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nesus ; z and after plundering the territories of
Patrae and Dyme on their way, they invaded
Messenia and ravaged it. At this Aratus was
incensed, and seeing that Timoxenus, who at that
time was general of the Achaeans, was hesitant and
dilatory, since his term of office was just about to
expire, he himself, having been chosen to succeed
Timoxenus, anticipated his term of office by five
days for the sake of giving aid to the Messenians.
And having assembled the Achaeans, who were
physically and mentally unfit for war, he met with
defeat at Caphyae. Then, being thought to have
conducted the campaign with too much ardour, his
purposes were once more blunted and he gave up
the cause and his hopes for lost, so that oftentimes,
when the Aetolians gave him an advantage, he
neglected it, and suffered them to revel, as it were,
in Peloponnesus, with great boldness and wanton-
ness. Once more, therefore, the Achaeans stretched
out their hands imploringly to Macedonia, and
brought Philip down to take part in Hellenic affairs,
above all things because his goodwill towards Aratus

109



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



evvoiav avTOv teal TtiGTiv e\7riovT$ evKo\w 7Tpl
Trdvra ^prjcreaOai Kal %ipor/0i.

XLVIII. Kal Tore irpwTov 'A-yreXXoi) KOI Meya-
\eov Kai TLVWV av\tKwv a\\6)v &La(3a\\6vTU>v
TOV "Aparov avail etc 6 els 6 (3acri\evs, KOL crvv-



rot? CLTTO T/? Gii
TOV? 'A^awous \e<T0ai (TTparrjybv



2 'E,7rrfparov. co? 8' eKeivov /j,ev

VTTO TWV 'A^atwr^, TOV Be 'Apdrou Trap-
TO? eyivero TWV ^pr,(rLfjiwv ov8ei>, eyva)
&iajj.aprdv(t)v TOV Tra^ro? 6 O/XiTTTro?. KOI ava-
/cpovcrdfjievos avOis eVt rbv "Aparov 0X0? r)v etceivov,
KCLI TWP Trpay/j-arajv avTa> TTyoo? re Svva/JLtv KOI
7rpo-> ev^o^Lav Tri$i&ovTwv e^jpTrjro TOV dv&pos,

3 a>? 6t' tKeli'OV euSoKipwv Kal
TC TcacTiv 6 "Aparo? ov JJLOVOV

/ecu ySacrtXeta? dyatfbs elvai Trai&aywyos' 1} yap
irpoaLpecris avTov Kal TO 97^09 &>9 ^/owyita rat?
Trpd^ecn TOV ySacrtXea)? e7re<f>aiveTO. Kal yap i)

7T/3O? AaK$aifjLOVLOVS dfJiapTOVTaS fJLeTpiOTTJS TOV

Kal rj TT/JO? K/3?}Ta? ofjLiXia, St* ^9 0X771;
Trjv vr)Gov ?)[j,6pai$ o\Lyais, r\ re

7T/3O9 AtTO>Xoi'9 (TTpaTCia yVO}JLVr) OaVfJLCLGTWS

evepybs evr.eiOelas {JL&V TO> 4>tXt7T7rft) Bo^av, evftov-

4 Xta9 Se T&) 'Aparw TrpocreTiOei. Kal Sid TavTa
fj,d\\ov 01 (3aai\iKO\ <j)0

Kpixfia Bta/3d\\ovT^, dva<j)avSbv e
7TpO(T.Kpovov avTtf) Tfapd TOVS 7TOTOU9 /zera

1 (Jf. Polybius, v. 30.
no



ARATUS XLVII. 4-xLvni. 4

and his confidence in him led them to hope that
they would find him easy-tempered in all things and
manageable.

