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XXXIV. When Antigonus died and Demetrius
succeeded to the throne, 1 Aratus was all the more
bent upon getting Athens, and wholly despised the
Macedonians. And so, after he had been overcome
in a battle at Phylacia by Bithys the general of
Demetrius, and reports were rife, one that he had
been captured, and another that he was dead, Dio-
genes, the guardian of the Peimeus, sent a letter to

77



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

KopivOov ej;icrracr0ai TT}? TroXeaK rceXevwv TOV?
u?, erretBjj "A/saro? drreOavev erv%e e TCOZ;

rrap&v at>ro? eV K.opivO&,
real Biarpi/3r)V oi rov Aioyevovs teal ye\wra rro\vv

e 6



e/c Ma^ec5owa5 i^auz^ eTrefvfyev, efi 77?
3 7T/?o? avTOv 6 "Ayoaro? SeSe/jLeros. iracrav Be



fcov<p6rr)-a KO\aKetas T?}? TT/^O? Ma/teSo-
v7rep/3d\\ovT<; earet^avq^opricrav ore Trpwrov
T0vr)Kcos. Sib /cal TT^OO? 6pyr)v evffvs IK-



Trpor)\6ev elra Treta-Qels ovbev ffBi

Ot Se ' XO^valoi av^povrjcravTe^ avrov rrjv ape-
rrfv, eVet &TI /j.r)T piov reXevrrjcravTOS Mp/jirfcrav eVl

4 TT)^ eXevOepiav, e/celvov ercaKovv. 6 e', Kaiirep ere-
pov fjiev apy^ovros rore rwv 'A^atcoz/, atro?
dppcoaria pa/cpa K\ivijpijs vrrdp^wv, o'/zw? eV
<f)Opei(p KOfja^ofJievo^ vrr^vrrjcre rfj rro\ei TT/OO? T^I/
Xpeiavy KCL\ rov errl r^? (frpovpds Aioyevrj (rvverreL-
<TV aTToSovvai rov re Tleipaid KCLI rrjv Movvvyiay
Kal rrjv ^d\a/jLLva real TO JLovviov T0i9 'Aflrjvaiois
errl rrevrijrcovra real ercarov ra\dvroi<$, wv avrbs o

5 "Aparos eircoo-i rf) rro\et, <TVveftd\ero. rrpoo-e^a)-

S' euOvs Alyiv^rai real 'Ep/i.iovsis rot?
, r) re 7r\eiarrj T^? 'ApfcaSias auro?? crvv-
ere\ei. real ^'lareeo'ovajv /i,ev da"^6\ayv ovrayv Bid

TlVa<$ TTpOGOiKOVS KOi OfJ-OpOVS TToXe/XOf?, AiTW-

Be



73



ARATUS xxxiv. 2-5

Corinth ordering the Achaeans to quit the city, since
Aratus had been killed ; but when the letter arrived
at Corinth, Aratus chanced to be there in person,
and so the messengers of Diogenes, after furnishing
much diversion and laughter, went away. Moreover,
the king himself sent a ship from Macedonia, on
which Aratus was to be brought to him in chains.
And the Athenians, carrying their flattery of the
Macedonians to the highest pitch of levity, crowned
themselves with garlands as soon as they heard that
Aratus was dead. Therefore he was wroth, and at
once made an expedition against them, and advanced
as far as the Academy ; then he listened to their
entreaties and did them no harm.

So the Athenians came to recognize the excellence
of his character, and when, upon the death of
Demetrius, 1 they set out to regain their freedom,
they called upon him. Then Aratus, although
another was at that time general of the Achaeans,
and he himself was confined to his bed by a long
sickness, nevertheless was carried in a litter to help
the city in its time of need, and joined in persuading
Diogenes, the commander of the garrison, to give up
the Peiraeus, Munychia, Salamis, and Sunium to the
Athenians for a hundred and fifty talents, twenty of
which Aratus contributed himself. Moreover, Aegina
and Hermione at once came over to the Achaeans,
and the greater part of Arcadia joined their league.
And since the Macedonians were busy with certain
neighbouring and adjacent wars, and the Aetolians
were in alliance with the Achaeans, the power of
the Achaean League was greatly increased.

