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ARATUS xiii. 3-xiv. 2

therefore yielded, and Nealces erased the figure of
Aristratus, and in its place painted a palm-tree
merely, not daring to introduce anything else. We
are told, however, that the feet of the erased figure
of Aristratus were left by an oversight beneath the

In consequence of this love of art Aratus was
already beloved by the king, and in personal inter-
course grew yet more upon him, and received for his
city a gift of a hundred and fifty talents. Forty of
these Aratus took with him at once and sailed to
Peloponnesus ; the rest the king divided into instal-
ments, and sent them to him afterwards one by one.

XIV. Now it was a great achievement to procure
so large a sum of money for his fellow-citizens ; other
generals and leaders of the people had taken but
a fraction of this sum from kings in payment for
wronging, enslaving, and betraying to them their
native cities. But it was a far greater achievement
by means of this money to have effected a harmonious
adjustment of the disputes between rich and poor, and
safety and security for the entire people. Moreover,
we must admire the moderation of the man in the
exercise of so great power. For when he was ap-
pointed independent arbiter, with absolute powers for
settling the money affairs of the exiles, he would not
accept the office alone, but associated with himself
fifteen of his fellow-citizens, by whose aid, after
much toil and great trouble, he established peace
and friendship among his fellow-citizens. 1 For these
services not only did the entire body of citizens
bestow fitting public honours upon him, but the
exiles also on their own account erected a bronze
1 Cf. Cicero, De Off. ii. 23, 8 Iff.



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6eiav T' WTracra? evvofjiiav.

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elvat, rfj (fiver ei IJLOVOV KOL (f)i\o7TO\irt]v 6 Be /cai
KCU irpay^draiv fiacrt\iKa)V ircavbs

elvai KpiTifc. Trporepov yap rj/jids vTrepewpa raw

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3 0X09 rjfuv rrpoo-Ke^coprjicev. atTO? re ovv djro-
TO fieipdtfiov eyvwicats el? airavTa

Sint. 2 and Ziegler, after Zeitz : 5al/j.ov' \aav.

ARATUS xiv. 2-xv. 3

statue of him, and inscribed thereon the following
elegiac verses :

"The counsels, valorous deeds, and prowess
in behalf of Hellas, which this man has dis-
played, are known as far as the Pillars of
Heracles ; but we who achieved our return
through thee, Aratus, for thy virtue and justice,
have erected to the Saviour Gods this statue of
our saviour, because to thy native city thou hast
brought a sacred and heavenly reign of law."

XV. These successful achievements placed Aratus
beyond the jealousy of his fellow-citizens, owing to
the gratitude which he inspired ; but Antigonus, the
king, was annoyed by the policy of Aratus, and
wished either to bring him over into complete friend-
ship with himself or to alienate him from Ptolemy.
He therefore showed him many kindnesses which
were not at all welcome, and especially this, that as
he was sacrificing to the gods at Corinth, he sent
portions of the victims to Aratus at Sicyon. And at
the banquet which followed, where many guests were
present, he said, so that all could hear : " I thought
this Sicyonian youth was merely free-spirited and a
lover of his fellow-citizens ; but he would seem to be
a capable judge also of the lives and actions of kings.
For formerly he was inclined to overlook us, fixing
his hopes elsewhere, and he admired the wealth of
Egypt, hearing tales of its elephants, and fleets, and
palaces ; but now that he has been behind the scenes
and seen that everything in Egypt is play-acting and
painted scenery, he has come over entirely to us.
Therefore I both welcome the young man myself,
having determined to make every possible use of



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vwv TOCTOVTOV TrpoarjV (f)66i'ov KOL KaKorjOeia^.

-\r \TT r f^\ C^V>/4 '/5^ vv

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TOI/ UTTO rail' 'A^atwi/ r^v yu,ez> ai/Tt7re/?a?
l Ka\v8a>VLav eTropflrjcre, Boiwrot? 5e yuera

arpaTicoTwv ftorjtfwv vcTTepyo-e
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2 avra) TT<r6vTa)v. eviawrfp Be vcrrepov avOis crrpa-
rrjywv evicrraro rrjv Trepl rov * AtcpoKopivOov rrpa-
ov %iKVO)vi<DV ovo* 'A^aiwi/ /c^So/zez/o?, a\Xa
Tiva T^? 'EXXaSo? oX?;? rvpfivviSa, rr)v
(ppovpdv, e/ceWev e'^eXacrat Siavoov-
Xap?/? yuej^ 7a/o 6 ' ' Adr/valo^ ev TIVI
Tot*? /3acriXea)? arrparij'yovs
e rfo S^/JLW rwv ' ' A6r)vaia>v a>? vtviKrifcot r/)?
Ma/oa^&m yua^^? dSeXtyijv ravrrjv Be rrjv
OVK av d/j,dprot Ti? dSe\<j)i)V rrpoGtirrwv
XoTTtSoL' TGI) 0r/y9atou /cat pao-v/3ou\ov
rov 'AOrjiaiov TvpavvoKiovias, TrXrjv ori ru> ^irj
TTyoo? r/ EXX?;i/a?, aXXa eVa/crof dp%ijv yeyovevai
4 /cat d\\6cf)V\uv avrr) Snjvey/cev. 6 yuez/