XL VII I. And now for the first time Apelles,
Megaleas, and sundry other courtiers made false
charges against Aratus to which the king listened,
and joining in the canvass made by those of the
opposite faction, he favoured the election of Epera-
tus as general of the Achaeans. But Eperatus
was altogether despised by the Achaeans, 1 and
as long as Aratus gave little heed to public matters
nothing went well. Philip therefore perceived that
he had been entirely wrong. So he reversed his
course, went back to Aratus, and was wholly his ;
and since the progress of events now brought
him increased power and reputation, he depended
altogether upon Aratus, convinced that his repute
and strength were due to him. And all the world
thought that Aratus was a good guardian and tutor
for a kingdom no less than for a democracy ; for
his principles and character were manifest, like
colour in a fabric, in the actions of the king. For
instance, the moderation of the voung prince in
dealing with the offending Lacedaemonians, his
engaging behaviour towards the Cretans, by means
of which he won the whole island to obedience in
a few days, and the astonishingly vigorous conduct
of his campaign against the Aetolians, all added
to the reputation of Philip for taking good advice,
and to that of Aratus for giving it. For this
reason, too, the royal courtiers were all the more

s J v

envious of him, and since they could accomplish
nothing by their secret calumnies, they took to
abusing and insulting him openly at their banquets,

in



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



TroXX?}? acreXyeia? KOL ^w/i.oXo^ta?' a7ra Be teal
\ldois /3d\\oi>T<? aTTiovra els TIJV a-fcrjvrjv

TO BeiTTVOV KaTeBiay^aV. </>' ol? 6



raXaj/TOi?, v(TTpov Be \vp.aivGa0aL TO,
l Tapdrreiv SOKOVVTCIS aTretcreivev.
XLIX. 'ETret Be rT;? TU^;? evpoovcrrjs eircupo-
rot? 7rpd<y/jLa<Ti TroXXas* psv dve<>V Kal

/tta?, r; 8' eya^uro? tea/cia, TOV rrapd 105C
(pvcrtv cr%r)fAaTHTfjLOV K/3ia%o/j,evT} Kal dvaBvovcra,
Kara fjaKpov d7re<yi>fjLvov Kal &ii$>aLvev avrov TO
TrpwTov [lev ISia TOV vewTepov "ApaTov
irepl -rr]v yvvaiKa Kal TTO\VV ^povov e\dv-
6avev e^)(7Tf09 wv Kal
tTreiTa 7T/30? ra? 'EXX
reta? /cat (fravepo? rjv ijSrj TOV "ApaTov cnro-

2 o~i6fj,evo<i. dp%i)v Be VTro^ria^ TCL

crTacnaa-dvTwv yap avrwv 6
/3oy]0a)v, 6 Be ^/XfTTTro? rj/jiepa fjiia Trpo-

\OtOV Ci? TT)V TTO\IV

/tar' aXXryX&>i> tW/3aXe roi? dvOpwTrois, IBLa

p(i)TO)V TOV? CTTpaTTjyOVS TO)V M.e<TO~t]VLa>V el VOUOV?

KaTa TWV TTO\\WV OVK e^ovcriv, IBia Be 7rd\tv

TOL? TWV 7TO\\Ct)V 7T/3Oe(7TCUTa? L ^6t/3a? KaTO,

3 rwr TvpavvovvTWv OVK eyovcriv. K Be TOVTOU

oi /j,ev ap^ovTe? 7r\afjij3dvovTo
, eKeivoi Be juerd TO)V TroX\.a)V e



112



ARATUS XLVIII. 4~xLix. 3

with great wantonness and scurrility; and once
they actually pursued and threw stones at him as he
was going to his tent after supper. At this Philip
was enraged, and for the nonce fined them twenty
talents ; afterwards, however, regarding them as a
noxious and confusing element in his affairs, he put
them to death. 1