1 In 229 B.C. He was succeeded by Antigonus Doson, who
reigned nine years,

79



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

XXXV. 'O Be "Aparos ei;pya%6/j,vo<i rrjv rfa-
\aidv vTToOecnv, teal Bvcravacr^erfov rrjv ev "Apyei
rvpavviBa yeirvtwcrav avrols, 7rei6e Tre/ATrwv rov
'Apiar6fj,a%ov et9 fjLtcrov Oeivai fcal rrpoaayayelv
Tot9 'A^afofc rrjv TToXiv, KOI rj\o)(T avi a AvSidSiiv
eOvovs rrj\LKOvrov y^er' ev$rif.ua<$ /cal TI/JLT/S arpa-
Trjyov elvai /JLO\\OV rj [nias TroXeo)? teivSwevovra
2 icai fJLicrovfJLevov rvpavvov. vTraKovaavTos be rov
'ApKTTOfjidxov KCU K\ev(rainos
ToKavTa Trejjityai TOV "Aparov, OTTO)? a
KOL Bta\vcrr)Tai, rou? Trap* avry



real rwv prj/Adrayv Troi^oiJievwv, o AvBid8^ en



/cal <^L\OTifjiov^vo^ iSiov avrov TTO\I-
TOVTO 7T/909 rot/? 'A^aioi/9 yevecrOai, rov
'Apdrov /car^yopei jrpos 'Apicrro/jLaxov a>9
ffal aSfaX,XaT6)9 del Trpbs rovs rvpdv-
e-%ovro<s, avrw 5e Treiaas rrjv -npafyv CTTL-
ai Trpocrijyaye rot9 'A%aiot9 rov avOpwrcov.

3 ev6a Brj fj,d\L(rra fyavepav TToir)(Tav ol avveBpot
TWV 'Axaiwv rr]v Trpos rov "Aparov evvoiav /cal
TTiariv. dvreiTrovros fiev yap avrov Bi' opyrjv
amf)Ka<jav TOU9 Trepl rbv Apiar6/jLa%ov eVel &t
<TV/j.TTi(T0el^ rcd\iv ai)ro9 ijp^aro Trepl avrwv $c,a-
\eyea0ai Trapwv, irdvra ra^ea)9 /cal rrpoOv/jLUis

, fcal TrpoaeBe^avro /j,ev rovs 'Apyeuovs
et9 rrjv rro\ireiav, ei'iavrto Be
v&repov fcal rbv ^Apifrro/jLa^ov ei\ovro (Trparrjyov.

4 O Be evijfiepwv Trapd rot9 'A^atot9 /cal /3ov\o-
/zez/09 6i9 T'V AaKwvLKrjv e/jftaXelv etcd\ei rbv

Aparov e% 'Afljjv&v. 6 Be eypacfre /j,ev avra> rrjv
ffrpareiav arrayopevwv /cal 1 T&> IvXeo/ueVet Opdcros

1 no., bracketed by Sint, 3
80



ARATUS xxxv. 1-4

XXXV. And now Aratus, seeking to effect his
long-standing purpose, and impatient of the tyranny
so near the Achaeans in Argos, sent messengers and
tried to persuade Aristomachus to give his city free-
dom and attach it to the Achaean League, urging
him to imitate Lydiades and be general of so great
a nation with praise and honour, rather than tyrant
of a single city with peril and hatred. Aristomachus
consented, and told Aratus to send him fifty talents,
in order that he might disband and send away the
soldiers under him, and the money was being pro-
vided. Upon this, Lyd iades, who was still general
and had an ambition that the Achaeans should regard
this transaction as his own work, denounced Aratus
to Aristomachus as a man who had always been an
implacable enemy of tyrants, and after persuading
Aristomachus to entrust the matter to himself,
brought him before the Achaean council. Then
the members of the council put into clearest light
their goodwill towards Aratus and their confidence
in him. For when he angrily opposed the project,
they drove Aristomachus away ; but when he had
been won over again, and came before them in
person, and began to argue for the project, they
speedily and readily adopted all his proposals,
admitted Argos and Phlius into the league, and a
year later l actually choose Aristomachus general.