ARATUS xv. 3-xvi. 4
him. and I ask you to consider him a friend." These


words were seized upon by the envious and male-
volent, who vied with one another in writing to
Ptolemy many grievous charges against Aratus, so
that the king sent an envoy and upbraided him.
So great malice and envy attend upon the friend-
ships of kings and tyrants, for which men strive and
at which they aim with ardent passion.

XVI. Aratus now, having been chosen general of
the Achaean League for the first time, ravaged the
opposite territories of Locris and Calydonia, and
went to the assistance of the Boeotians with an army
of ten thousand men. He came too late, however,
for the battle at Chaeroneia, in which the Boeotians
were defeated by the Aetolians, with the loss of
Aboeocritus, their Boeotarch, and a thousand men.
A year later, 1 being general again, he set on foot the
enterprise for the recovery of Acrocorinthus, 2 not in
the interests of Sicyonians or Achaeans merely, but
purposing to drive from that stronghold what held
all Hellas in a common subjection, the Macedonian
garrison. Chares the Athenian, having been suc-
cessful in a battle with the king's generals, wrote to
the people of Athens that he had won a battle which
was "sister to that at Marathon"; and this enter-
prise of Aratus may be rightly called a sister of
those of Pelopidas the Theban and Thrasybulus the
Athenian, in which they slew tyrants, except that it
surpassed them in being undertaken, not against
Greeks, but against a foreign and alien power. For

1 In 243 B.C., two years later. The office of general in the
League could not be held by the same person in successive
years. Cf. chap. xxiv. 4.

8 The citadel of Corinth.


oi* *}juf>pa&&<ant ra? OaX-dcrdas, et9 ravro crvvdyet

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araraL Kal uTTOKOTTTet rr]V eVro? 'Icr^/ioO Tracrav
eTrijjLi^iwv re Kal Trapo&wv Kal crrpareLuiv epy acrias
5 re Kara <yi]V Kal Kara 0d\arTav, Kal eva Kvpiov
TOV ap^ovra Kal Kare^ovra (frpovpa TO
, ware fjuij irai^ovra SoKelv TOV v

XaSo? TIJV KopivOiwv TToKiv Trpo&ayopevetv.

XVII. riacrt fjiev ovv Trepi/^d^TO^ i]v o TOTTO?
del Kal ftaaiXevcri, Kal SwdaTais, 77 Be 'Avnyovov
i] Trepl avrbv ovBev a7TeXi7T irddei rwv e/t-
epu>Twv, dXX' 0X09 dvrjprijTO rai?
fypovricriv OTTO)? d^aiprjcreraL B6\w rou? e%ovra<;,
2 eTTft (fravepMs a^eXTrtcrro? ^z^ 7; eTTL^eLprj
dv&pov yap, vfi bv TO %wpiov rjv, a
(a>5 \eyeraL^ <pap^dKoi(f UTT' avrov,


Ka <)VarTOva-'rs rov


y\VKfia<; e'XmSa? evBiBovs yduwv /BaaiXiKMV Kal
avfj,j3i(t)a'eco<; TT^OO? ou/c a^S^ evTV\eiv yvvaiKl
3 Trpecr/SvTepa /AetpaKiov, avTTjV uev ypqKei, TW TraiBl
%pr)<rdfj,evos wcrirep aX\(p Ttvl TWV &e\eacr fjidTwv
avTy, TOV Be TOTTOV ov Trpole^evr]^, aXA,' eyKpa-
\aTTOixn]s, d^e\elv TTpocnroiov/jievos eOve
avTwv ev KopivOw, Kal Oeas eVeTeXet