XLIX. But soon, as the king's fortune flowed
smoothly on, he was lifted up by his success, and
developed many inordinate desires ; his inherent
badness, too, forcing aside the unnatural restraints
of his assumed deportment and making its way to
the light, little by little laid bare and revealed his
true character. In the first place he inflicted a
private wrong upon the younger Aratus by corrupt-
ing his wife, and was for a long time undetected,
since he was a housemate and a guest of the family ;
in the second place, he began to show hostility
towards the civil polities of the Greeks, and it was
presently clear that he was trying to shake off
Aratus. First grounds of suspicion were afforded by
his conduct at Messene. For there was factional
strife in the city, and Aratus was tardy in coming to
its aid, and Philip, who got to the city a day before
Aratus, at once goaded on the two parties against
one another. In private he asked the generals of
the Messenians if they had not laws to enforce
against the common people, and again in private he
asked the leaders of the common people if they had
not hands to lift against the tyrants. Upon this
the officials plucked up courage and tried to lay
hands upon the leaders of the people, and they,
coming to the attack at the head of their followers,

Cf. Polybius, v. 15 f.

1*3



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

Oovres rovs re aoyovras drreKreLvav /cal r&v
d\\oyv 6\iyov urro\eiTTOvras BiaKocrihyv.

L. Ovro) Be Beivov epyov e^eipyacr/jievov rov
QiXimrov, teal crvyKpovovros ert, /zaXXoi> eavrols
rovs MecrcrT^iof?, 7re\Qot)V 6 "Ayoaro? auro? re
877X09 rjv (frepcov /3ape&>? KCL\ rov viov 7riTi/j,wvTa

TTlKp&S TW ^XtTTTTft) Kdi \OL^OpOVp,VOV OVK K(t)-

- >r\/ r\\f / > ^ ,T^ -v /

\vaev. eboKei be o veavia/co^ epav rov <>L\nnrov
Kal rore Aeya>i> eiTre TT/OO? avrov &>? ot-Se /ca\o?
ert <f>aivoiro ryv otyiv avrw roiavra Spdcras,

2 a\\a vrdvrcov aia^iaro^. 6 e QlXtrnros eiceivto
fj&v ovSev avrelrre, Kaiirep eVt^o^o? wi^, VTT 6pyr)s
teal TroXXa/ci? ^v\aKrrjaa<; Xeyoyro? avrov, rov
Be rrped^vrepov, a>? ev^vo^a)^ Trpaw? ra \e^0evra
Kai Tt? wf /16T/3/0? /^al rroKiriKQS rrjv (frvaiv, av-
ecrr^aev e/c TOT) Oedrpov rrjv SeEidv e/ji/3a\a)v, /cal
Trpoo-rjyev ei9 TOI* 'ItfcOyUaraz; TO) re Aft dvcrwv Kal

3 0ea>pfo(i)v rov rorrov. ecrri yap ov% rjrrov evep/cr)?
rov J A.Kpo/copiv0ov, /cal \a{3a>v typovpav yiverai

Kal BvcrK/3iacrTO<> rot? rcapoiKOvaiv.
Se Kal diHras, &>? rrpoa"r)veyKev avra) ra
rov /3oo? o /jiavris, d/j.<f)orepais rat?
V7ro\a/3a>v eBeLKvve ra) re 'Apdrw Kal TO)
^j/jL^rpift), rrapd /ue/jo? diroK\ivwv els e/ca-
repov Kal rrvvOavo^evo^ rL KaOopwcriv ev rot?
tepot?, Kparovvra rijs a/cpa? avrov rj rot?

4 vlois d7To$i&6vra. yeXaaa? ovv 6 &r)/j.ijrpio<;,



rov



roirov el Be ySacrtXect)?, d/jL^orepwv r&v Kepdrwv
rov ftovv Ka0eis" alvirro^evo^ rijv IIeXo7roi>-



1 A precinct of Zeus, on the summit of Mt. Ithome. Cf.
Pausanias, iv. 3. 9.



ARATUS XLIX. 3 ~L. 4

slew the officials and nearly two hundred citizens
besides.

