv
eavrov eXaLfiorofirjaev.

III. OI/TO) Se TW Brj/jLy Trjv BiKaiordrrjv r}Bovi)v
a-TroSoi/? o Kato-a/3, at/To? tSta? e^dpa^ ovBevi
TOTrapaTrav e/nvrjcri/cdKija-e, Tot? Se TroXXot? X a P i ~
OVK efawye TO rrpwrov eV Tot? OedrpoL^
)i/ Trpoa'ayopeveadaf teal TIVWV el/covas Ne-
178



OTHO i. 3-111. i

had felt a shuddering fear that it was not a man, but
some genius of retribution or avenging spirit, that
had suddenly fallen upon the state, became more
cheerful in their hopes for a government which wore
a face so smiling.

II. But nothing so gladdened all Romans alike,
and won their allegiance to the new emperor so
much, as his treatment of Tigellinus. Men were
not aware that Tigellinus was already punished by
his very fear of that punishment which the city was
demanding as a debt due to the public, and also by
incurable bodily diseases ; and besides, there were
those unhallowed and unspeakable grovellings of his
among the vilest harlots, for which his lustful nature
still panted, clutching after them as his life painfully
ebbed away ; these were looked upon by reasonable
men as extremest punishment and an equivalent of
many deaths. Nevertheless it vexed the common
people that he should see the light of day after so
many good men had been robbed of that light by
him. Accordingly, Otho sent a messenger to fetch
him from his country estate at Sinuessa ; for he was
staying there, where vessels lay at anchor, that he
might fly to more distant parts. He tried to bribe
the messenger with a large sum of money to let him
go, but failing in this, he made him gifts neverthe-
less, and begged him to wait till he had shaved ;
and taking the razor he cut his own throat.

III. And now that the emperor had given the
people this most righteous gratification, he did not
remember his own private grievances against any
man soever, and in his desire to please the multitude
did not refuse at first to be hailed in the theatres
by the name of Nero, and when statues of Nero

279



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



pwvos e/9 tovfjifyaves TrpoOefjLevwv ovrc eVooXucre.
2 KXouy9to9 Be 'Poi)</>09 et9 'Iftijpiav (frrjal KO/j,i(r07Jvat
Bt7r\o)fj,aTa, ot? eK7re/j,rrovai TOV<; ypa/jL^arr)-
</>ope>U9, TO TOV Nepcovos 06TOV ovo/jLa Trpocrye-

ov JLTV a\\a



TOU?

TOVTW

'



Be r^9 rjyefjiovias /cardcrTaa'tv avrw
, ol fucr6o<p6poi ^aXe7roi)9 Trapel^ov
Trapcuce\evofjievoi Kal <f>v\dr-
fcai KoKoveiv TOVS d^ioXoyovs, e!V
Bi evvoiav, eire

3 ravrrj TOV rapdrreiv Kal 7ro\e^O7roteiv.
VQV Be TTefjL^ravro^ avTOv Trjv

(TTrelpav TlcrTta? aTrd^ovra, fcdiceivov VVKTOS en

Kal TCL oVXa rat9 ayua^at9 e
, ol Opao-vTaTOi Trdvres ejBowv ovBev
rov KpiGTrlvov rjtceLV Biavoov/jievov, aXXa TTJV crvy-
K\r)TOve7ri')(ipeiV7rpd<y/jLa<n i>6a)TepOL<f,Kal TO, OTrXa

4 KaTa Kattra/309, ov Ka/crapt TrapaKOfAi^ecrdai. TOV
Be \6yov TroXXw^ ciTTTOfjievov Kal Trapo^vvovTos, ol

TT\a/jL(3dvovTO T0)i> d/jLaa)v, ol Be TOVS evi-

eKaTOVTap%as Bvo Kal TOV
avTov djre/CTeivav, TrdvTes Be BiaaKevacrd/jievot
7rapaKa\e(TavTS aXXryXof 9 Kaicrapi florjQeiv rj\av-
vov 6/9 TTJV 'Pto/jLijv Kal 7rv06fjLevoL Trap
BeiTTveiv oyBorjKOVTa a-vyK~\,ijTiKovs, ecpepovTO
TCL ^acrtXeta, vvv Kaipov elvat, \eyovTe<$ ev

5 irdvTas dve\eiv TOL^ KatVapo9 7roXeyLttou9. rj JJLCV
ovv 7roXt9 ft>9 avTLKa BiapTrayrjcroiuLev'r) Oopvftov



1 Of. Chap, viii 4
280



OTHO in. 1-5

were produced in public, he did not prevent it.
Moreover, Cluvius Rufus tells us that "diplomas," l
such as couriers are provided with, were sent to
Spain, in which the cognomen of Nero was added to
the name of Otho. However, perceiving that the
men of highest birth and greatest influence were
displeased at this, Otho gave up the practice.

