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T6 K\i/LiaK<; Trpo<T6Ti6evTO real fcaTa cnrovBrjv 6
"A/caro? vTrepfiiftdaas e/caTov avBpas, TOV? B*
aAAou? CTrecrOat /ceXeutra? oo? av BvvwvTat

ra? K\ip.aKa<^ dva^irdaa^ t^oo^et Bia r^?
//era TWV exaTov eVl Ttjv dtfpav, rfB/j
Bid TO \av6dveiv &>? KdTopflwv.

4 Kat TTft)? GTL TTpO(T(i)9eV dVTOlS dinjVTa (TVV <f)0)Ti

<frv\aKr) T<T(rdp(t)V dvBpcov ov KaOopco^evois' Ti
yap rjcrav ev TW &Kl&%OfjLVtp rT/? (Te\ijvr]$' efceivov^
Be TrpocrtovTas e evavTias tcadop&cn. fJiLKpov ovi>
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eirl roy? avBpas KdOL^et. KCU Tpeis fj,ev O.VTWV
ef-nrecrovTes dTroOvrjaKova-iv, 6 Be Tera/?TO? TT\T)-
761? ^ifpei TTjV Kt$>a\r]v e<$>vye, ftocav evBov elvai
46



ARATUS xxi. 1-4

the rest of his forces to pass the night under arms,
and taking with him four hundred picked men, few
of whom knew what was on foot themselves, led
them towards the gate of Corinth near by the
temple of Hera. It was midsummer, the moon was
at its full, and the night was cloudless and clear, so
that they feared lest the gleam of their arms in the
moonlight should disclose them to the sentinels.
But just as the foremost of them were near the
wall, clouds ran up from the sea and enveloped
the city itself and the region outside, which thus
became dark. Then the rest of them sat down and
took off their shoes, since men make little noise and
do not slip if they are barefooted when they climb
ladders ; but Erginus, taking with him seven young-
men equipped as travellers, got unnoticed to the gate.
Here they slew the gate-keeper and the sentries
who were with him. At the same time the ladders
were clapped to the wall, and after getting a
hundred men over in all haste, Aratus ordered the
rest to follow as fast as they could ; then he pulled
his ladders up after him and marched through the
city with his hundred men against the citadel, being
already full of joy at his escape from detection and
confident of success.

A little farther on they encountered a watch of
four men with a light ; they were not seen by them,
being still in the shade of the moon, but saw them
coming up in the opposite direction. So they drew
back a little for shelter beneath some walls and
buildings, and set an ambush for the men. Three
of them they killed in their attack, but the fourth,
with a sword-wound in his head, took to flight, crying

47



"PLUTARCH'S LIVES

5 TOU? TroXe/xiou?. Kal i^erd /jLiKpbv atre o~d\myye<i
7rea"r)/JLaivov, r/ re 7roA.f? e^avicrraro rrpbs ra
yivo/jieva, rr\r)peL<s re rjcrav o'i arevwrrol oiaOeov-
rd)v, real <f>wra rro\\d, ra /JLCV KarwBev rfbij, ra
Be dvwdev drrb Tr)? a/cpas 7re/)ieXayu,7re, /cal Kpavyy
(Tvvepprj'yvvro Travra^oOev acr?;/uo9.

XXII. 'Ei/ rovrw &e 6 pev "Aparo? e/jL<f)vs rfj
TTOpeia rrapa TO Kpii/jivco&es i}/j,iX\aro, /9
/cal raXaiTTMpcos ro rrp&rov, ov Kara/eparwv, a
dTTOTT^avM/JLevos rov rpiftov rravrdrracnv e
ATOTO? /cal rreoKTKia^ofJLevov rat? rpa^vrrjai /cal
Sia 7ro\\(t)V \iy/jia)v Kal rrapaf3o\tov rrepaivovros
TT/OO? TO Tet^ov. elra Qav^daiov olov rj cre\i']vr)
\eyerai Siaare\\ova-a ra ve(f)i] Kal t'TroXa/XTroOcra, 1
T?}? oSoy TO %a\rra)rarov a afyrjvL^eiv ', 6<w? fj^aro
rov Tet^of? /ca(9' bv &ei rorrov eVet Se rrdXiv
(TvvecrKiacre /cal drre/cpvtye v(f>wv avveKOovrwv.