JL. After this outrageous deed of Philip's, and
while he was striving more than ever to set the
Messenians by the ears, Aratus reached the city.
He showed clearly that he was indignant himself, and
would not check his son when he bitterly reproached
and reviled Philip. Now, it would seem that the
young man was a lover of Philip; and so at this
time he told Philip, among other things, that he
no longer thought him fair to look upon, after so
foul a deed, but the most repulsive of men. Philip
made no answer to him, although it was expected
that he would, since in his anger he had many times
cried out savagely while the young man was speaking,
but as though he meekly submitted to what had
been said and was a person of moderation and not
above the ordinary citizen, he gave the elder Aratus
his hand, led him forth from the theatre, and brought
him to the Ithomatas, 1 in order to sacrifice to Zeus
and take a view of the place. For it is quite as well
walled in as Acrocorinthus, and with a garrison in it
is difficult of access and a hard place for its neigh-
bours to take by force. Thither Philip went up, and
offered sacrifice, and when the seer brought him the
entrails of the ox, he took them in both hands and
showed them to Aratus and Demetrius of Pharos,
leaning towards each one in turn and asking them
what indications they saw in the omens ; was he
to be master of the citadel, or to give it back to the
Messenians ? Demetrius, with a laugh, replied : " If
thou hast the spirit of a seer, thou wilt give up the
place ; but if that of a king, thou wilt hold the ox by
both its horns," speaking darkly of Peloponnesus,



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

vrjaov, &)?, el 7rpO(r\dj3oiTbv 'Wco/jLarav TW 'Atcpo-
tcopivQto, TravTaTraffiv eaop,evriv viro^eipiov /cal

5 raireivrjv. 6 Be "Aparo? eirl TTO\V fJLev r)crv%a%,
Beopevov Be TOV QiXiTTTTov TO <j>aivop,evov \eyeiv,
" IloXXa pelt? eLTrev, " M <&i\i7r7T, KprjTwv opr)
teal fjLyd\a, 7ro\\al Se ^OLWTMV axpai teal
<>a)Kea)v eK7T(f)VKa(n, T?}? 7^?' el<jl 8e TTOV 7ro\\ol
Kal T?}? 'Afcapvdvcov rovro fjLev ^paaloi, rovro
8' eVaXot roTroi Bav/jLacrra^ o^i/poT^ra? e%oj/Te9'
aXX' ovBeva TOVTWV /eaTtX>7<a?, KOI Trdvres

6 efcovaicos croi TTOIOVGI TO 7rpoaTacrcr6/j.i>ov. \rjaral
yap /jL(f)vovTai

SaaiXei Be

ov&ev ov&e 6%vpoi)Tpov. raOra crot TO

dvoiyei TreXa/yo?, TayTa T^I/ rieXoTrovi/^croi'. d?ro

TOVTWV OplJLW/jieVOS (TV TOVOVTOS rf\LKiaV TWV fJLtV

t)V, T&V Be /cvpios ijSrj Ka0<nrjfca<;" eri
avrov ra JJLCV cnr\d<y")(i>a rS> fj,dvrei
TrapeSwfcev 6 ^tXtTTTro?, etceivov Be TT)? ^eipo^
eTriffTrao'dfjLevos, " AeOpo rblvvv" e -/>?;, " Tr/f avTtjv
6Bov iO)/j.ev" axTTrep K/3ej3ia(r/j,vos VTT avrov /cal

TT}V 7TO\tV d(f)yp1J/jlVO<>.

LI. O 8e "ApaTo? diroppswv j'jBrj T?}? atX>}>? /eal
fjLtfcpov eavrov dvaKO/jLi^o/Jievos eK TT}? Trpo?
QiXnnrov crvvriOeias, Biaftaivovros els^HTret- 1Q51
avTov /cal BeofMevov avarpaTeveiv, d
l fcare/Aeive, BeBtcos dva7r\tjcrdr)vai SO^T;
2 pa? a0' coi' eicelvos err parr ev. eVet 8e Ta? T6
UTTO 'Payfj-aicov aTroXecra? aia"%ta'Ta /cal oXa>? a?ro-
Tf^wf Tat? Trpd^ecrtv eTravr)\9ev et?
croj', /tat TOI)? M 6(7 a-rjviovs auOis
(fcevaKi^eiv /cal fj.rj \a0a>v rjBifcei (fravep&s Kal
116