But while he was placing his government on this
basis, the paid soldiers began to make themselves
troublesome by urging him not to trust the influential
citizens, but to be on his guard against them and
restrict their power. It is uncertain whether their
goodwill led them to be really apprehensive for him,
or whether they used this pretext for raising dis-
turbance and war. And so, when the emperor sent
Crispinus to bring back the seventeenth legion from
Ostia, and while that officer was still getting the
baggage together at night and loading the arms
upon the waggons, the boldest of the soldiers all
began to cry out that Crispinus was come on no
good errand, and that the senate was attempting to
bring about a revolution, and that the transportation
of the arms was an act of hostility, not of service,
to the emperor. The notion prevailed with great
numbers and exasperated them ; some attacked the
waggons, others killed two centurions who opposed
them, as well as Crispinus himself; and then the
whole body, putting themselves in array and exhort-
ing one another to go to the help of the emperor,
marched to Rome. Here, learning that eighty
senators were at supper with Otho, they rushed to
the palace, declaring that now was a good time to
take off all the emperor's enemies at one stroke.
Accordingly, the city was in great commotion,

VOL. xi. K 281



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

TTO\VV, ev Be rot? f3acn\eioL<s rjcrav BtaBpo/juai,
KOI rov "Odcova Beivrj Karehd/ji/Savev airopla. <>o-

n ' \ * V ^5f> y \ 5> j /- \

pov/j.vo$ yap wjrep TCOV avopoyv auro? r)v oope/50?

K6iVOlS, KOi 7T/009 CiVTOV aVTj pTtf/bieVOVS (t)pa Tttt?

otyecriv avav&ov? Kal TrepiSeeis, eviovs KOI



6 yvvaiKwv rjKovras eirl TO BCLTTVOV. apa Be Tou9

aOai Kal irpaiiveiv K6\evcra^, a/JLa Be Toi>9 /ce/cX?;-
fjievovs avbpas dvaar-rrjaa^ xaO* erepas dvpas

d(j)f)K' Kal /JLLKpOV <f)0^<Tai> VTTGK<^VyOVTe<S, Bid

fjLia-dofyopwv a)0ov/JLevt0v et9 TOZ^ dvBpwva Kal
OavofJLevtov TI yeyovacriv ol Kat<7a/909 vroXe-

7 /Jiioi. rare [lev ovv opOos CLTTO T7/9 K\ivrj<; TroXXa 106^

Kal Beijdels Kal /j,r)Be BaKpvwv 0et-

U9* Trj 6 varepaia



airavTas /car' civ



Kal TrevriJKOvra Bpa^/jiai^ elafjXOev et? TO
8 aTparoTreSov, Kal TO yLtei TrXr^o? eiryvecrev, to?
TT^O? avrov evvovv Kal TrpoOvfiov, oXtyow? Se TIVCLS
OVK 7r dyado) <j)ijcras viroLKOVpelv, Bia{3d\\ovra<;



avrov Ti]v /jierpiOT^Ta Kal rrjv e/ceivwv



Oeiav, i]%Lov crvvayavaKrelv Kal crvyKO\d%LV.
Be Trdvrwv Kal K\ev6i>rcDV, Bvo /zo-



IV. Tavra ol ^ev dyaTrwvres rjBrj Kal TTL-
<TTeuoz/T9 eOav/jia^ov rr^v /x.eTa/3oX?;y, ol 6' dvay-
Kala 7ro\iTVfjiaTa rrpos -rov Katpov )}yovi>TO,
282