2 Ol Be rrepl rd^ rrvXas ^a> rrepl ro 'Hpalov
drroXetfyOevres rov 'Apdrov crrpanwrai, rpia-
voaioL TO rr\r)8o$ ovres, w? TTOTC rrapeicrerreaov

et? rr)V rco\iv Oopvftov re rravrobarrov Kal (f>a)r(*)i> 1037
ye/jiovo-av, ov $vvi]6evr6s e^avevpelv rov avrov
rpiftov ov$ et? T^^o? e/Afifjvat, TT}? CKeivaw rropelas,
ercrr/^av d6pooi rrpos rivi rra\Lvo~Kiw \ayovi rov
/cpij/jivov crvare'iXavres eavrovs, /cal Bte/caprepovv
GvravOa rrepirraOovvres ical $vo~avaa"xerovvre<s.

3 /3a\\o/j.6V(i)v yap drro rijs a/cpa$ ijBrj rwv rrepl rov
' Aparov Kal nayo/uevayi 1 , d\a\ay/.tb? euayoovios
%(*)pei Kara), Kal Kpavyij Trepitfyci, Bid rrjv drro
r&v op&v dvaK\a(7Lv avyKe^Vfjievrj Kal



1 viro\a/j.irov(ra Coraes and Bekkei', adopting an anonymous
conjecture : vwo\a&ovffa.

48



ARATUS xxi. 4-xxn. 3

out that the enemy were in the city. And pres-
ently the trumpets were sounding, the city was in
an uproar over what was happening, the streets were
full of people running up and down, many lights
were flashing, some in the city below and some in
the citadel above, and a confused shouting broke
forth on all hands.

XXII. Meanwhile Aratus was struggling up the
steep with all his might, slowly and laboriously at
first, unable to keep to the path and wandering from
it, since it was everywhere sunk in the shadows of

v

the jutting cliffs and had many twists and turns
before it came out at the wall of the citadel. Then,
marvellous to relate, the moon is said to have parted
the clouds and shone out, making the most difficult
part of the road plain, until he got to the wall at the
spot desired ; there the clouds came together again
and everything was hidden in darkness.

But the soldiers of Aratus whom he had left at
the gate outside near the temple of Hera, three
hundred in number, when once they had burst into
the city and found it full of lights and manifold
tumult, were unable to discover the path which
their comrades had taken or follow in their steps.
So they crouched down and huddled themselves
together in a shaded flank of the cliff, and there
remained in great distress and impatience. For
Aratus and his party were now assailed with missiles
from the citadel and were fighting, the shouts of
the combatants came down the slopes, and cries
echoed round about which the reverberations from

49



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

odev L\.r)^)e rrjv dp^i]v. BiaTropovvTwv Be CLVTCOV
e'(/>' o TL ^pi] TpairecrOat, yuepo?, 'A/o^eXao? o TWV



fiera Kpavyij^ dveftaive xal araXTTiyywv, 7Ti<f)ep6fjLe-
vo? rot? Trepl TO/' "Aparov, KOL TraprjXXarre TO 1)9
4 rpiarcocriovs. oi Se wcrTrep e% eve&pas avaa-Tcivres
}jL(3d\\ovcrLv avra) KOI Bia(f)0ipovcriv ol? 7re6evro
, TGI;? 5e aX,Xou? Aral TCW 'Ap%e\aov <po-
jno real KaTeSia)};av a%pi TOV
irepl rrjv iroXtv BiaXvOevras. apn



TOVTWV VeVlKlKOTWV 0il^O? CLTTO TWV O,V(t)



TOV "Aparov d^vvo^evoL<^ evpwo-Tws, KCLI
dywva irepl avro TO T6t%o? elvai, KCLI Ta^oi/?
5 Seiv TJ}? fiorjOeias. ol Be evtfvs Ke\evov rjyelcrOaL'
l TrpocrfiaLvovres a^a (frtovrj SLearj/naivov eavrovs,






07r\a TT\elova ()aii'oei>a Tot?