ARATUS L. 4-Li. 2

which, if Philip added the Ithomatas to Acrocorin-
thus, would be altogether subject and submissive to
him. Aratus held his peace for a long time, but
upon Philip's asking him to express his opinion, said :
" There are many lofty hills in Crete, O Philip, and
many towering citadels in Boeotia and Phocis ; in
Acarnania, too, I suppose, as well inland as on its
shores, there are many places which show an amazing
strength ; but not one of these dost thou occupy, and
yet all these peoples gladly do thy bidding. For it is
robbers that cling to cliffs and crags, but for a king
there is no stronger or more secure defence than
trust and gratitude. These open up for thee the
Cretan sea, these the Peloponnesus. Relying upon
these, young as thou art, thou hast already made
thyself leader here, and master there." While he
was yet speaking, Philip handed the entrails to the
seer, and drawing Aratus to him by the hand, said :
"Come hither, then, and let us take the same road,"
implying that he had been constrained by him and
made to give up the city.

LI. But Aratus presently began to withdraw from
the court and little by little to retire from his
intimacy with Philip. When the king was about
to cross into Epeirus 1 and asked him to join the ex-
pedition, he refused and remained at home, fearing
that he would be covered with ignominy by the
king's proceedings. Philip lost his fleet most shame-
fully at the hands of the Romans, and after utter
failure in his undertakings, came back into Pelopon-
nesus. Here he tried once more to hoodwink the
Messenians, and after being detected in this, wronged

1 In 215 B c. Philip bad made an alliance with the
Carthaginians against the Romans.

117



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

yuipav avrwv errbpOei, rravrdrracnv 6 ' A paras
drrecrrpdfyr) KOI Bieft\ij0?i Trpo? avrov, 77877 KOI
rwv Trepl rrjV yvvaiKwvlriv dSiKr)/j.dr(t)v alcrOb-
pevos teal (pepcov dviapws avros, dTTOKpvTrro^evo^
3 Be TOV vlov elBevai jap vjBpia-fJievov rrepirjVy aXXo
Be ovBev, dfivvaaOai /zr) &vva{ieva>.
jap 6 ^>tXt7r7ro? So/eel Kal f 7Tapa\,oya)Tdrtjv
{3a\([email protected] /xTa/3oX?7 / f, e^ rj/jiepov ftacri,\eci*<; KOI
/jLiparciov (rux^povo^ dvrjp dcre^yrjs Kai rvpavvos
jev6fjLvof. TO Se OVK TJV dpa /z-era/^oX?)
dX)C eTr/Set^i? ev deia /ca/cias TTO\VV
Sid <f)6fiov dyvorjQeicrr)*;.
LII. "Or i yap rjv fjiefjay^evov aio"%vvr) real (f)6(3w
TO 7rpo9 rbv "Aparov avrov rcdOo? drr ap^?}?
(Tvvre6pafji^Lvov, eB?j\(oa'v ol? eVpa^e Trepl avrov.
emdviJLWv yap dve\elv rbv dvBpa real VO^JLI^WV ov&
dv eXevOepos exelvov ^COZ^TO? elvai, fxij ri ye rvpav-
vos r) fiacri\v$, fBiq [lev ovBev eTre^eiprjae, Tau-
plwva Be ra)v arparrjywv nva fcal <bi\(0v efceKevcrev
dBrj\fp rpbrrw rovro rrpd^ai, fjid\i(jra Bid (f)apfj,d-

