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TW Qvd\evTi' KOI TT}? irepi TYJV evebpav /Lta^?
d r 7rayye\,@icrr)s e%a\.e7raivov OTI /JLTJ irapeyevovro
yitr;8e r//uivvav dvSpwv TCKTOVTWV diroQavovrcov.
[jioXis e Tretcra? KOL Trapai'rricrdfJLevos oop/jurjfjievovs
avrovs j3d\\iv dv%eve tcai (Tvvrjtye roi? Trepl



VIII. 'O &e"Q0(i)V 7rapayv6fjLvo$ ei? B?;T piatcov
TO o-rpaTOTreSov (eari 8e 7ro\L^i>r] r n\r}<riov
TO BrjrpiaKov} eftovXevero Trepl rfjs
KOI HpOK\w /JLV eSoicei Kal Tiriavq),
TWV cnpaTev/jbdrayv OVTWV 'irpoOv^wv Kal 7rpoa(f)d-
rov T^? viKrjs, &Laywvi(Ta<j6ai Kal pr) KadfjaOai
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fievovra QwreXkiov avrov eic FaXaTta? ei
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(t)v fia)(ovi>rai irapeivai, Kai jmrjev ei'Cetv,
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filvai Swapiv K Mucr/a? Kal lt\.avvovia<s, dv TOV
avTOV Trepi /jLei'rj Kaipov, aXXa /JLTJ crrpaTrjyfj
3 TOV TWV 7ro\./jLia)v. ov yap dfJLJB\v~epoi<^ ye



294



OTHO vn. 4-vin. 3

loudly boasting that they had been victorious, but
that their victory was made incomplete by the
cowardice of their commanders. Otho did not
believe them, and yet wished to avoid the appear-
ance of disbelieving them. He therefore sent to
the armies his brother Titianus, and Proculus, the
prefect of the guards ; of these two men Proculus
had the entire authority in reality, and Titianus
only in appearance. Celsus and Pauliiius, too,
enjoyed the empty title of friends and counsellors,
but had no power or influence in the conduct of
affairs. There were disturbances also among the
enemy, and especially among the troops of Valens ;
for when these were told about the battle at the
ambuscade, they were enraged because they were
not present and had given no aid where so many
men had lost their lives. They actually began to
stone Valens, but he finally succeeded in pacifying
them, and then broke camp and joined Caecina.

Vlll. Otho now came to the camp at Bedricum
(a little village near Cremona) and held a council of
war. Proculus and Titianus were of the opinion
that he ought to fight a decisive battle while his
armies were flushed with their recent victory, and
not sit there dulling the efficiency of his troops and
waiting for Vitellius to come in person from Gaul.
Paulinus, on the contrary, said that the enemy
already had all the resources with which they would
give battle, and lacked nothing, whereas, in the case
of Otho, a force as large as the one he already had
might be expected from Mysia and Pannonia, if he
would only wait for his own best opportunity and
conduct the campaign to suit that of the enemy.
For his men were now confident of success in spite

295



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

rare rot? vvv Oappovo~iv air* e



av



aXX' ere Trepiovcrias dyayvieiffOar real %&>/H9 Be
rovrov rrjv Biarpiflrjv elvai irpos avrwv ev d(j)0o-
voi$ Tracriv OVTWV, exeivois Se rov %povov diropiav
Trape^etv TWV dvajKaicov ev 7roXe//ta Kade^o/Jievois.
4 ravra \<yovri HavXivw Mdpios KeXcro? eyevero
"Awto? Be FaXX-o? ov Trapijv
eveTO TreTTTWKtoS d<f> ITTTTOV,
TO? Se "O^co^o? avra) crvvef3ov\vcre
d\\a rrjv K Mfcrta? Trepi/J-eveiv

ovaav. ov fjii^v 7T6t^TO TOUTOt?, aXXa etcpd-

ol TTyoo? Tr)V fjiafflv TrapopfiSivre^.
IX. Alriat Be TrXeto^e? aXXcu vw a\\a)v Xe-
77^08^X0)? Se 01 crrparTjjiKol Trpocrayo-
KOI rd^iv e^o^re? Bopv(f)6pa)v, rorc
IJLCL\\QV d\yj0ivfjs ryevo/Aevoi arpareias KOI ra? ev
y/jig Siarpiftas KCU Biairas avroXe'/zoL'? KOI Travij-
TToOovvres, OVK rjcrav naOeKrol
fj.d^tjv, co? ev0v<; e 7riBpo/jLrj^