Bia TO /j,r)KO$ TT}? Trope/a?, /cal TO T>}? VVKTO?



OV drro



6 ToaovTcov eTTotei Sofceiv ^epeaOat,. Te'Xo? Be crvv-
epeLcravres e^wOovGt TOU? TroXe/^tou? /tat Ka0-
VTrepTepoi T/}? atcpas rjaav teal TO (f)povpiov el)(ov,
?} / aepa? ijBi] Btavyovar^, o TG /;X^09 evOvs eVe
TW epyy, Kal Trapfjv etc ^IKVWVOS rj \oiirr) Bv
TU> \\ptiTff), Be^o/Jievwv Kara TruXa? TWV ^.
7r/?o^t' y aw9 fcal Tot/9 (3acri\LKOvs av\\atJL[3ai'OVT(ov.
XXIII. 'E?rel Be acr^>aXw9 eBoKei TcdvTa e^euv,
/cctTeftaivev ei9 TO OeaTpov CLTTO T?}9 a/

50



ARATUS xxn. 3-xxm. i

the hills rendered confused and of uncertain origin.
Then, as they were at a loss which way to turn,
Archelaiis, the commander of the king's forces, having
many soldiers with him, made up the ascent amid
shouts and the blare of trumpets to attack Aratus
and his party, and thus passed by the three hundred.
These, rising up from ambush as it were, fell upon
him, slew the first whom they attacked, put the rest,
together with Archelaiis, to panic flight, and pursued
them until they were scattered and dispersed about
the city. And just as this victory had been won,
Erginus came from the party fighting on the heights,
with tidings that Aratus was engaged with the
enemy, that these were defending themselves vigor-
ously, that a great struggle was going on at the very
wall, and there was need of speedy help. The three
hundred at once ordered him to lead the way ; and
as they took to the ascent their cries signalled their
coming and encouraged their friends ; the light of
the full moon also made their arms appear more
numerous to the enemy than they really were, owing
to the length of their line of march, and the echoes
of the night gave the impression that the shouts
proceeded from many times the number of men
there really were. At last, with a united onset,
they repulsed the enemy, mastered the citadel,
and held its garrison in their power. Day was
now breaking, the sun at once shone out upon
their success, and the rest of the forces of Aratus
came up from Sicyon, the Corinthians readily re-
ceiving them by the gates and helping them to
seize the king's soldiers.

XXIII. When everything appeared to be safe
Aratus came down from the citadel into the theatre



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

drreipov (Tvppeovros eiriffvpia rr/s re o^redxf avrov
Kal TMV \6ya)v ot9 efjb\\e %pr)o~8ai 717309 rot'? Ko-
2 ptvOiovs. eTrtarrfcras Be rat? TrapoBois eKare



Toi>9 ^atou?, auro? drro rr}? o~Krjvrj<; et?



, TeO(opaKi<T/jL6vos KOI T& TrpCKTcoTry Sia
rov fcoTrov /cal rrjv (vypvirv'iav rf\\oiw^evo^, axrre
T//9 ^1'%^}? TO yavpovj^evov Kal %aipov VTTO TT}?
3 Trepl TO aay/jia fiapvTrjros KaraKparelo-Oai. rwv
be avOpto'rrwv a/jia T&> TrpoaeXfleiv avrov eK%
rat? <f>i\o(f)poavvais, fjiera\a(3oL>v 4?
av TO Sopv, Kal TO <yovv Kal TO <ra)/ia T^ p

TTO-



\PQVOV criwrri e^o/xc/'O? avrwv TOU?