2 KWV, avrov /m?} rrapbvros. o Be ironja-dpevos rbv
"Aparov trvvrjOr) (frdp/jLarcov avrq> BLBuxriv, OVK
o^v Kai <T(f)0^p6v, d\\d ra)v Qep/jLas re /iaXa/ca?
TO rrpwrov ev ru> arM/jiari Kai ftfJXja Kivovvrwv
dfJL/3\Lav, elra ovrws Kara jiiKpbv .a9 <$9opdv
Trepaivbvrwv. ov /J,TJV e\ade ye rbv "Aparov

a)? ovBev rjv 6'(^)cXo? \ey%ovri, rrpaws Ka
TO Tra^o?, u><? Btj nva vbaov xoivrjv Kai

3 vocrwv, Bitji'rXei. 7rXr)y 6^09 76 ra)v crvvi'jOwv ev

118



ARATUS LI. 2-Lii. 3

them openly and ravaged their territory. Then
Aratus was altogether estranged and filled with dis-
trust of the king, being now aware also of the crime
committed against his domestic life. At this he was
sorely vexed himself, but kept it hidden from his son,
who could only know that he had been shamefully
abused, seeing that he was not able to avenge him-
self. For Philip would seem to have undergone a very
great and inexplicable change, 1 in that from a gentle
prince and chaste youth he became a lascivious man
and a pernicious tyrant. In fact, however, this was
not a change of nature, but a showing forth, in time
of security, of a baseness which his fears had long
led him to conceal.

LII. For that the feelings which he had cherished
from the beginning towards Aratus had an admix-
ture of shame and fear, was made plain by what he
did to him at the last. For he desired to kill Aratus,
and thought he could not be a free man while Aratus
lived, much less a tyrant or a king. In a violent
way, however, he made no attempt upon him, but
ordered Taurion, one of his officers and friends, to do
this in a secret way, preferably by poison, when the
king was absent. So Taurion made an intimate
companion of Aratus, and gave him poison, not of a
sharp and violent sort, but one of those which first
induce gentle heats in the body, and a dull cough,
and then little by little bring on consumption. The
thing was not hidden from Aratus, but since it was
no use for him to convict the criminal, he calmly and
silently drank his cup of suffering to the dregs, as if
his sickness had been of a common and familiar
type. However, when one of his intimate com-

1 Cf. Polybius, vii. 13.

119



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

TO) BwfjLaTLM irapovTos dvaTTTVcras $iaifj,6v, ISo
eiceivov KOI QavfJidaavTos, " TaOra,' elirev, ' co



LIU. OUTGO Be avTOV TeXevTijcravTos ev
TO eTrrarcaiSeKaTOV crTparrjyovvTOS, teal
'A^ataif <f)i\OTi/jLOVfjiev(i)V e/cel yevecrOai
KOI fJLvr)fjLara TrpeTrovra ry /3ia) TOV dv&pos,
vioi av^opav TTOIOVI>TO fj,)j Trap' avrols reOfjvai
2 TO crw/j,a. real TOU? /j,ev

dp^aiou

re rw VO/AW SeKTiBaifjiovlas Trpocr-
et9 AeX^ou? virep TOVTWV epi]cro-
Tlv&iav. rj Be aurot? dvaipel TOV



alev



>' offlrj da\ir) re KaTOi%o/j,evoio CL
a>9 TO ^apwo/Jievov TW& dvepi teal TO ftapvvov
' dae/3r)/J.a ical ovpavov



Be T/)? fiavTeias o'i re 'A^atot

, KCLI Bia(>epovT(i>5 oi ^
et? (opTrjv TO TTevOos evOus eK TOV
ALJLOV TOV ve/cpov eaTefyavw^kvoi /cat \V%ifj,o-
VTTO Tcaiavwv KOI ^opwv et? Trjv 7r6\iv



dvrjyov, fcai TOTTOV e^ekofjievoi, TrepioTTTov axnrep



4 oLKiaTjjv /cal awTrjpa Tr}? TroXew? eKifievcrav. KOI

vvv \\paTeiov, teal OUOVGLV



1 In 213 B.C.

120



ARATUS LII. 3-Lin. 4

panions who was with him in his chamber saw him
spit blood, and expressed surprise, ''Such, my dear
Cephalo," said Aratus, " are the wages of royal
friendship."