Aristomachus, then, being in high favour with the
Achaeans, and wishing to invade Laconia, summoned
Aratus from Athens. Aratus wrote him a letter in
which he tried to dissuade him from the expedition,
and expressed unwillingness to involve the Achaeans
in hostilities with Cleomenes, who was daring and

1 In 227 B.C.

Si



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

fcal 7rapa/36\a)S avl;avo/jLvrt)

TOi/9 'Amatol/? fJirj j3ov\6tJLVos, wpfJLrjfjievov e irdv-
5 TW? VTrr/Kovae Kal irapow crvvecrTpaTevev. ore Brj
Kal K0)\vcras Trepl TO Ha\\dvriov TOV KXeo-

aurot? pd^rjv avvd^lrai TOV



Trepl TT}? arparrjyia<; et? d<ywva KOI dj'TiTrapay-
yeXiav avrw /caTa<rrd<f efcpdrTjcre rfj
/cai TO SciiSefcarov rje



XXXVI. 'Er ravrrj rfj crrparijyia Trepl TO
Av/caiov rjTTrjQels VTTO TOV KXeo/ze^ou? efyvye- /cal 1044
Tr\avr)0el<> VVKTOS eBo^e /mev TeOvdvai Kal TCCL\IV
ovro? o Xoyo? /car' avTov TroXu? e
rou? ''EXX^^^a?* dva(Ta>0el<; Se al TOI)?



ra.9 (Tvva r yaywv OVK

aptcrra TW Kcupw ^p^crdfjievo^ ovSevbs Trpoa'-



TO
TrTT(Te WavTivevcri crvj,jLd'ois overt TOV



^P TTO\.IV e\w

rot)? peTOiKOvs 7roXtra9 eVot^cre^ CLVTWV, KOI
a viK&VTes OVK av paSitos <ryo v ^

rot? 'A^cuot?.

3 Av0is Be TCOV KaKe^aL/JiovLwv eVl
TTO\IV <7TpaTvadvTcov /3o)i0/]<ras wicve

TO) KXeo/jievei \a/3>/v Trapaa^elv



rot? eyaOTroi,Tais ia O/LIVOI$ vTe^cv, oi>T
aXXw? TT/OO? ra? KCLTO, crro/^a ^r/^a? ez> ire<^VKu>^
Kal Tore \6tTr6fjLev6s T iT\r/0(, Kal Trpo? civopa
TO\/j,rjrr)V Kal vkov ijBij Trapafc/jid^ovn TM Ovfifa
l KKO\ao~fAvr) TT) <f)i\OTi /Aid crvvecrTriKws, KOL



1 See the Cleo>ttcne*, iv. 3-4.

2 226 B.C. Cf. the Clcomenes, v, 8 Cf. the Clcomencs, vi.

82



ARATUS xxxv. 4-xxxvi. 3

growing marvellously in power ; but, since Aristo-
machus was altogether insistent, Aratus obeyed
orders and accompanied the expedition in person.
It was at this time that he prevented Aristomachus
from joining battle when Cleomenes came upon them
at Pallantium, 1 and was denounced therefore by
Lydiades, with whom he came into contest and
competition for the office of general, winning the
vote and being chosen general for the twelfth time.

XXXVI. In the campaign of this year 2 he was
defeated by Cleomenes near Mount Lycaeum, and
took to flight ; and, since he lost his way in the
night, he was thought to be dead, and once more
a story to this effect had wide currency among the
Greeks. But he escaped alive and rallied his soldiers,
and then was not content to come off safely, but
making the best use of his opportunity, when no
one expected or had any idea of what was to happen,
he suddenly made an assault upon Mantineia, which
was in alliance with Cleomenes ; and having taken
the city, he set a garrison there, and made its alien
residents full citizens, thus acquiring single-handed
for the conquered Achaeans what they could not
easily have obtained as conquerors.