2 fjievoi Tou? evavTiQVs. BOKCI Be /JirjBe auro? "
e};ava(j)epeiv eri, irpbs rrjv dB-rj^orrjra fjiijBe VTTO-
/jieveiv drjdeia KOI f^a\aKorrj r n TOU? ircpl rwv
vwv Xoyicr/jLovs, eKirovovfJievos Be rat?
crTrevBeiv eyKaXvifrd/jievos, wcnrep djro

3 /jLtOeii-ai. TO, Trpdy/j.aTa Trpo? TO (jwrvyov. KCU 107J
rovro /j,ev BnyyeiTO ^exovvBos 6 pijrwp eVl TMV
eVicTToXcot' 761^0/ie^o? rov "QOcovos. ere/oaw Be r)V

296



OTHO vni. 3-ix. 3

of their inferior numbers, and he would not find them
less keen after they had received reinforcements,
nay, their superiority would lead them to fight all the
better. And besides,, delay was to their advantage,
since they had everything in abundance, while to the
enemy time would bring a scarcity of supplies, since
they were occupying a hostile country. So Paulinus
argued, and Marius Celsus voted with him. Annius
Gallus was not present, being under treatment for a
fall from his horse, but Otho asked his advice by
letfer, and his counsel was not to hasten the battle,
but to await the forces from Mysia, which were
already on the march. Nevertheless, Otho would
not listen to these counsels, and the day was carried
by those who urged immediate battle.

IX. Various other reasons for this are given by
various writers ; but manifestly the praetorian
soldiers, as they were called, who served as the
emperor's guards, since they were now getting a
more generous taste of real military service and
longed for their accustomed life of diversion at
Rome in which festivals abounded and war was
unknown, could not be restrained, but were eager
for the battle, feeling sure that at the very first
onset they would overwhelm their opponents.
Moreover, it would seem that Otho himself could
not longer bear up against the uncertainty of the
issue, nor endure (so effeminate was he and so unused
to command) his own thoughts of the dire peril con-
fronting him ; but worn out by his anxieties, he veiled
his eyes, like one about to leap from a precipice, and
hastened to commit his cause to fortune. And this
is the account given by Secundus the rhetorician,
who was Otho's secretary. But others would tell us

297



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

dreoveiv ori rot? (nparevfjiacriv d{jL(f)orepoi<; Trapi-
aravro opfial iroXXal &><? ei9 ravrb crvve\6elv real
fjiaXivra pels civTOvs 6jJ>o(j)povijcravra<; etc rwv ira-
povrwv rjye/jiovircwv eXecr#at rov dpicrrov, el 8e /JLIJ,
rrjv crvyic\r)TOv Ofiov KaQicravras efalvai rrjv
4 a'lpecriv e/ceivrj TOV avro/cpdropos. Kai OVK UTTCL-
ACO? ecrri, fjLrjSerepov rore TWV Trpoaajopevo/j.evMv
avTOKparopwv evSoKi/jLovvros, eTTiTrLrrreiv roiov-
TOU? SiaXoto'LtoL'? rot? rvricriois KOI SidTrovois real



ra)i> GTpaTiwrwv, a>?

real Beivov, a 7rd\ai $ia *S.v\\av real Mdpiov, elra
Kaicrapa real Tlo/ATTijlov wKreipovro Bpwvres d\-
Kal Tracr^o^re? oL TroXlrat, ravra vvv VTTO-
T) Ovire\\.ia) \aLfia pyias real olvo(f)\vyia^
r} Tpv(f)fjs real a/coXacrta? "QOcovi Ttjv rjje^LO-
5 vlav ^opi'jjrj/jLa 7rpo0e/AVOvs. raur' ovv inro-
voovat, TOU? re irepl rov KeXcrop alaOavo^evov^
e/j,{3a\elv $iaTpi{3ijv, eXTrt'^b^ra? avev /za^?/? teal
TTOVCOV KpLOrjcreffdai ra Trpdj/Jiara, real TOV? jrepl
rov'Q0o)va (f>o/3ov/jLevov<$ eVtra^urat rrjv

X. At"To? Be 7rd\iv et? Bpt^iXX
reai rovro TTpoae^afJiapr^v, ov% on fiovov TTJV ei>
avrov Trapovros atw real $>i\.OTijjLiav
TWV dyajvi^o/jievwv, aXXa, real TOU? eppw-
real Trpodv/jLordrov^ Bi avrbv LTnrels
reai 7reou$ aTrayaywv <f>v\aret]i> rov crco/mro?
w&Trepel crro/tco/z.a l TT)? ovvdfj,eay$ direKo^re.