rrjv dper/jv,



eiravaavro



crvvayaycov eavrov &iej*ri\6e \6yov
virep rwv 'A^aiwz^ T^ rrpd^ei rrperrovra, Kal <rvv-
rovs [email protected] 'A^atou? yeveaOai, Kal
TTV\WV T9 Xet9 a7re'S&):e TOTC rrpwrov drro
<&i\i7r7TiK(ov Kaipwv vri CKeivot,*; yevo/uLevas.
Se 'Avriyovov arparrjywv 'A.p%e\aov fiev
ev v7ro)(Lpiov yevo^evov , Qeofypaarov Be dv-
6 ei\ev ov j3ov\o/.ievov drra\\drreaOar Hepcraios 8e
T//9 a/c/39 d\icrKO/j,vr)S e/9 Ke7^pea9 ^Le^errecrev.
v&repov le \eyerat a^oXd^wv rrpos rov elrrovra
ftovQV avrrb SoKelv arparrjyov elvai rov 0o(J)6v,
" 'AXXa vi] Oeovs" fydvai, " rovro fjidXiara /ca/xot
rrore r&v 7^]vwvo^ ijpeo'Ke &oy/j,dr(ov vvv Be aera-
(Bd\\ofjLai vovflerijOels VTTO rov ^LKVWVIOV veaviov."
ravra p,ev rrepl Tlepcraiov irhjeloves laropovaiv.



ARATUS xxiii. 1-5

whither an immense multitude streamed with an
eager desire to see him and hear what he would sav

c? ,1

to the Corinthians. After stationing his Achaeans
at both the side-entrances, he himself advanced from
the back-scene into the orchestra, with his breastplate
still on and his countenance altered by toil and loss
of sleep, so that the exultation and joy of his spirit
were overpowered by the weariness of his body.
Since the multitude, when he came forward to
address them, were profuse in their friendly ex-
pressions, taking his spear in his right hand and
slightly inclining his knee and his body, he sup-
ported himself upon it and stood thus for a
long time silently receiving their applause and ac-
clamations, their praises of his valour and their
congratulations on his success. But when they had
ceased and quiet had ensued, he summoned his
strength and in behalf of the Achaeans made a
speech which befitted their exploit, and persuaded
the Corinthians to join the Achaean League. He
also gave them back the keys to their gates, of
which they then became possessed for the first time
since the time of Philip of Macedon. Of the officers
of Antigonus, he dismissed Archelaiis, who had been
taken prisoner, but Theophrastus, who would not quit
his post, he slew ; as for Persaeus, on the capture of
the citadel he made his escape to Cenchreae. And at
a later time, as we are told, when he was leading a life
of leisure, and someone remarked that in his opinion
the wise man only could be a good general, " Indeed,"
he replied, "there was a time when I too particularly
liked this doctrine of Zeno's ; but now, since the lesson
I got from the young man of Sicyon, I am of another
mind." This story of Persaeus is told by many writers.

53



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



XXIV. f O Be "Aparo? [email protected]$ TO re *H.palov vfi

fp KOI TO Ae^aiov eVou/craTO* fcal vewv fjiev 1038
eirco(Ti,7revT /3acn\iKa)v efcvpiev&ev, 'LTTTTOVS Be



KOI 2<vpov<; TerpaKoa-ovs



TOV Te 'A/CpOKOpH'OoV <f)V\aTTOV OL '

TTpctfCOcrioi<i 07rXiTcri9 fcal TrevrrjKOVTa icvcrl teal
Kvvrjyols tcrot? ev T&> (fipovpiw Tpe^o^evoi^.
2 Ol jjiV ovv 'Pay/jiaioi TOV O<\o7rot/xe^a 8av-



fjieyaXov yu-er' exewov ev rot? f/
y r eyofji4vov' eyco &e TWV 'Et

.<TyjaTr)v real vewTciTrjv ^air\v av

TOVTO /J.V TO\/Jir), TOVTO

va/M\\ov, to? eSrj\(i)crv evOits TO, yiv6/J>va.
3 Me^a/^et? re yap aTrocrTavTes ^AvTiyovov TW 'Apd-
T) TrpoaedevTo, KOI Tpoifyjvioi yLtera 'EmSavpicov
t-jo-av et? TOI? 'A^atou?, e^oSov TG Trpa)-
Genevas et? TIJV 'ATTIKTJV eVe/3aXe, KOI Trjv