And again, when the Lacedaemonians made an
expedition against Megalopolis, 3 he went to the aid
of the city, but was loth to give Cleomenes a chance
for the hand-to-hand righting which he desired, and
resisted the importunities of the Megalopolitans.
For he was never at any time well fitted by nature
for set battles, and at this time in particular he was
inferior in numbers, and was matched against a man
who was young and daring, while his own courage
was past its prime, and his ambition chastened. He



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



fjv Sid TOV ToXpav eKeivos e ov% vTrap-

6KTO.TO Bot^CtV dVTfp KKTrjfjiVW (f)V\aKTOl'

elvai Sid TT}? euXa/rfeia?.

XXXVII. Ov fJLrjv d\\d TCOV fyi\wv efcSpa/Jiov-
Twv KOL c&a-a/jievwv rou? ^Trapridra^ a^pi TOV
o-rpcnoTrebov KCU Trepl 7a? (TK^va^ Stao-Trapevrayv,
o fjL6V "Ayoaro? ouS' &)? eTnjyayev, a\V eV /Aecra)
Xa/3a>z> %apdSpav eTrecrr^cre ^al KareKcoXucre Bta-
rovs OTrXtra?* o Se AuStaSi;? TrepnraOwv
ra yiyvofjieva KOL TOV "Aparov xa/cifav

TOU? tTTTrei? co? avrov, d^twv e
vai rot? SiwKovo'i /cal fj,rj TrpoecrOai TO
^tjSe eyKara\L7relv avrov vTrep T?}? TrarpiSot dyw-

2 VL^O/jLGVOV. TTOXXWI/ & (TVCTT pa<pei>T(i)V Kdi d

Owv eTrippaxrOels evejSa\e TOO Se^iy rcov
l rpeifrd/jievos eBico/cev, viro OV/AOU KOL

dra/jbievTcos eirLO'TracrOel^ et? ^copia <rKo\id
l fjieard SevSpwv Trecfrvrev/jievMv KOL
7r\areta)v t ev ol? 7ri0p,evov TOV KXeoytte^
\a/jL7rpa)s dycovicrdfjLei'OS TOV /cd\\icrTov TCOV dyw-
3 vwv errl Ovpats T^? TraTptSo?. ol S' aXXot 0eu-
et? T^V (f)d\ayya Kal crvvrapd^avTes TOL>?
TO arpdrev/jLa T/}? ^TT^? everc\t]a-av.
aiTiav Se /j,yd\r)v 6 ''ApaTO? eXa/Se So^a? rrpoe-
TOV AvSidSijv Kal ftia&Qels VTTO TWV ^

TT/OO? opyrjv rfKoXovOrjaev avrols
Aiyiov. Ki Se crvi>e\06vT<$ e-^rrj^La-avTo /U.T) -
Soz^at %p/]/jLaTa avTto ^Se /J,ia6o(j)6pov<; Tpe<petv,
aXX' a^Tfo iropi&ip, el SCCITO iTQ\jj,iv.
84



ARATUS xxxvi. 3~xxxvii. 3

also thought that the glory which his adversary was
trying to acquire by his daring and did not possess,
had already been acquired by himself and must be
preserved by his caution.

XXXVII. Nevertheless, his light infantry once
made a sally, drove the Spartans as far as to their
camp, and were scattered about among the tents.
Aratus, however, would not even then lead up his
men, but putting a ravine between himself and the
enemy, halted there, and would not suffer his meii-
at-arms to cross it. Then Lydiades, distressed at
what was going on, and loading Aratus with re-
proaches, called his horsemen to him and exhorted
them to go to the help of the pursuers, and not to
let the victory slip out of their hands nor leave in the
lurch a commander who was fighting in behalf of his
native city. Many brave men gathering at his call,
he was emboldened to charge upon the right wing
of the enemy, which he routed and pursued. But
his ardour and ambition robbed him of discretion,
and he was drawn on into places that were intricate
and full of planted trees and broad trenches. Here
Cleomenes attacked him and he fell, after a brilliant
and most honourable combat at the gates of his
native city. The rest of his men fled to their main
line, threw the men-at-arms into confusion, and thus
infected the whole army with their defeat. Aratus
was severely blamed for this, being thought to have
betrayed Lydiades ; and when the Achaeans left the
field in anger, they forced him to accompany them
to Aegium. Here they held an assembly, and voted
not to give him money and not to maintain mer-
cenaries for him ; if he wanted to wage war, he must
provide the means himself.