%(Vvej3,'ri Be rat? rjfAepais etceivais real rrepl rov

npioavov dy&va yev([email protected], rov ^.tv Ke/aVa ^ev-

yvvvTo? Tr)V Sidfiacrnt, ra)i> Be "QQ&vos eipyovrwv



298



OTHO ix. 3-x. 2

that both armies were strongly inclined to confer ;
and above all, if they could agree, to elect as
emperor the best of the commanders who were with
them, but if not, to convene the senate and commit
to it the choice of an emperor. And since neither
of the men who then had the title of emperor
enjoyed high repute, it is not unlikely that the
real soldiers, those who knew what hardship was and
had sense, should be led to reflect that it would be a
dreadful and most hateful thing if the evils which
the citizens had once to their sorrow inflicted
upon one another and suffered because of Sulla and
Marius, and again because of Caesar and Pompey,
should now be endured again only to make the
imperial power a means for providing for the glut-
tony and drunkenness of Vitellius or for the luxury
and licentiousness of Otho. It is suspected, then,
that Celsus was aware of these feelings, and there-
fore tried to interpose delay, hoping that the issue
would thus be decided without hardship and battle,
and that Otho, fearing this, hastened on the battle.

X. Otho himself returned to Brixillum, and in
this too he made a mistake, not only because he
took away from the combatants the respect and
ambition which his presence and oversight inspired,
but also because, by leading away as his bodyguard
of foot and horse the men who were most vigorous
and eager to please him, he cut away, as it were,
the head and front of his army.

During this time there was also a conflict at the
river Po, where Caecina tried to build a bridge
across the stream, and Otho's soldiers attacked him



.a Doeliner's correction of the vulgate n ffi>)p.a,
adopted by Sint. 8

299



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

teal 7rpocr/jLa')o/jLV(i)v. o>9 Be ovSev ewepaivov,

V0fJLVQ)V 6i9 TO, 7T\ola BaBa BeiOV Kal TTtTT^?

dvd7r\a)v, Btd rov rropov nvevfjia rrpocrrreo~ov
a<f>va) rrjv rrapeo'Kevao'fjievrjv v\rjv errl TO 1/9
3 of 9 e^eppim^e. KCLTTPOV Be irpwrov, elra
0X0709 etCTTecrova'r)?, raparro/jiei'OL KOL
Swvres e/9 TOI^ Trora/jiov rds re vavs dverpeTrov
/cal ra crco/^ara rot9 7ro\fiioi^ yuera 76X0)709

ol Be YepfJLavol rot9 "O^a)^09
7Tpl vijaiBa rov 7rora/j,ov 'jrpoa-fjL
e/cpdrrfcrav teal Bie^Oeipav avT&v ov/c 6\iyov<$.
XI. Yevojjievwv Be TOVTWV, Kal rwv ev BijTpi
GTpariwrwv TOV "O^a>z^O9 eKffrepo/jievcov fjier opyfjs
7U rr]V /jid^v, Trpoijyayev avrcvs 6 HpoK\o<> CK
rov TSrjrpiaKov, Kal KarecrrparoTreBevcrev CLTTO
Trevr^Kovra araBicov ouT&>9 a7ret/o&)9 /cal /caraye-
X,a(TT&>9 ware, rrjs fjLei> wpas eapivfy ovatj<f,
Be KVK\W TreBiayv 7ro\\a va^ara KOI

2 aevvdovs e^ovrtav, vBaro? airdvei Trie^ecrOai,. rfj
Be v&Tepaia ^ov\ofjuevov Trpodyeiv 7rl rou9 TTO\-
fjiiovs 6Bov OVK e\drrova crraBiwv e/carov ol Trepl
TOV Tlav\lvov OVK el'cov, aXX* qlovro Betv Trepi-