\\v/jLe.v>j Ty Bwdfiei TOIV ^A^aiciov e^>' o TL (3ov-

\OITO %pW/JiVO<S. 'AQlJVaiOlS $ TOl>? \,[email protected]$

a(f)f)K6v aveu \vTpcov, dp-^af; CUTCOGT acre a>9 evoiSovs
4 avTcis. \\TO\efJialov oe o-v^fjLay^ov eVotTycre rwv
'A^aiwv, rjyefjioviav e%ovra TroXe'/xou A-ar KCITO,
ytjv KOI 6d\aTTav. OUTCO Be LO")(vcre!> ev rot?
'A/^aiot9, WCTT', et /t^ /car' eviavTov efjv> Trap 1
eviavTov aipeierOai (TTpaTrjyov CLVTOV, epyw oe KCU
yvw/LJir) Bid TTCLVTOS dp^eiv. ewpwv yap auTov ov
7r\ovTov, ov Bo^av, ov (f)i\iav (3a<ji\LKi]v, ov TO
avTov 7rar/3t5o9 ffv^cpov, OVK aXXo TL rr}9
TWV ^A^aicov eTTLTrpocrOev TTOIOV/JLCVOV.



54



ARATUS xxiv. 1-4

XXIV. As for Aratus. he at once made himself
master of the temple of Hera and the harbour of
Lechaeum ; he also seized five-arid-twenty of the
king's ships, and sold five hundred horses and four
hundred Syrians ; Acrocorinthus, too, was garrisoned
by the Achaeans with four hundred men-at-arms,
and fifty dogs with as many keepers were maintained
in the citadel.

Now the Romans, in their admiration of Philopoe-
men, call him "the last of the Greeks," implying
that no great man arose among the Greeks after
him ; but I should say that this capture of Arro-
corinthus was the very last and latest achievement
of the Greeks, and that it rivalled their best, not
only in daring, but also in happy results, as events
at once showed. For Megara seceded from Antigonus
and attached herself to Aratus ; Troezen and Epi-
daurus were enrolled in the Achaean League ; and
Aratus, making a distant expedition for the rtrst time,
invaded Attica, and crossing the strait plundered
Salamis, his Achaean forces, as though released from
prison, obeying his every wish. But the freemen
among his prisoners he sent back to the Athenians
without ransom, thus laying a foundation for their
revolt from Antigonus. He also made Ptolemy an
ally of the Achaeans, with the leadership in war on
land and sea. And he was so influential among the
Achaeans that, since it was not permissible every year,
thev chose him general every other year, though,
in fact, his wisdom made him their leader all the
time. For they saw that he put first and foremost,
not wealth, not fame, not friendship with kings, not
his own native city's advantage, but only the growth
in power of the Achaean League. For he considered

55



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

5 rjyelro yap daOevels ISia ra? 7roXei9 v
5t' d\\rf\wv wo~rrep eV3e8
y crv/j,(f)epovri,, Kal KaOdrrep ra /Aepij rov

%WVTa KOI (TVfJLTTVeOVra Bia r?]V 7T/3O?

d\\r)\a crv/j,<f)Viav, orav aTroaTraffOfj KOL yev^rai
^a)pt?, arpofyel KOI (Tr'jTrerai, TrapaTrX^crta)? ra?
7roXei9 aTToXXvaOat, [lev VTTO rwv SiacnrcovTcov
TO KOLVOV, av^eaOai Be UTT' a\\?]\cov, 6rai> o\ov
OS /jLeyd\ov /ji