1 TO T^iTO) Capps : T

ARATUS xvi. 4-xvn. 3

the Isthmus of Corinth, forming a barrier between
the seas, brings together the two regions, and thus
unites our continent ; and when Acrocorinthus,
whicli is a lofty hill springing up at this centre of
Greece, is held by a garrison, it hinders and cuts off
all the country south of the Isthmus from inter-


course, transits, and the carrying on of military
expeditions by land and sea, and makes him who
controls the place with a garrison sole lord of Greece.
Therefore it is thought that the younger Philip of
Macedon 1 uttered no jest, but the truth, whenever
he called the city of Corinth " the fetters of Greece.''
XVII. Accordingly, the place was always an object
of great contention among kings and dynasts, but the
eagerness of Antigonus to secure it fell nothing short
of the most frenzied passion, and he was wholly
absorbed in schemes to take it by stratagem from
its possessors, since an open attempt upon it was
hopeless. For when Alexander, 2 in whose hands
the place was, had died of poison given him (it is
said) in obedience to Antigonus, and his wife Nicaea
had succeeded to his power and was guarding the
citadel, Antigonus at once sent his son Demetrius to
her in furtherance of his schemes, and by inspiring
her with pleasant hopes of a royal marriage and of
wedded life with a young man who would be no
disagreeable company for an elderly woman, he
captured her, using his son for all the world like a
bait for her. The citadel, however, she did not give
up, but kept it under strong guard. Pretending,
therefore, indifference to this, Antigonus celebrated
the nuptials of the pair in Corinth, exhibiting

1 Philip V., 237-179 B.C.

2 The tyrant of Corinth.



' rj/jiepav, &><? av T*<? fjLa\icrra
teal a~)(o\d^eLv rtjv Bidvoiav v(j)' ijBovris

4 KOI <f>i\o<t>pocrvvrj<; dfieifcws. eVel Be Kaipos f)V,
aBovros 'A/io/3eo><? ev rw Oedrpw, 7rape7re/.t7re rrjv

auro? eVl rrp ^eai/ eV ^opetco KeKoa-fJU)-
crtXt/ta)?, dya\\ofj,vijv re rfj TI/JLI} KOL
Troppwrdroy TOV /AeXXoyro? ovaav. yevo/Aevos Be
T/}? o^ou Kara rrjv efcrpOTrrjv rrjv avu> (pepovaar,
erceivrjv fj.ev etceXevcre Trpodyeiv et? TO tfearpov,
auro? 5e ^alpeiv /jiev 'A/xoi^ea, ^alpeiv Be TOU?
eacra? dvrjei Trpo? TOI> ^ \KpOfcopivOov a/zi\-
Trap' t}\LKiav teal KeK\eicr fjLevrjv rrjv rrv-
evpwv, eKorrre rfj /3aK~r)pia K,e\evwv dvouyeiv.

5 ot' S' ev&ov dveu>%av Kararr\a r yevre<s. ovrw Be rov
roTrov fcparrfcras, ov Karea^ev avrov, d\\ enive
Trai^tov VTTO %apas ev rot? arevwrrols, real &i
dyopas avXrjrpiBas e^wv real crre(f)dvovs TrepiKeu-

yeproi' real r">f\.iKavrais Trpayudrcov

Trpoaayopevwv TOI>? rravrtovras. ovrws pa rea
l <>6/3ov /J,a\\ov e%iGrr)(Ti teal crd\ov
rfj tyvxfj TO %aipeii> dvev \oyi<raov

XVIII. 'AXXa ydp 'AyTiyovos pe.v, w<T7rep e'lprj-
rai, Kr^ad^evo^ rov 'AKpoteopivdov e^uXarre,
aerd rwv a\\a)v ot? eTrivreve /^d\icrra Kal Hep- 1035
aaiov eVtcrr^o-a? apyovra rov <pi\6ao<j)ov. o Be
"Aparo? ert fiev Kal 'A\ej;dvBpou %a)vro<$ erre^ei-
ptjcre rjj rrpd^ei, yevo/jievrjs Be crt'/A/ta^ta? rot?
* rov 'A\ej;avBpov eiravaaro. rore

ARATUS xvii. 3-xvm. 2

spectacles and giving banquets every day, as one
whom pleasure and kindliness led to think chiefly
of mirth and ease. Hut when the crucial moment
came, and as Amoeheus was about to sing in the
theatre, he escorted Nicaea in person to the spectacle.
She was borne in a litter which had royal trappings,
plumed herself on her new honour, and had not the
remotest suspicion of what was to happen. Then,
arrived at the diverging street that led up to the
citadel, Antigomis gave orders that Nicaea should
be borne on into the theatre, while he himself,
bidding adieu to Amoebeus, and adieu to the
nuptials, went up to Acrocorinthus with a speed
that belied his years; and, finding the gate locked,
he beat upon it with his staff and ordered it to
be opened. And the guards within, stupefied,
opened it. Thus master of the place, he could not
contain himself for joy, but drank and disported
himself in the streets, and with music-girls in his
train and garlands on ID'S head, old man that he
was and acquainted with so great vicissitudes
of fortune, revelled through the market-place,
greeting and clasping hands with all who met him.
Thus we see that neither grief nor fear transports
and agitates the soul as much as joy that comes