OTHO in. 5-iv. i

expecting to be plundered at once ; in the palace
there were runnings to and fro ; and a dire per-
plexity fell upon Otho. For while he had fears
about the safety of his guests, he himself was an
object of fear to them, and he saw that they kept
their eyes fixed upon him in speechless terror, some
of them having even brought their wives with them
to the supper. But he sent the prefects of the
guard with orders to explain matters to the soldiers
and appease them, while at the same time he
dismissed his guests by another door ; and they
barely succeeded in making their escape as the
soldiers, forcing their way through the guards into
the great hall, asked what was become of the
enemies of Caesar. In this crisis, then, Otho stood
up on his couch, and after many exhortations, and
entreaties, and not without plentiful tears, at last
succeeded in sending them away ; but on the follow-
ing day, after making a gift of twelve hundred and
fifty drachmas to every man, he went into the camp.
There he commended the great body of the soldiers
for their goodwill and zeal in his service, but said
that there were a few of them who were intriguing
to no good purpose, thereby bringing his moderation
and their fidelity into disrepute, and he demanded
that they share his resentment against these and
assist him in punishing them. All his hearers
approving of this and bidding him to do as he
wished, he took two men only, at whose punishment
no one was likely to be distressed, and went away.

IV. Those who were already fond of Otho and
put confidence in him admired this change in his
behaviour, but others thought it a policy forced upon
him by the situation, wherein he courted popular

283



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



avTOv Bia TOV 7r6\6/jLOV. tf&rj yap

l Bvva-



avroKpropos veirjo)^' Ka

(j)oi>Ta)V aeu TI 7rpoa")((*>pelv erceiv(p (f>pd-
%OVT<;, erepoi Be 1 ra TLavvovi/ca Kal ra AaX/xa-
Kal ra Trepl Mvcriav (Trparev/jLara 8r)\ovvT<>



2 f(7ai jiera rwv



a(f)iKro Kal Trapa MovKiavov ypd/jLfjLara Kal Trapa

, TOV {lev ev 2vpia, TOV &e eV



eirai-



eypa^rev OutreXXtw Trapaivwv crTpaTi<o-
TLKCL (ppoveiv, a>9 %/o^/iara vroXXa SMCTOVTOS avTOv
Kal Trb\w, cv y fiicoaeTai pa&Tov Kal TI^
3 fiiov fJieP rjawxias. avTeypatye Se KaKelvos

crvxrj TT/JWTOI/' e/c Se TOVTOV Sie-
TroXXa ft\dcr<j)r}ijia Kal da\'y
aXX^'Xoi? eypafyov, ov ^efSw? yaer,
$ Kal yeXotco? OaTepov TOV eTepov a
dfj,(J)OTepoi<; oveiBr) \o(,Sopovi>TOS. acrcorta? yap
Kal //,aXa/a9 Kal aTreipias 7ro\e/j,a)v Kal TWV
Trpocrdev eVl Treviq %pewv 77X7^01/9 epyov r)V ei



aVTWV



Se Kal ^avracr^aTwv TroXXw^ \eyo-
Ta [lev aXXa <f)TJ/jias dBecnroTovs Kal dfj,(f>i-



284



elSov afyei/JLevas eV TWV
) Svva/Aeviys, Kal TOV ev
ia vrjcry Yatov KeuVa/)O9 dvSpidvTa



Kpareiv pr) Svva/Aeviys, Kal TOV ev



OTHO iv. 1-4

favour because of the war. For already there were
sure tidings that Vitellius had assumed the dignity
and power of emperor ; and swift couriers were
continually coming with accounts of ever new
accessions to him, although others made it clear
that the armies in Pannonia, Dalmatia, and Mysia,
with their leaders, adhered to Otho. And quickly
there came also friendly letters from Mucianus and
Vespasian, who were at the head of large forces, the
one in Syria, the other in Judaea. Otho was elated
by these, and wrote to Vitellius advising him not to
have more than a soldier's ambitions, in which case
he should be rewarded with a large sum of money,
and a city, where he could live in the utmost ease
and pleasure and be undisturbed. Vitellius also wrote
to Otho in reply, at first in a somewhat dissembling
manner ; but afterwards both got excited and wrote
one another abusive letters filled with shameful
insults ; not that either brought false charges, but it
was foolish and ridiculous for one to storm the other
with reproaches applicable to both. For as regards
prodigality, effeminacy, inexperience in war, and
multiplicity of debts incurred in a previous state of
poverty, it were hard to say which of them had the
advantage.

There were many reports of signs and apparitions,
most of which were of uncertain and dubious origin ;
but everybody saw that a Victory standing in a
chariot on the Capitol had dropped the reins from
her hands, as if she had not power to hold them,
and that the statue of Caius Caesar on the island in



1 8^ supplied by Sint.*, after Schaefer ; Bekker assumes a
lacuna before frepoi.