Kal yu?) irpoirovelv eavrovs, /MjBe ev0vs K
d^p TiOecrOai 777309 avBpas u>7T\icr p.e-
Kai TrapareTay/jLevovs Kaff ^Gvy^iav, ev ocry
TrpoLacriv avrol Tocravrijv 6Bov dvap-e/jiLy-

3 fAva>v V7rovyla)v Kal aKoXovdwv. ovffrjs Be Trepl
Tovrayv dvTi\oyia<; ev rot9 err parriyols rj\6e
nap "O^ft)z/o9 iTTTrevs rwv Ka\ov/jLeva)v No
ypd/A/mara KO/J-L^WV KeXevovra arj /jieveiv
Biarpifietv, aXX' dyetv evflvs eirl roi/9 Tr
eKelvoi fjiev ovv apavres e^wpovv, 6 Be

300



OTHO x. 2-xi. 3

and tried to prevent it. Not succeeding, Otho's
men loaded their vessels with torchwood full of
sulphur and pitch, and began to cross the river ;
but a blast of wind suddenly smote the material
which they had prepared for use against the enemy,
and fanned it afire. First smoke arose from it, then
bright flames, so that the crews were confounded
and leaped overboard into the river, upsetting their
boats, and putting themselves at the mercy of a
jeering enemy. Moreover, the Germans attacked
Otho's gladiators at an island in the river, over-
powered them and slew not a few of them.

XI. These disasters threw Otho's soldiers at
Bedriacum into a rage for battle, and Proculus
therefore led them forth out of Bedriacum, and after
a march of fifty furlongs pitched his camp, but in a
manner so ignorant and ridiculous that his men were
troubled by lack of water, although it was the
spring of the year and the plains around abounded
in running streams and rivers that never dried up.
On the following day he proposed to make a march
of no less than a hundred furlongs and attack the
enemy, but Paulinus objected, and thought they
ought to wait and not tire themselves beforehand,
nor join battle immediately after a march with men
who had armed and arrayed themselves at their
leisure, while they themselves were advancing so
great a distance with all their beasts of burden and
camp-followers. While the generals were disputing
about the matter, there came from Otho a Numidian
courier with a letter which ordered them not to
wait or delay, but to march at once against the
enemy. Accordingly, they decamped and moved
forward, and Caecina, who was much disturbed on

301



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



TTJV (f>oSoi> dVTWv edopv/BijOr], Kal Kara
crTrovBrjV dTro\nrd>v ra epya Kal rov rroTa/aov
4 r)KV et? TO crrpaTOTredov. a>Tr\i<r ^evtov Be -ijBi]
TCOV 7ro\\a)v, teal TO avvd^^a Trapa\afji{BavovT(av
rrapd TOV Ovd\ei>TO$, ev oaay TTJV rd^iv Sie\dy-
ra rdy/^ara, TOU? dpiarovs rwv



XII. 'E/zTTtTTTet Se Tot? TrporeTay/Aevots ra>i>
"O0a)vo<; e/c &jj TLVOS alrias Bo^a Kal Xoyos o



TWV
7T/305 avrovf. co? ovv 771)9 rjcrav, rjcnrda-avTo






TJV 7rpoaay6pevcrii> OVK ev[j,ev)<$, d\\a
Ovp,ov KOI



VTTOVOLCL KCLTO, TWV dcnracra^evwv &>9

2 Trapearr). Kal rovro Trp&rov avrovs erdpa^ev 1Q'
7/87; Tuv TrdXefjLiwv ev ^(epcrlv OVTCOV. elra
a\\wv ovBev r\v

/jiv aTa^lav TO, crtcevcxpopa TOt9

Trapel^e, TroXXoi'9 5e TO,
eirolei Tafyptov oWa jj,crTa /ca opvy-
aTtov, a (j)oj3ov/j.6voi /cal
vp$r)v Kal KaTa pepr) TroXXa

3 evavTioi?. fjiovai Be Svo \eyea)V<; (OVTCD yap TO,

Ka\ovaiv), eTriK\ri<jLv rj /jie
, r) Be

rreBiov e^eXi^aaai tyiXov Kal
vofJUfJiov Tiva [Jid'xyv, (yvfjiTreaovcrai (j)a\ayyr)B6v,
efjid*)(pvTO TTO\VV ^povov. ol fjLcv ovv "Q6cavo<s
r}aav evpwcrToi Kal dyaOoi, rroXe/jLOv Be
TOTe rrpwTov irelpav \afjLJSdvovTes' ol
302



OTHO xi. 3-xii. 3

learning of their approach, hastily abandoned his
operations at the river and came to his camp.
There most of the soldiers had already armed them-
selves, and Valens was giving out the watchword to
them, and while the legions were taking up their
positions, the best of the cavalry were sent out in
advance.