XVIII. Antigomis, then, having got Acrocorinthus
into his power, as I have said, kept it under guard,
putting men there whom he most trusted, and
making Persaeus the philosopher their commander.
Now Aratus, even while Alexander was still living,
had set his hand to the enterprise, but an alliance
was made between the Achneans and Alexander, and
he therefore desisted. At the time of which I speak,



Be avOis e' vTrapxrjs erepav e'Xa/Se

'Hcrai' eV Kopivdw Tecrcrapes dBe\(j)ol ^vpoi TO
yevos, wv el? oi'o/j-a A/o/cX)}? ev TW (frpovpiw yuaQo-
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3 KaT7J\\CLTTV. K $6 TOVTOV yl'd/AVOS T<M \lyia

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TO fcptj/jLvtoSes VT6fjLijv KO0ea)paKvat TrXa-
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TO) <$>povpi(p TO ret^o?. 77/5ocr7rat^ai'To? Se avTw
TOV Alyiou KOI eiTrovTos' " Etra, w

OVTCO xpvaiov avaaTcaTe ra?

p.av wpav

; 77 7a/3 ou^t /cat TOf / Ya> / ou^o/? ATGU

aTroOai'elv virdp^eL ; '

4 y\d<ra<; o 'Epyt^'o? rore /xei^ a)fj,o\oyrjo'i' a
paaQai TOV AtOArXeou? (TO!? ya/o a'XXot? a
/it?; Trdvv TI TricrTeveti 1 ^, o\iyai$ 8e vaTepov r)/j.pai<;
7rai>6\6cov a-vi'TiOerai TOV "ApaTOv a^eiv ?rpo? TO

, oof TO i;\o? oi fj.e^ov tjv
, Kal TaXXa (rv/jL7rpdeiv /J.TO, TOV
XIX. 'O e "ApaTo? eVetVoi? /^et' e^i'-j
Ta\avTa Scoo-eir KaTopOuxras a)/^o\6ytjcrev, rjv Be
aTroTvxU) crtoOf) Be /ZCT' e'vetVwz', ouciav eKaTtpw
real TaXavTov. eVtt 5e eSei Trapa TOO Alyia TO,
Ta\ai>Ta KelaOaL ToZ?


ARATUS xvin. 2-xix. i

however, a new and fresh basis for the enterprise
was found by him in the following circumstances.

There were in Corinth four brothers, Syrians by
race, one of whom, Diocles by name, was serving as
a mercenary soldier in the citadel. The other three,
after stealing some gold plate of the king's, came to
Aegias, a banker in Sicyon with whom Aratus did
business. A portion of the gold they disposed of to
him at once, but the remainder was being quietly
exchanged by one of them, Erginus, in frequent
visits. Erginus thus became well acquainted with
Aegias, and having been led by him into conversa-
tion about the garrison in the citadel, said that as he
was going up to see his brother he had noticed in
the face of the cliff a slanting fissure leading to
where the wall of the citadel was at its lowest.
Thereupon Aegias fell to jesting with him, and said :
" Do you, then, best of men, thus for the sake of a
little gold plate rifle the king's treasures, when it is
in your power to sell a single hour's work for large
sums of money? Don't you know that burglars as
well as traitors, if they are caught, have only one death
to die?" Erginus burst out laughing, and as a first
step agreed to make trial of Diocles (saying that he
had no confidence at all in his other brothers), and a
few davs afterwards came back and bargained to

/ ^-^

conduct Aratus to the wall at a spot where it was
not more than fifteen feet in height, and to aid in
the rest of the enterprise together with Diocles.

XIX. Aratus on his part agreed to give the men
sixty talents if he was successful, and in case he
failed, and he as well as they got off safely, to give
each of them a house and a talent. Then, since the
sixty talents had to be deposited with Aegias for



aro? OVT avrbs ^X ev OVT e/3ov\ro

aicr9r](Tii> erepfp TJ}? Irpdjgews Trapa-
a"%elv, \a(3ot)V TMV efCTrcofJiaTcov TCI rro\\a KOI ra
Xpvaia rr}? yvvaiKos vrrf.0)]K6 rm Alyifi Trpos TO
2 ap'yvpiov. OVTM jap eTrr/pro rfj tyw)(f) KaL
TOV epwra rwv KO\.MI> irpd^eo>v ei^ev, wcrre