285



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

LL1JT6 aeiff/JLOv yeyovoTos /u.fjre Trvevjuaros d(j) y ecr-
5 Trepas peTacrTpafyevra TT/JO? ra9 dvaro\ds' o $aai
(Tv^r]vai irepl ra9 rjpepas e/ceivas ev afc ot Trepl
OveaTrecriavbv efjL$>avw<$ ijBrj T&V TrpayfjLaTwv dvre-
\a/JL/3dvovro. real TO irepl rov vfji{3piv Se




cnj/ieiov

fj,ev yap wpa irepl r)v y^akiaTa ol irora^ol
QOVGIV, aX,\' OUTTO) TOCTOUTO? rjpQrj Trporepov,

rocraOra /ecu SiecfrOeipev, vTrepxyOeis xal
TTO\V /j,epos TT}? TroXea)?, TrXeta'TO^
Se ev w TOI^ 7rl Trpdcret, StaTrwXoucri CTITOV, a>?
Beivrjv aTTopiav rj/jLepwv avj(y&v
V. 'Evrel Se ra? "AXTret?

Ke^t^a.9 /cat OuaX?;?
ev 'Pco^rj AoXo/3eX\a9,
dvrfp, vTro-^iav irapel^e TO??
vecorepa typovelv. eKeivov jjiev ovv, etre avrbv eiVe
aXXoi/ SeSoiKtos, et? jro\iv ' AKVVIOV TrapeTre^^re Tra-
paOappvvas. KardXeycov Be TWV ev reXet avvefcSTJ-
eralfev ev rouroi? Aral Aev/ciov rov Ov'ire\\iov
TrpocrOels ovSev ovre



2

TOV OuiVeXXtoi' al r?}9 yvvaifcos, OTTO)?
<f>o{3>]arovTai irepl avrwv. rf)? Be f



vov, Karea'T'rja-ev, el're at TOVTO irpd^a^ eVl



(Trap' eiceivov <y&p el\TJ(j)ei rrjv d
6 ^aftlvos, d<j)L\eTO Be FaX/Sa9 auroi/), etre
evvoiav eveBei/cvuro Qveo-Treaiav) teal



3 AUTOS A 4 ^ out/ ei/ ByOi^tXXw, TroXet T-/}? 'IraXta9
286



OTHO iv. 4-v. 3

the Tiber, without the occurrence of earthquake or
wind, had turned from west to east, which is said to
have happened during the time when Vespasian was
at last openly trying to seize the supreme power.
The behaviour of the Tiber, too, was regarded by
most people as a baleful sign. It was a time, to be
sure, when rivers are at their fullest, but the Tiber
had never before risen so high, nor caused so great
ruin and destruction. It overflowed its banks and
submerged a great part of the city, and especially
the grain-market, so that dire scarcity of food
prevailed for many days together.

V. And now, when word was brought to Rome
that Caecina and Valens, who were in command
with Vitellius, were in possession of the Alps, Dola-
bella, a man of noble family, was suspected by the
praetorian soldiers of revolutionary designs. Otho
therefore sent him away (through fear of him or of
someone else) to the town of Aquinum, with words
of encouragement. And in his selection of the men
in authority who were to accompany him on his
expedition he included also Lucius, the brother of
Vitellius, without either increasing or diminishing
his honours. He also took strong measures for the
safety of the wife and mother of Vitellius, that they
might have no fear for themselves. Moreover, he
appointed Flavins Sabinus, a brother of Vespasian,
prefect of the city, either because in this way also
he could honour the memory of Nero (for Nero had
bestowed the office upon Sabinus, but Galba had
deprived him of it), or rather because, by advancing
Sabinus, he could show how he favoured and trusted
Vespasian.