85



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

XXXVIII. OUTGO Be 7rp07rrj\aKicr6el<f eftov\ev-
craro /lev evOvs drro9ecr6aL rr)V acfrpayiba Kal TIJV
d(j)6lrai, \oyia~/jtq) Be %pr)(rd/jievo<> rore
v7refjLive, KOI rrpos 'Op^o/jievov e^ayaywv roi>9
eOero TT/JO? Meyicrrovovv rov



Trarproov, ev f) Kparrjcras

fJLei> TTKTLV, ^WVTCt TOV ^lejlCTTOVOVV JVV-



2 i\aftev. eico^a)9 Se arparijyeLi' irap eviavrov,
(09 77 ra^t? avTW 7repir)\0e } Ka\ov/j.evo<> e^w/Jio-
craro, teal Ttyao^et'o? ypedrj arr parity 6s. eSo/cei Be
r] nev ?rpo? TOi/9 0^X01/5 opyt) 7rpo(pacri^ eivai
\eyo/jievr) TT}? e'^w/zocrta? cnrLOavos, atria 3'

6?^9 ra TrepieGTwra TOVS 'A^a^ou?, ov/ceP a>?
repov arpe/^a teal a"%e8r)v rov KXeo/JLevovs e
VOVTOS ovS* [j,7r\KOfj.evov rat? 7ro\iTifcais d

3 aXA,' eVet TOU? e<^6pou? cnroKTeivas teal rrjv
ava^aa'dp.evo^ teal TroXXou? rw^ /Aeroitcwv fj,/3a-
\a)v et? rr/t' 7ro\iT6Lav

ei)6vs emtceifievov rot?

eavrov afyovvTQS. Bib Kal ae/j-^ovrai rov "Apa-
rov ev craXa) /jieyaXto Kal %eiiJiwvi rwv rrpay/jLurayv
(pepofievcov Marrep Kvfiepvijrijv d(f>ei>ra teal Trpoe- 1045
aevov erepw rovs ota/ca?, ore /aiXco? el^e Kal O.KQV-

4 rwv emaravra cr(t)%iv TO icoivbi 1 ' el o'
ra rrpdyfj.ara Kal rrjv Bvvafuv rwv '
TO) K/-.oa^et, al yttr/ rrd\iv

ex/Bap ftapMaai (frpovpals MaKeBovcov, fir)Be 7T\rjpo)-
aai rov 'AKpoKopivQov ^lX\vpiKcov O7r\a)i> Kal
TaXariKwv, /j,r]Be 01)9 ai)ro9 ev rat9 rrpd^effi Kara-



1 Cf. the Cleomenes, xv. 1.

2 For the year 224 B c.

8 Cf. the Cleomcnes, viii., xi.

86



ARATUS xxxvin. 1-4

XXXVIII. Smarting under this insult, he resolved
to give up his seal at once, and resign the office of
general, but upon reflection he held on for the
present, and after leading the Achaeans forth to
Orchomenus, fought a battle there with Megistonoiis,
the stepfather of Cleomenes, in which he got the
upper hand, killing three hundred of the enemy and
taking Megistonoiis prisoner. But when, accustomed
as he was to be general every other year, his turn
came round again and he was invited to take the
office, he formally declined, 1 and Timoxenus was
chosen general. 2 Now the grounds usually given
for this refusal of Aratus, namely, his anger at the
people, were not thought to be convincing, and
the real reason for it was the situation of the
Achaeans. For the invasions of Cleomenes were no
longer quiet and restrained, as formerly, nor was he
fettered by the civil authorities, but after he had
killed the ephors, divided up the land, advanced
many resident aliens to the citizenship, and thus got
an irresponsible power, 3 he immediately pressed the
Achaeans hard, and demanded the supreme leader-
ship for himself. And therefore men blame Aratus,
because, when the ship of state was driving in a
great surge and storm, he forsook the pilot's helm
and left it to another, although it had been well,
even if the people were unwilling, to remain at their
head and save them ; and if he despaired of the
government and power of the Achaeans, he ought
to have yielded to Cleomenes, and not to have made
Peloponnesus quite barbarous again under Mace-
donian garrisons, nor to have filled Acrocorinthus
with Illyrian and Gallic arms., nor, in the case of