XXV. 'Opwv 8e TOU? apiGTOVs rwv TT/OOCTOI-
KCOV avrovo^ov/jievovs, 'Aipyeiots Be $ov\6vovaii>
a^do/jievo^j 7T/3ov\V6v dv\iv rov rvpavvov
CLVTWV \\pia TO f^.a^ov, a/jia rfj re vroXet
TTJV e\ev6epiav aTroSovvai (friXoTifio

2 rot? 'A^aiot? 7rpQ(TKOjjii(Tai. TTJV TTO\IV. ol fj,ev ovv
ToXyu-coi^re? evpWr^crav, a>v A/<r^;uXo? TrpoeicrTrjKei
KOI Xayoi/ie'^T;? 6 fjiavris' i<j)rj Be ovrc el^ov, aXX'
cLTreiprjTo KKTrj&0ai Kal ty^iai fjiejd\,at rot? KeKT7]-
likvois 7rri<jav vrro rov rvpavvov. /caracr/ceuacra?
ovv 6 "Aparos avrois (v KopivOco (JLiKpa

eveppa^rev et9 tray par a' Kal ravra
^vyiOLS <TKvr) nva Trapr}/jL6\r)/neva Ko

3 et? "A/3yo? rtTTfcrretXe. Xapi/Aevous &e rov fjid
7rpoo-\a/36vros errl rrjv rrpa^iv civffpwrrov, ol rrepl
rov PCia"%v\ov rjyavaKTrjcrav Kal St' eavrwv ercpar-
rov, rov Hapiimevovs Karayvovres. aio~6ofjievos
Be eKtlvos opyr) Kar/jii]vvo~e rou9 avSpas ?';S>7

errl rov rvpavvov' MV ol rr\eicrroi
e' dyopas drre<pvyov Kal
9 Kopivftov.



1 Cf. chap. iii. 1.
56



ARATUS xxiv. 5~xxv. 3

that the Greek states which were weak would be
preserved by mutual support when once they had
been bound as it were by the common interest, and
that just as the members of the body have a common
life and breath because they cleave together in a
common growth, but when they are drawn apart
and become separate they wither away and decay,
in like manner the several states are ruined by those
who dissever their common bonds, but are augmented
by mutual support, when they become parts of a
great whole and enjoy a common foresight.

XXV. And so, since he saw that the best of the
neighbouring peoples were autonomous, and was
distressed at the servitude of the Argives, he plotted
to kill Aristomachus the tyrant of Argos, being
ambitious to restore its freedom to the city as a re-
ward for the rearing it had given him, 1 as well as to
attach it to the Achaean League. Accordingly, men
were found to dare the deed, of whom Aeschylus
and Charimenes the seer were the chief. They had
no swords, however, the tyrant having prohibited the
possession of them under heavy penalties. Aratus,
therefore, ordered small daggers to be made for them
in Corinth and sewed them up in pack-saddles ; these
he put upon beasts of burden carrying ordinary wares
and sent them into Argos. But Charimenes the seer
took on a partner in the enterprise, at which Aeschy-
lus and his friends were incensed and proceeded to
act on their own account, ignoring Charimenes.
When Charimenes was aware of this, he was angry
and informed against the men just as they were
setting out to attack the tyrant ; most of them,
however, succeeded in escaping from the market-
place and fled to Corinth.

VOL. xi. r 57



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Ou fjirjv a\\a %pbvov /3pa%eos Bie\06vTos d-rro-

VTTO BoV\(DV ' AplO'TO^a^OS, L'TTO-

\afjif3dvei, Be Trfv dp%f)

? eiceivov Tvpavvos. ocroi, Brj
ev r)\iKia Trapovres erv^ov,
dva\a/3wv 6 "Aparo? /3oij6ei TT/DO? Tr]
o^ea)?, olonevos eupijcreiv ra rcov 'Apyelatv irpo-
5






avTov, av6%(jL>pr)crv eyic\y]fAa

a>5 ev ip)]vy 7ro\.e/jLOv e^evrjvo^oa't.