XII. And now, for some reason, it was believed
and rumoured among Otho's vanguard that the
generals of Vitellius would come over to their side.
Accordingly, when these drew near, Otho's men
greeted them in a friendly fashion and called them
fellow-soldiers. The enemy, however, returned the
salutation in no kindly spirit, but with anger and
hostile cries, so that those who had greeted them
were dejected, and were suspected of treachery by
the others on their side. This was the first thing;

o

that threw Otho's men into confusion, and at a
time when the enemy were close at hand. And
besides, nothing else was done properly, since the
baggage-train wandered about among the fighting-
men and caused great disorder. Moreover, the line
of battle was often broken by the nature of the
ground, which was full of trenches and pits, and in
avoiding or going around these the men were com-
pelled to engage their opponents promiscuouly and
in many detachments. Only two legions (to use the
Roman word), that of Vitellius called "Rapax" (or
Devourer) and that of Otho called " Adiutrix " (or
Helper}, got out into a treeless and extended plain,
engaged in full formation, and fought a regular
battle for a long time. Otho's men were sturdy
and brave, but were now for the first time getting a
taste of war and fighting ; those of Vitellius, on the

33



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

Be Ovlre\\iov TroXXtwi' dyatvcov e'#ae9, 77877
yrjpaiol Kal irapaK^d^ovres.

4 'Op/jLijaavTC? ovv eV avrovs ol "

KOI TOV derov dfaiKovro, Travras OJAOV n rou?
Trpojjid'xpvs drroKrelvavres' ol 8e VTTO ala-^vifrj^ KCU
0/0777? e/LtTrecro^re? civ-rol^ TOV re irpecr^evT^v TOV
'Qpfiio'iov etcreLvav Kal 7ro\\a rcov
ijp'rraa'av. rot? Se /JLOVOfid^oi^ e/juTreipiav
re Kal 0dpao<? e^eiv Trpos ra? o-v/nTrXofcds SOKOV-
GIV eTr^jayev Ouapo? AX<>}i>o9 rou9 Ka\ovfj,evov<i

5 Bara/5ov9. elal Be Tep/nav&v iTTTreis apiaroi,
vfjcrov oiKOvvres viro TOV 'Ptfvov Trepippeo/jLevrjv.
TOVTOVS 6\iyoi /jLev Twv fiovo/Jid^wv vTrecTTijcrav, ol
Be TrXei&Toi (frevyovTes eVt TOV

GIV 6i9 <77r6t/9a9 TWV 7TO\/ALCOV aVTo

u0' wv afJivvo/JLevoL Trdvres oyuaX<W9 Btecfr&dprjcrav.

6 aia^iarTa Be rjyowlcravTO TrdvTWv ol (TTpar^ytKoi,

oaov ev %epal <yeveo-0ai rov9 evavTiovs VTTO-
, dXXel /cdi TOVS dfjTriJTOv^ eTi <j)o/3ov



ov priv d\\d TCO\\OL <ye T&V "QOcovos

^ auTOvs eftidcravTO Kal Bie^eTreaov Bid

v KpaTovvTwv et9 TO GTpaTOTreBov.
XIII. Tcoz^ Be aTpaT^ywv ovre ilpoK\o<t oi>Te
Hav\ii>o$ oruvei(Te\6elv eToXfiirjaav, aXA-' e^K\Li>ai>
<j)o/3ou/jLevoi TOL*9 o-TpaTU*)Ta<$ ijBrj Tr]v air Lav errl
TOU9 crrparriyovs rpeirovra^. "Avvios Be FaXXo?
dve\dn/3avev ev rfj rro\eL Kal Trape^vOelro roi)?