Well, then, Otho himself tarried behind at Brixil-

287



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Trepl rov 'HpiBavbv aTreXei^d^, crrparyyovs Be
rwv Bvi>d/jL(DV e^eTre/JL^e M.dpiov re Ke\aov
^.ovrjrooviov Tlav\lvov en re FaXXov Kal
vav, avBpas evB6t;ov<;, xprjcracrOai Be ,ar) Sv
ewl ra)V Trpay/J,drct)v &)? TrporjpovvTO rot? eav-
TWV Xoyicr/iot? $i ara^iav fcal OpacrvrrjTa T>V
GTpaTiWTWV. ov yap r)j;LOVV erepcav afcoveiv, &><?
irap avT(*)i> rov avTO/cpaTOpo? TO ap%6tv e^oz^ro?.
rjv /Jiev ovv ovBe ra TWV TroXe/jLicov vyiawovra
TrawrdiracrLV ov&e %eLpoi]0r) roi? t^yefjioa-LV, a\V
Kal aoftapa Sid rrjv avrijv air Lav. ov
aXV e/ceLVOis ep,Treipia ye Traprjv rov /za^ecr^at
5 Kal TO KajAveiv l e'^aSe? ovres OVK efyevyov, ovroi
Se /jLa\aKol fiev tfcrav VTTO o-%oX^9 Kal Stair^s
, 7r\eicrrov %pbvov ev Oedrpois Kal Travrj-



yvpecri Kal irapa crK^vrjv /3e/3iO)/coTe?, vftpei,
KO/JLTTW eTra/jLire^eiv eftoiiXovro,



Ta? \eirovpyLa$ co? Kpeirroves
co? dSvvaroi fyepeiv. 6$e ^Trovpi

eKivSvvevcre fiiKpov e\6ovras av-
6 e\elv avrov. vftpews Be Kal /SAao^^ta? ouSe/ita?
tyetcravro, TrpoBoryv Kal \v/jLewva ru>v Kaicrapos
Kal 7rpay[idrQ)v \eyovre<$. evioi Be Kal
evres ijBrj vvKros ri\.6ov eVt rr]V aKrjvrjV
alrovvres* elvai yap avrols TT/OO? Kaiaapa
eov, OTTOO? eKeivov Kanyyoprja-tocriv.
VI. flvij&e Be ra Trpdypara Kal ^LtrovpLvav ev
\oiBopia Trepl Tl\aKevriav yevo/j,evr)
roov crrparicorwv. ol ydp Ovire\\iov TO?? rei^ecrt,



Bekker, after Coraes : TOV Kafj.veiv.
288



OTHO v. 3-vi. i

lum, a town of Italy on the river Po, but sent his
forces on under the command of Marius Celsus and
Suetonius Paulinus, besides Gallus and Spurina.
These were men of distinction, but were unable
to conduct the campaign according to their own
plans and wishes, owing to the disorderly and
arrogant spirit of their soldiers. For these would
not deign to obey other officers, since, as they said,
they had made the emperor their commander. It
is true that the enemy's troops also were not
altogether in condition, nor under the control ot
their officers, but fierce and haughty, and for the
same reason. Nevertheless, they were certainly
experienced in fighting, and being accustomed to
hard labour, they did not shun it ; whereas Otho's
men were soft, owing to their lack of employment
and their unwarlike mode of life, having spent most
of their time at spectacles and festivals and plays,
and they wished to cloak their weakness with in-
solence and boasting, disdaining to perform the
services laid upon them because they were above
the work, not because they were unable to do it.
When Spurina tried to force them into obedience,
he came near being killed by them. They spared
him no abuse nor insolence, declaring that he was
betraying and ruining the opportunities and the
cause of Caesar. Nay, some of them who were
drunk came at night to his tent and demanded
money for a journey, for they must go, they said; to
Caesar, in order to denounce their commander.

VI. But Spurina and the emperor's cause were
helped for the time by the abuse which his soldiers
received at Placentia. For when the troops of
Vitellius assaulted the walls, they railed at the

289



PLUTARCH'S LIVES






rrap ra? e7rae/<?, cncr]VLKOv<$ Ka Trvppivtar?

^ , 7TO\fjLOV Be

l arpareias direLpov^ KOI dQedrovs drcoKa\ovv-
T?, KOI /.ieya (frpovovvras tVl ru> yepovros dv-
OTT\OV fcecj>d\.r}V aTrore/^eLV, rov
et? Se dywva real (JLCL^V dvSpwv OVK av
2 KaraftdvTas. ovrw <ydp rapd^0^aav VTTO rov-

*-.JO.r\r*/ f/

TMV TWV oveiowv Kai oieKaijcrav cocrre Trpoo-Trecreti'
TW ^Trovpiva, Seo/LLevoi %pr)(T0ai Kal Trpoa-rdrreiv
ai)roZ?, ovSeva KIV&VVOV ov&e irovov