8?



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

fcai Kara7ro\iTv6fj.ei>o^, ev oe rot?
\oiSopwv BiereXei, TOUTOU? eTrdye^Oai
ecr7roTa? rat? TToXecr/ av^payovs vrroKOpi^o^evov.
5 el >e KXeo/^eV??? ty, \eyea-0w yap OUTCO?, irapdvo-
/AO? /cat rvpavviKos, XX' 'H/oa/cXetSat Trarepe?
aurw /eat 5/7ra/3Tr? 7rar/9L9, //? roy afyavecnaTov
a^tov avr\ TOV Trpa>TOV MatceSovwv i}y/ji6va Trotel-

(



evyeveiav. KCLLTOI K^eopevr)? rei TTJV

Trapa TMV 'A%aicov co? iro\\a Troirjdwv ay ad a ra?

TroXei? aim TT}? Tt/^r}? /cat TT}? TTpoffTjyopias

6 'A^Tt7Oz/o? Se /cat Kara 7771; /cal /cara O
avroKpdrwp ijye/jicov dvayopevOels ov% v
irpiv TOV aia-Obp av-rw TT)? rjye/AOvias oa

vai TOV 'A/cpOfcopLvdov, are^w? TOV AtVwTrou
fj,T]crd/j.evos rcvvrjyov. ov yap TTpOTepov 7re{3r)
'A^aiot? SeofteVot? /eal vTroftaXXoveiv avrovs Bia
rwv [email protected],Mv /cat raw -^ni^Lff^aTwv r; r^ (frpovpfi
/cat rot? ofjLrjpois wcrrrep %aXt^ouyLteVou? ai/ao-%6-

7 <7^at. KaiTOL TTcicrav o "Aparos d^irjcri (frwvrjv drro-
\oyi%6uvos rrjv dvdyfcrjv. 6 Tio\v/3io<; Be avrov
e/c TroXXoO (pija-L /cal rrpo T?)? dvdy/CTjs v$opa)fj,e-
vov TO Opdcros TO TOV KXeoyuevou? tcpvfya T&
'AvTiyovw &ia\eyea-8ai, /cat TOU? M67aXo7roXtTa?

Seopevovs *A^atco^ eVt/caXeto-^at

OVTOL yap eVte^ovro TO>
ve%w? ayovTOS avTovs /cat

8 roO KXeo^evou?. o^ota)? e /cat 4>uXa/o^o? t



1 Histories, ii. 47, 4ff.
88



ARATUS xxxvin. 4-8

men whom he was always defeating in the fields of
war and statesmanship and abusing in the pages
of his Commentaries, to have made these men lords
over the cities under the endearing name of allies.
And if Cleomenes was, as must be granted, lawless
and arbitrary, still, Heracleidae were his ancestors,
and Sparta was his native land, the meanest citizen
of which was more worthy than the foremost Mace-
donian to be made their leader by those who had
any regard for Greek nobility of birth. And yet
Cleomenes asked the Achaeans for the office, with
the promise that he would confer many benefits
upon their cities in return for that honour and its
title, whereas Antigonus, although he was proclaimed
leader with full powers by land and sea, would not
accept the office until Acrocorinthus had been
promised him as the pay for his leadership. In this
he acted just like Aesop's hunter. For he would not
mount the Achaeans, although they prayed him to
do so and presented their backs to him by way of
embassies and decrees, until they consented to wear
the bit and bridle of the garrison they received and
the hostages they gave. And yet Aratus says every-
thing that he can say in explaining the necessity
that was upon him. Polybius, however, says l that
for a long time, and before the necessity arose,
Aratus mistrusted the daring temper of Cleomenes
and made secret overtures to Antigonus, besides
putting the Megalopolitans forward to beg the
Achaeans to call in Antigonus. For the Megalo-
politans were most oppressed by the war, since
Cleomenes was continually plundering their territory.
A similar account of these matters is given by
Phylarchus also, in whom, but for the testimony of