Kal TroXXot? KeKparrfKora^ /j,epecri
2 ra)v 7TO\efjLLcov. Mdptos Be KeXcro9 701)9 ev reXet



34



OTHO xn. 3-xin. 2

other hand, had seen many battles and were used to
them, but they were now old and past their prime.

So Otho's men charged upon them, drove them
back, and captured their eagle, killing nearly all
who stood in the first rank ; but the others, impelled
by shame and anger, fell upon their foes, slew
Orfidius, the commander of the legion, and seized
many of their standards. Against Otho's gladiators,
too, who were supposed to have experience and
courage in close fighting, Alfenus Varus led up the
troops called Batavians. They are the best cavalry
of the Germans, and come from an island made by
the Rhine. A few of the gladiators withstood these,
but most of them fled towards the river, where they
encountered cohorts of the enemy in battle array,
and in defending themselves against these, were cut
off to a man. But the praetorian soldiers fought
more shamefully than any others. They did not
even wait for their opponents to come to close
quarters, but fled through the ranks of their still
unvanquished comrades, filling them with fear and
confusion. Notwithstanding all this, many of
Otho's men conquered those who opposed them,
forced their way through the victorious enemy, and
regained their camp.

XIII. But as for their generals, neither Proculus
nor Paulinus ventured to enter the camp with them,
but turned aside through fear of the soldiers, who
were already laying the blame for their defeat upon
their commanders. But Annius Gallus received into
the town the soldiers who gathered there out of the
battle, and tried to encourage them. The battle
had been nearly equal, he said, and in many parts of
it they had overcome their enemies. Marius Celsus,

35



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

ffvvayaycbv exeXevae aKOTrelv rb KOIVOV, o><? eVt
ifyopa rrj\LKavrrj real <f)6vw ro&ovrw rro\t,rwv
e "QOwvos, eirrep dvrjp dyaOos ecrnv,
o~ovro<$ en TreipdaOai TT}? TU^T;?, OTTOU KOL

Kparovvri yuera ^>
alriav e^ovaiv cy? TTO\\OVS
teal dyadovs av$pa<$ eV Aiftvrj Trapava\u>cravTes
OVK dvayKaiays, KdiTrep dywvi^o/jLevoi Trepl TT}<?
3 e P(t)fj,aio)v e\ev6epias. ra yap d\\a KOivr/v 7}
Trape^ovcra Trdcriv eavrrjv ev OVK dfiaipeiraL
dyaOwv, rb rcav irraicrcoaLV v\oyi(TT6iv TT/JO?



rd



Tavra \eytov erreiOe TOU? rjye/JLOviKovs. evrel
S Treipw/jLevoi rovs crrparKora^ ewpcov elptfwrjs
Seo/j,ei'ovs Kal Tiriavbs e'/ceXeue Trpecrfteveiv vrrep
ofjiovoias, eBo^e KeXcrw Kal TdXXw fta&i^eiv Kal
Sia\yecrdat TO?? Trepl rbv Ke/ctVa^ Kal Qvd\vra.
4 fia&ifovcri Be avrols d7r/]VTr)(rai> e

IJLZV Bvvafiiv r/>; KeKivrj/uevrjv \eyovres e
7rl TO RrjTpiaxov, avrol Be VTTO TWV



irepl ofiovdlas. eTraivecravres ovv oi



i TOP Ke/\o~oi> exeXevcrav avrovs dva
Ta? "naKiv aTravrav ytteT' avrcov Tot? irepl rbv
KeKLvav. eirel Be eyyvs rjaav, eKivBvvevaev 6
KeXcro?. erv%ov ydp ol Trepl rrjv eveBpav rjTTtj-
5 fJLevoi Trporepov /TTTret? Trpoe^eXaui/oz^Te?. w? ovv
Trpoa-iovra rbv KeXo-oi/ KaretBov, evOvs /3oi](ravres
eir 'avrov. ol Be efcarovrdp^ai, rrpo-
dveipyovrev Kal ra>v
306



OTHO xni. 2-5

moreover, assembled the officers and urged them to
consult the public good. Jn view of so great a
calamity, he said, and the slaughter of so many
citizens, not even Otho himself, if he were a good
man, would wish to make further trial of his fortune,
since even Cato and Scipio, by refusing to yield to a
victorious Caesar after Pharsalus, had incurred the
charge of needlessly squandering the lives of many
brave men in Africa, although their struggle was in
behalf of Roman freedom. For in general all men
alike are subject to the decrees of fortune, but of
one thing she cannot rob a good man, and that
is the privilege, in case of adversity, of taking
reasonable measures to correct the situation that
confronts him.