Se



e (jvarar]^ ret^OyLta^ta? Ka



ol rov ^TTovpiva, KOI cfrovci) jroXXq) rovs e
drcoKpova-d/jLevoi, &ienipr)<jav ev&o^ov TTO\IV teal
rwv 'IraXwy ouSe/zia? rjrrov dvOovcrav.
3 *Haav Be Kal rd d\\a rwv Ovlrc\\iov crrparrj-
ol "O^wro? evrv^elv d\v7r6repot Kal rrokeai,
/Siatraf?- eKelvcov Be Ke.vtVa? pep ovre (fxovrjv
ovre a-^jjia Sr/fj.oriK6s, dX)C eVa^r/? Kal aXXo-
/COTO?, cjco/zaTO? /jieydXov, Ta\ariKW*s d



Kal ^eiplffLv eveaKevac-fjievos, arjfieiois Kal ap%ov-
4 (TL 'Pwjjia'iKols BidXeyo/Aevos. Kal rrjv



avrw \oydSrjv irrrreis O

ft) KeKocrfjirifj,evr]v eTTKfravws. Qdfiiov Be Ovd-
\evra rov erepov (rrparijyov ovre dprrayal
fjLLfDv ovre K\orral Kal BcopoBoxiat Trapd
ve7ri/n7r\a(rai> xpri/j&ri6uevov, ciXXa
Bid rovro /3paBeci)$ oBevwv vareprjaai T//? rrpore-
5 pa? ytia^j??. ol Be rov YieKivav alriwvrai, a-rrev-
Bovra rrjv VLKVIV eavrov yevecr9ai, rrplv CKCLVOV



290



OTHO vi. 1-5

soldiers of Otho who manned the ramparts, calling
them actors, dancers, spectators at Pythian and
Olvmpian games, men who had never known or
seen a campaign or fighting, and thought highly of
themselves because they had cut off the head of a
defenceless old man (meaning Galba), but would not
openly enter a conflict and battle of men. Otho's
soldiers were so disturbed by these reproaches, and
so inflamed, that they threw themselves at the feet
of Spurina, begging him to use them and command
them, and pleading excuse from no danger or toil.
And so, when a fierce assault was made upon the
walls and many siege-engines were brought to bear
upon them, Spurina's men prevailed, repulsed their
opponents with great slaughter, and held safe a city
which was famous and more flourishing than any in
Italy.

In other ways, too, the generals of Vitellius were
more vexatious than those of Otho in their dealings
with both cities and private persons. One of them,
Caecina, had neither the speech nor the outward
appearance of a Roman citizen, but was offensive and
strange, a man of huge stature, who wore Gaulish
trousers and long sleeves, and conversed by signs
even with Roman officials. His wife, too, accompanied
him, with an escort of picked horsemen ; she rode
a horse, and was conspicuously adorned. Fabius
Valens, the other general, was so rapacious that
neither what he plundered from the enemy nor
what he stole or received as gifts from the allies
could satisfy him. Indeed, it was thought that this
rapacity of his had delayed his march, so that he
was too late for the battle at Placentia. But some
blame Caecina, who, they say, was eager to win the

291



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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292



OTHO vi. 5-vii. 4

victory himself before Valens came, and so not only
made other minor mistakes, but also joined battle
inopportunely and without much spirit, thereby
almost ruining their whole enterprise.

VII. For when Caecina, repulsed from Placentia,
had set out to attack Cremona, another large and
prosperous city, first Annius Gallus, who was coming
to the help of Spurina at Placentia, hearing upon the
march that Placentia was safe, but that Cremona was
in peril, changed his course and led his army to
Cremona, where he encamped near the enemy ; then
his colleagues l came one by one to his aid. Caecina
now placed a large body of men-at-arms in ambush
where the ground was rough and woody, and then
ordered his horsemen to ride towards the enemy,
and if they were attacked, to withdraw little by
little and retreat, until they had in this way drawn
their pursuers into the ambush. But deserters
brought word of all this to Celsus, who rode out
with good horsemen to meet the enemy, followed
up his pursuit with caution, surrounded the men in
ambush, and threw them into confusion. Then he
summoned his men-at-arms from the camp. And
apparently, if these had come up in time to the
support of the cavalry, not a man of the enemy
would have been left alive, but the whole army with
Caecina would have been crushed and slain. As it
was, however, Paulinus came to their aid too slowly
and too late, and incurred the charge of sullying his
reputation as a commander through excessive caution.
But most of the soldiers actually accused him of
treachery, and tried to incense Otho against him,

1 Celsus, Paulinus, and Spurina (v. 3), although Spurina is
not mentioned further.

293



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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