KOI rv

/ceil K pcLTiGTOv^ yyoi'evai

Girl TO!) Bto)(raor6aL bwpeas /LteyaXa? KCU
/r) Trpoe&Oai ^ptjfJLaTwv TO KO\OV, auTo? 6t? Taura
SctTravacrOai Kpixpa KOI 7rpoeicr<^epeiv, ev ols fxtv-
btiveve JJLOVOS vircp Travrwv ouBe el&ort&v ra Trpar-
3 rojiiei'a, ppetTO. rtv yap OVK av Oavfidaeie KCLL

en vvv rf) /j.ya\otyv)(ia rov av-

\ ' : A

v, KCLI Ta ri/iKorara oKovvra TWV

uTToriOevros, OTTW? Trapeiaa^Gel^ VVKTOS
TroXe/zto^? Bia r y(ovicrr)TUi rrepl TT}? tyv~%fjs,
i>i(vpov \aQu)V Ti]V \7riSa rov KO\OV Trap* av-wv,
aX\o Se ovSev ;

XX. Qy&av KciO' avrrjv -rri(jfya\T) TTJV irpa-
t,}> 7rii<])a\(TTepar e-oi^aev u nap-la TIS evQvs
ev ap^fj (TVfj./3d(Ta Ct ayvoiav. o yap oiKerr)? TOU
\\pdrov Te'^/vz' eirifitftOg yu.e?' ft>9 /zcra rov A^o-

TO TCtvos 1 , OVITM 8' TJV r(o

, a\\a

avrov fcal TO

f>jv o 'Ep^/a'O? errecTrj^vev ovXoKOfirjv KOA, fie\dy-
2 xpovv KaL dyeveioi'. e\0wv ovv l orrov crvvere-

. t\0wv ovv Coraes and Zieler. with the MSS.
ivfiov, f\


ARATUS xix. i-xx. 2

Erginus, and Aratus neither liad them himself nor
was willing by borrowing them to give anyone
else a suspicion of his undertaking, he took most
of his plate and his wife's golden ornaments and
deposited them with Aegias as security for the
money. For he was so exalted in spirit and had
so great a passion for noble deeds that, knowing as
he did that Phocion and Epaminondas were reputed
to have been the justest and best of Greeks because
they spurned great gifts and would not betray their
honour for money, he elected to expend his own
substance secretly, as an advance, on an enterprise in
which he alone was risking his life for the whole
body of citizens, who did not even know what was
going on. For who will not admire the magnanimity
of the man, and yearn even now to lend a helping
hand, who purchased at so high a price so great a
danger, and pledged what he thought the most
precious of his possessions in order that he might
be introduced by night among his enemies and
contend for his life, receiving as his security from
his countrymen the hope of a noble action, and
nothing else ?

XX. Now the enterprise was dangerous in itself,
but was made more dangerous still by a mistake
which occurred at the very beginning through
ignorance. For Technon. the servant of Aratus,
had been sent to inspect the wall with Diocles,
and had not yet met Diocles face to face, but
thought he would know how he looked because
Erginus had described him as curly-haired, of a
swarthy complexion, and without a beard. Having
come, therefore, to the place appointed, he was


PLUTARCH'S LIVES, TOV *&p r yli>ov 009 d^i^Q/ievov fjierd rov
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ARATUS xx. 2-xxi. j

waiting lor Erginus to come there with Diocles,
just outside the city, near what was called the
Ornis. As he was waiting, however, the oldest
brother of Erginus and Diocles, named Dionysius,
who was not privy to the enterprise and took no
part in it, but resembled Diocles, chanced to come
up. So Technon, moved by the similarity in the
marks of his outward appearance, asked him if he
was connected at all with Erginus ; and on his saying
that he was a brother, Technon was altogether
convinced that he was talking with Diocles,, and
without inquiring his name, or waiting for any other
proof whatever, gave him his hand and began
chatting with him and asking him questions about
what had been agreed upon with Erginus.
Dionysius took cunning advantage of his mistake,
assented to all that he said, and turning his back
towards the city led him along in unsuspicious
conversation. But just as he was near the city,
and was at the very point of seizing Technon, by
a second chance Erginus met them. Erginus
comprehended the trick and the danger, motioned
Technon to fly, and both of them ran off and got
safely to Aratus. Aratus, however, would not give
up hope, but at once sent Erginus to bribe Diony-
sius and beg him to hold his tongue. Erginus not
only did this, but actually brought Dionysius with
him to Aratus. And now that Dionysius was there
they would not let him go, but bound him and kept
him indoors under lock and key, while they
themselves prepared for their attack.

XXI. When all things were ready, Aratus ordered



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