By this speech Celsus won over the officers. And
after they had sounded the soldiers and found them
desirous of peace, and when Titianus urged that an
embassy be sent in the interest of concord, Celsus
and Callus decided to go and confer with Caecina
and Valens. But as they were on the way they
were met by some centurions of the enemy, who
said that their army was already in motion and was
on its way to Bedriacum, and that they themselves
had been sent out by their generals to treat for
concord. Accordingly, Celsus commended them,
and bade them turn back with him and go to meet
Caecina. But when they were near the army of
Caecina, Celsus ran risk of his life. For it chanced
that the horsemen who had formerly been worsted
by him at the ambush were riding on in advance.
So when they saw Celsus coming up, they forthwith
raised a shout and dashed against him. But the
centurions stood in front of him and kept them off;

307



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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(f)i\0(f)p6v(0<; eftdBifyv uer* avrwv el<$ TO

6 ev Be TOVTW peTa-voia Tiriavbv ea")(v e/

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7rap6/cd\L /3or]9elv. TOV $e Ke/cLva Trpoa-
eXacrcwro? rq> iirirco /cai rrjv &eiav opeyovros

, a\X' ol JJLCV avro TWV
TOV? o-Tyoartwra?, ol Be ra?
e^rjecrav teal avefjii<yvvvTO rot?

7 i]KQVcn,v. rjSiKei Be ouSet?, d\\a teal <f)i\o<f)po-
avvai KOLI Se^cocrei? rfcrav, oyfiocrav Be irdvre^ Trepl
rov Ov'ire\\iov KOL TTpocre^Mprjdav.

XIV. OvTw fjiev ol 7T\eL(TToi Tfov Trapayevo/jLC-
vwv d7rayye\\ov(Ti, ryevecrOai, TTJV fid^rjv, ovBe
avrol tra^co? ojAo^oyovvres elBevai TO, K off e/cacrra
&ta Trjv aia^lav KOI TIJV av(d^LcC\iav. e/jiol Be
varepov oBevovri Bia rov rrehiov MeGrpios ^Xwpo?,
dvr/p vrrariKos rwv rare //,?) Kara yva){J,r}V, aXX'
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alrlav e(j)rj fyrwv ovre auro? evpelv ovre Trap*
a\\ov rov rcvOeaOai. Bvi'icnceiv /j,ev yap rrapa
TOU? e/jL(j)v\iovs TroXe/AOf?, orav rporrr] yevrjrat,,
rc\eiovas etVo? ecrri, ru) /ArjBeva faypetv, ^pr}(jBai
yap OVK ecrn rot? aKia-Ko^evoL^, rj 8' eVi rocrovro



308



OTHO xin. 5~xiv. 2

the other officers also shouted to the horsemen to
spare Celsus, and Caecina, hearing their cries, rode
up and speedily brought his horsemen to order.
Then he greeted Celsus in a friendly manner and
went on with him to Bedriacum. But meanwhile
Titianus had repented of having sent the embassy,
and after ordering the more resolute of the soldiers
back again upon the walls, he exhorted the rest to
go to their support. However, when Caecina rode
up on his horse and stretched out his hand to them,
not a man resisted further, but some greeted his
soldiers from the walls, while others, throwing
open the gates, went forth and mingled with the
advancing troops. There were no hostilities, on
the part of Otho's men, but only friendly salutations
and greetings, and all took oath to support Vitellius
and went over to his side.

XIV. This is the account which most of the
participants give of the battle, although they them-
selves confess that they were ignorant of its details,
owing to the disorder and the unequal fortunes of the
several groups. At a later time, when I was travelling
through the plain, Mestrius Florus, one of the men
of consular rank who were at that time with Otho
(by constraint, and not of their own will), pointed
out to me an ancient temple, and told me how, as
he came up to it after the battle, he saw a heap of
dead bodies so high that those on top of it touched
the gable of the temple. The reason for this he
said he could neither discover himself nor learn
from anyone else. It is natural, indeed, that in
civil wars, when a rout takes place, more men
should be killed, because no quarter is given (there
being no use for prisoners) ; but why the dead



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