LIU. And so he died/ at Aegium, while general
for the seventeenth time, and the Achaeans were
very desirous that he should have burial there and
memorials befitting his life. But the Sicyonians re-
garded it as a calamity that he should not be buried
in their city, and persuaded the Achaeans to sur-
render his body to them. They had, however, an
ancient law that no one should be buried inside the
city walls, and the law was supported by strong feel-
ings of superstition. So they sent to Delphi to get
advice in the matter from the Pythian priestess, and
she gave them the following oracular answer :

" Would'st thou, O Sicyon, pay Aratus lasting

honour for the lives he saved,
And join in pious funeral rites for thy departed

lord ?
Know that the place which vexes or is vexed bv

him
Is sacrilegious, be it in earth or sky or sea."

When the oracle was brought to them the Achaeans
were all delighted, and the Sicyonians, in particular,
changing their mourning into festival, at once put on
garlands and white raiment and brought the body of
Aratus from Aegium into their city, amid hymns of
praise and choral dances ; and choosing out a com-
manding place, they buried him there, calling him
founder and saviour of the city. And the place is
called to this day Arateium, and yearlv sacrifices are
made to Aratus there, one on the day when lie

VOL XI. T? 121



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

Overlay, rrjv f^ev, // rr}v rro\iv dm']\\a%<- TT}? rv-
pavviBoj riiLtpa rre/^Lrrrrj Aaicriov /z>/fo?, bv 'Adrj-
vaioi Ka\ovcriv \\v9ecrrripiwva, KOI rt}v dvaiav
Sa>T?;pa rrpoaayopevovai, TIJV Be rov

OS ev ?) vevecrOai rov di>Spa SiafAvrj/AOvevovcri.

v * ' ' ~A N x* . ,

fj,ev ovv Trporepas o rov uo? rov Zcorrjpos

6vrjTro\os, Tt}? Be Sevrepas o rov
f, arpo<f)iov ov% o\6\evKOV> a\\a /JL(TO-

5 TTop^vpov e)(a>v, /ae\yj Be f/Sero TT^OO? Kiddpav vrro
rwv rrepl rov Aiovvaov re^virwv, KOI
7revv 6 <yv/j,vacriapxos i'i<yov/jivos rwv re
/cal rwv ecfiijftwv, eira efyeirrero /; fBov\i]
V7](f>opov(ra fcal rwv a\\a)v TroXtrcov 6 fSov\6p,evo<s.
MV ert Seiy/Adra yuKpa rat? r/yuepa*? eiceLvaiS
e^o&iov/Jievoi, &ia$>v\dTrovcnv' ai Be Tr\elarai
rcov ri/j.wv vrro ^povov tcai rrpay/jidra)v a\\(t>v
/c\e\OL7racriv.

LIV. 'AX\a yap 6 /j,v rrpeaftvrepos "Aparo?
ovro) f3iwo~at, /cal roiouros yeveo-Qai rrjv (ftvo'iv
iaropelrai' rov Be vlov aurov fAiapbs wv <j)V(Ti
teal /ter' wyuoT7;T09 v/3pi(?r7]S 6 Qi\irrrro<; ov dava-
d\\a iLavucois e^ecrnjcre rov \oyifffjiov
/cal reaper pe^rev er? Beivas ical d\\o-
/corovs 7Ti<j)opd<?, rrpdgewv droiTtov /cal GVV al-
a^vvrj rratfwv oXeOpicov opeyo/jievov, (bcrre rov
Odvarov avrq*, xaiTrep 6vn vew /cal dvdovvn,
0vfji(f)opdv, aXX' drro\.vo~iv K,CLK,MV /cal