VOL. xi. D 89



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

7Tpl TOVTWV, W fJLr] TOV YIo\V/3iOV

TO? ov Trdvv TL TricrTeveiv d^iov r)v. evQov&ia yap
orav a-v/rr/rat TOV KAeo/zeVou?, L/TT' evvoias, teal
KaOd-rrep ev BLK?) TTJ icrTopia TW JJLCV d



XXXIX. 'A7re/9aXoz/ 3' ovv ol 'A
Mavriveiav, ird\iv eXoz^rc? avrrjv TOV KXeo/^e-
vovs, real paxy p>yd\p Trepl TO '^Karo^aiov
OVTM KaT67r\dyr)o-av w&Te irepsrfeiv



TOV



. 6 &e "Aparo? a>? ycreTO a^ovTa Ka
l Aepvav mna /^era T% ^vvdjJLew^, (pofiijOels
aTrecrreXXe Trped/Beis rou? a^iovvras a>? Trapd
real (TVfjL^jid'^ov^ avTov tf/ceiv /tera Tpi-
, el Be aTTfcrret, \aftelv 6/jujpov<$. raOra
elvai Kal ^Xeuacr//oz^ avTov (frrfa-as 6

rot?



TO



3 /cal ^/a/9oXa? e^ovcrav. eypafye Be K<iKelvo<s eiri-
crroXa? KaTa TOV KXeoyueVou? 1 Aral
\oiSopiai Kal /3Xacr(77/uat ^XP 1
yvvaiKwv r/XX^Xou? /ca/tw? \ey6vTcov.

'E: TOVTOV Kijpv/ea jre^ras 6
TToXe/xoi' TrpoepovvTa Tot? 'A^atot?, fjLiKpov
e\a6e TIJV ^iKVcovLtav TTO\LV dpTrdaas Bid
crias, eyyvOev 1 Se aTTOTpaTrels Tle\\qvrj 7Tpoo~/3a-
Xe :al roO crTpaTrjyov TWV 'A^atwi^
ecr^e r^ Tr6\iv. o\L<yw be vo~Tepov

4 eXa/9e Aral ITe^TeXe^o^. elr' evOvs 'Apyeioi, Trpoa-
sywpriGav avTu> Kal OXmcr^ot fypovpdv e&ei

Kal 6'Xft)? ov&ev CTI TWV eTTLKT^TWV fieftaiov

1 fyyv6ev Bekker reads tKtWev, with the AMine.
90



ARATUS xxxvin. 8-xxxix. 4

Polybius, one should not put entire credence. For
goodwill makes his every mention of Cleomenes
ecstatic., and as if he were pleading in a court of
law, he is for ever accusing Aratus in his history,
and defending Cleomenes.

XXXIX. So, then, the Achaeans lost Mantineia,
which was taken again by Cleomenes, and after
being defeated in a great battle at Hecatombaeum
they were so dismayed that they sent at once and
invited Cleomenes to come to Argos and assume the
leadership. But Aratus, when he learned that
Cleomenes was on the way and at Lerna with his
forces, feared the issue, and sent an embassy to
demand that he should come with three hundred
men only, as to friends and allies, and that if he was
distrustful, he should accept hostages. Cleomenes
declared that he was insulted and mocked by this
demand, and retired with his army, after writing a
letter to the Achaeans which was full of bitter accu-
sations against Aratus. Aratus also wrote letters
against Cleomenes; and their mutual abuse and
defamation reached the point of maligning one
another's marriages and wives.