7rl TOVTO) Trapd MavTivevcriv, TJV 1039

' ' A ' ?A '

7rapovTO<> J\pLO"TLTnro^ eu\.e CICOKCOV
(j Kal fxvwv Ti/jL)'j0tj TpiaKovTa. TOV Be "ApaToi*
avTov a/j,a Kal /jaawv Kal BeBoiKcos 7re/3ov\vev
dve\elv avvepyouvTOs AvTiyovov TOV
il iravTa^ov <T%eBov rjcrav 01 TOVTO

Kal KaipOV 7TLTr)pOVVT^.

1 AXX' ov$i> oiov d\r)6ivi) Kal y9ey5aio? evvoca
(f)V\aKTrjpiov dvBpbs dp^ovTos. OTav ydp eOiaOa)-

(TiV Oi T 7TO\\OL K.CLI OL BwaTol fAT) TOV T)yoV/JL6l'OV,

aXX' vTrep TOV T)yov/j,evov BeBievai, 7ro\\ois
o/jifA,ao~iv opa, Bid TroXXwy Be a)TO)v aKovei,
TrpoaiaOdveTai TCL yivb^eva. Bib Kal /3ov\o/j,ai
TOV \oyov fc'TricrTJJcra? evTavOd TTOV Bie^e\0elv

TTCpl T?}? 'AplCTTLTTTrOV BldLTrjS, TjV 1] ^rj\OTVTTOV-

/jievij Tvpavvls avTw Kal 6 r?;? /xa/ta/oia? Kal
7Tpi{3oy)TOu /jLovap^ias oyKos

XXVI. 'Eifcelvos ydp \\vTiyovov

58



ARATUS xxv. 4-xxvi. i

Nevertheless, after a little while Aristomachus was
killed by slaves, and Aristippus, a more pernicious
tyrant than he, soon succeeded in seizing the power.
Aratus at once took all the Achaeans of military age
who were at hand and went swiftly to the aid of the

w

city, supposing that he would be welcomed by the
Argives. But since most of them were by this time
habituated to slavery and willing to endure it, so
that not a man came over to his side, he retired,
after involving the Achaeans in the charge of having
gone to \var in time of peace. They were prosecuted
on this charge before the Mantineans, and in the
absence of Aratus, Aristippus as plaintiff won his
case and was awarded damages to the amount of
thirty minas. 1 Aratus himself the tyrant both hated
and feared, and so laid plots to kill him with the
assistance of Antigonus the king ; and almost every-
where there were men who undertook this deed for
them and watched for an opportunity.

But there is no safeguard for a ruler like a sincere
and steadfast goodwill on the part of the ruled. For
when both the common people and the leading men
are afraid, not of their leader, but for their leader,
he sees with many eyes, hears with many ears, and
so perceives betimes what is going on. Therefore I
wish to stop my story at this point, in order to
describe the life that Aristippus led. This was laid
upon him by his office of tyrant, so envied of men,
and by the pride and pomp of monarchy, which men
celebrate and call blessed.

XXVI. For though he had Antigonus as ally, and

1 Half a talent, equivalent to about 1 18, or 600, a merely
nominal fine. Mantineia acted as arbitrator, perhaps by
special agreement.

59



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



, Tpe<p<jL)v ce TTO\\OV^ eveica TT}? TOV
cra>/z,aTO9 acr(/>aXeta?, ovBeva Be ev TTJ Tro\et

TWV e^OpSiV VTTO\\Ol7r(t)S, TOU? fJ.V Bo-



KOI <u,atfa? ea> TT-aeae/v etce-



2 \euev ev TW 7rpt,crrv\.w, TOU? ce oiKeras, OTTOT
&i7rvtjcrai, TCU^KTTCL Trdvras ej~e\avvctiv KOL Trjv

fjiTaV\OV (JLTTOKXeLCOV /JL6TCL TT}? p(i)/JLl]<$ aUTO?

oiKrj/j.a Kareovero fjuicpov virepwov, 6vpa

Tj K\LO/jLl>OV' T}? VTTepaVO) J^V K\iV1]V

l^ eicdOev^ev, &)? etVo? KaBev&eiv TOV OUTW?