2 yve&0ai. Bi/cas ye yJr]V o <&i\t,rcrro<$ ov

Ait j~VLM /cal <$>i\.i(p T^? dvocriovpyias ravrv]?
rivcov BtereXecre. /cara7ro\/j,r]dels fjiev yap vrro
'Pa)yuaia>i' enerpe^ev eiceivow ra Katf avrov, e/c-



122



ARATUS LIII. 4-uv. 2

freed the city from its tyranny the fifth day of the
month Daesius (which the Athenians call Anthes-
terion), which sacrifice has the name Soteria, arid
one on the day of the month when, according to the
records, he was born. The first of these sacrifices
was performed by the priest of Zeus the Saviour ;
the second by the priest of Aratus, who wore a
headband, not pure white but purple and white, and
hymns with accompaniment of lyre were sung by the
artists of Dionysus, and the gymnasiarch took part
in the procession, at the head of the boys and young
men of military age ; then followed the councillors
wearing garlands, and all other citizens who desired.
Of these ceremonial rites the Sicyonians still
preserve slight traces, celebrated on the same days
of the year, but most of them, owing to the passage
of time and the pressure of other matters, have
lapsed.

LIV. Such was the life and such the nature of
the elder Aratus, as history tells us ; and as for his
son, he was deprived of his reason by Philip, who
had an abominable nature and added savage cruelty
to his wanton exercise of power. He gave the
young man poisons which did not kill, but crazed,
and thus made him a prey to strange and dreadful
impulses, under which he grasped at absurd activities,
and experiences not only shameful but destructive,
so that death came to him, although he was young
and in the flower of his life, not as a calamity, but
as release from evils, arid salvation. For this unholy
deed, however, Philip paid ample penalties to Zeus,
the guardian of hospitality and friendship, as long
as he lived. For after being subdued by the Romans
and putting his fortunes in their hands, he was

123



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

7To~ot)V oe T/}? aX\r;? dp-^rj^ /ecu ra? vavs
Trdcras Trpoe/zei'o? /cat

Ta\avTa KOI TOV vlov o/jitjpevcrovra
Si OLKTOV erv% Ma/ce^owa? /ecu

aTTOKTelvwv Be del TOU?
KOL crvyyeveo-TaTovs <J>piKr)<; eVeVX^cre teal
o\r)v rrjv /SacrtXetap TT^O? aurov. ev $e /JLOVOV ev
TOGOVTOIS KCLKOIS evTV%r)[ia KTrjadfjievos, vlov
dperf) 8ia(f)epovTa, TOVTOV (f)06va> KOI ^\oTvrria
r/}? Trapd 'Pco/jiaiois n/jii]^ dvel\e, Hepcrel Be
rrjv dp^rjv TrapeSw/cev, bv ov *fvr]<Jiov,
' VTroftXijTOv etvai (f>acriv, e/c YvaOaivlov TLVOS
a/cecrr/ota? yevo/jievov. TOVTOV Al/muXios edpidfi-
/3eucre' KOI KaTe&Tpetyev evTavOa T^? ' At> TiyoviKijs
r; oia$o%ij. TO oe \\paTOv 7^09 ev TTJ
/cat



124



ARATUS LIV. 2-3

stripped of most of his dominions, surrendered all
his ships but five, agreed to pay a thousand talents
besides, gave up his son to serve as hostage, and
'only out of pity obtained Macedonia and its tribu-
taries. But he was for ever putting to death the
noblest of his subjects and his nearest kin, and
thus filled his whole kingdom with horror and
hatred of him. One piece of good fortune only was
his, amid so many ills, and that was a son of sur-
passing excellence; but this son he killed, out of
envy and jealousy of the honour paid him by the
Romans, and left his kingdom to his other son,
Perseus, who was not legitimate, as we are told, but
supposititious, the child of asempstress^nathaenion. 1
This king graced the triumph of Aemilius, and with
him ended theroval line of the Antisonids ; whereas

>

the descendants of Aratus were living at Sicyon and
Pellene in my time.



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