As a result of this, Cleomenes sent a herald to
declare war against the Achaeans, and almost
succeeded in seizing the city of Sicyon with the
help of traitors; he turned aside, however, when
close at hand, and assaulted and took the city of
Pellene, from which the Achaean commander fled.
And not long afterwards he took Pheneus also and
Penteleium. Then Argos went over to his side, and
Phlius received a garrison which he sent. In a word,
not one of their acquisitions longer held firm to the



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



, dXXa dopvftos 770X1)9 dcfrvay TTC/H-
TOV "ApcLTov, opwvTa Trjv HeXoTTovvrjcrov
KpaBaivofjLevrjv KOI ra? TroXet? e^avicrTafieva^ VTTO
TWV vea)TpL^6vTO)v TT avT a^66 ev .

V T'TT ' ^ v 5 V j' > v ^

AL. tiTpe/jLei yap ovbev ovoe eorrepyev CTTL rot?
7rapov(Tiv, a\\a teal ^IKVWVIWV avT&v /ecu }Lopiv- 1046
OLwv eyevovro 7ro\\ol /raTa^a^et? Siei\y/4evoi
TO) KXeo/xei'et Kal iraXai TT/OO? TO KOIVOV ISicov

2 7Tl0VfJLia $VV(l<T'Tl(i)V V7TOV\Ci)<; ^OVT<f. CTTi TOV-

e^ovaiav avvTrevOvvov 6 "Aparo? \a[Ba)V
ev ^IKVWVI &i(f)0apfjivov<; aTretcreive,
ev Kopti/^ft) 7re(/3cu/z6^o9 ava^rj'rtlv /cal
e^rfypiaLve TO 7T\T)0os TJSij voaovv Kal
rrjv VTTO rot? \\^aiol<f 7ro\LTLav.
ovv t? TO TOU 'ATroXXwi'o? iepov

TOV "ApCLTOV, aV\lV Tj ffV\\a/3eiV

3 Trpo T>)? aTTOCTTacreco? eyvwrcoTes. o Be fj/ce /JLCV



TOV LTTTTOV <w? OVK
ov&e VTroTTTevcov, dvaTnfiriadvTWV Be TroXXai^ teal
\oiBopov/nV(i)v avTtp /cal tcaTijyopovvTatv ev TTCO?
fcaOecrTaiTi T) Trpo&coTrw Kal TU> \6yw
K\eve KaOicrai KCU fjurj (Boav CITUKTW^ ec
aXXa Kal TOU? Trepl Ovpas 6Wa<? et'crco Trapievar
Kal TavO* afjia \eyayv vTrefyjei fidBrjv co? irapa-

4 BoMTCOV Tivl TOV 'iTCTCOV. QVTWS Be VTTGfcSvS Kal

Tot? vTravTOMTi Twv K.opiv6ia}v dOopvfiws Bia\e-
Kal KeXevcov TT/OO? TO 'A7ro\\(aviov



errl TOV 'LTTTTOV Kal KAeo7raT/3&> T
T?}? (frpovpCts BiaKeXevo-d/jievos e



With this chapter cf. the Cleomenes, xvii. XLX. 1.
s See chap. xli. 1.



ARATUS xxxix. 4-xL. 4

Achaeans, but a vast confusion suddenly encompassed
Aratus. He saw Peloponnesus shaking, and its cities
everywhere stirred to revolt by restless agitators. 1

XL. For there was no quiet anywhere, and no
contentment with present conditions, but even
among the Sicyonians and Corinthians themselves
there w r ere many who were known to have been in
conference with Cleomenes, men whom a desire for
private domination had long ago led into secret
hostility towards the common interests. For the
punishment of these men Aratus was clothed with
absolute power, 2 and seizing those in Sicyon who
were thus corrupted he put them to death ; but
when he tried to seek out and chastise those in
Corinth, he roused the resentment of the populace
there, which was already disaffected and ill at ease
under the Achaean administration. So they as-
sembled hastily in the temple of Apollo and sent
for Aratus, determined to kill him or seize him, and



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