3 %ovTa, Tapa%a)Bws KOI 7re/3f^>oy9&>?. TO Se K\I-
fjidfCLOv rf T?}? epwfj,evr)s p.r)rrjp v^aipovaa /care-
K\eiev et? GTepov oitcrj/jLa, ical tiaKiv a/u,' rj/^epa
TrpoaeriOei KOI Kare/cdXei TOV OCLV^CKJTOV Tvpav-

VOVy WCTTTep epTTCTOV K (f)(D\6OV

6 be ot% OTrXoi? KCLTCL /3iav, v6/j.a> > LTT' d
uKaTaTravaTov dp%rji> Tr6pi7r7roir]/j.evos, ev

KOI %\ajjLvBl(i) TW TV^OVTL, TWV TTfOTTOTe TVpUVVWV

Kotvbs dTToSe&eiyfAevos e-^Opo^, ci^pt rr}? rrj/^epov
7//upa? yevos evBoKi/j,u>TaTOv diroXeXoiTTev ev rot?

4 "EtXXrjcriv. e/ceivcov be TCOV ra? arcpas KCLTCL-
\a/jL/3av6vTO)v Kal TOU? Bopvcfropov?

KOL ra 6VXa /cat ra<? vr^Xa? /cat TOL/?
7rpo/3a\\ojiiva)v vrrep T% roO cjoo/zaro? dcrcfra-
Xeta? oXt^yot TOI^ e/t ?rX^7>}? Odvarov, wcnrep ol



ot/co?



ptvqfj,r)v ovSevbs XeXeiTrrat-
XXVII. TI/3O? 8' ovv rot' 'ApiaTiTTTTov o " A pa-
TO? Acai tcpixpa 7ro\\dKis Kal (fravepws rrpoa -
errTaicrev 7ri^ipt]aa^ rcaTa\a/j,/3dveiv TO "Apyo?.
Be /cXt/^a/ca? rrpocrOels /xer' b\i<yu>v ejrl TO
dveftij 7rapa/36\o)<>, Kal rou? ^o

60



ARATUS xxvi. i -xxvii. i

kept many guards to protect his person, and had left
no single enemy alive in the city.? yet he would order
his spearmen and guards to bivouac outside in the
colonnade ; and as for his servants, as soon as supper
was over he would drive them all out. Then he
would lock the doors of the inner house, and betake
himself with his mistress to a little upper room,
which was closed by a trap-door ; on this door he
would place his couch and sleep, as one in his state
of mind would naturally sleep, by fits and starts and
in great fear. The ladder the mother of his mistress
would take away and lock up in another room, and
in the morning would put it in place again and call
the wonderful tyrant, who would come down like a
creeping thing out of its hole. Aratus, on the other
hand, not by force of arms, but legally and in con-
sequence of his virtues, had invested himself with an
enduring power, and yet went about in ordinary tunic
and cloak ; he declared himself a public foe of any
and every tyrant ; and he left behind him a posterity
of the highest repute among the Greeks down to
this day. 1 But of the men who seize citadels, main-
tain spearmen, and depend upon arms and gates and
trap-doors for the safety of their persons, only a
few, like timorous hares, have escaped a violent
death ; while not one of them has left a house, or a
family, or a tomb to keep his memory in honour.

XXVII. Against Aristippus, then, and in trying
to seize Argos, Aratus made many open and secret
attempts in vain. Once he set up scaling-ladders,
at great hazard got upon the wall Avith a few
followers, and killed the sentries that defended the

1 Cf. chap. liv. ad Jin.

61






PLUTARCH'S LIVES

2 evTavOa TWV fyvkoucwv drreKTeivev- elra

eTTL$>aveia"r)<s real TOV Tvpdvvov TravTa^oOev avT<a



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