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1 See the Aemiliu- Paulus, viii. 6 f . ; xxxiv., xxxvi.



25



ARTAXERXES



APTOSEP2H2

I. '() fj,ev TrpwTo? 'ApTo^e/9^779, TWV ev
j3aai\ean> TrpqoTrjri teal fjLeya\otyv%
7retca\iTO rrjv Sej;idv



Tt/3a<? e^wv, Kep^ov $e r/v vios" o 8e
ov



Qwyarpos r\v etceivov. Aapeiov yap fcal [\apvcrd- 1012
TratSe? eyevovro reacrape?, Trpea-ftvrdros fiev
?, /A6T 1 exetvov Se KO/jo?, vewrepoi Se



2 TOVTWva-Tvtjs Kal 'O^a'^p?;?. o pev ovv

avro Kw/ooi; roi) 7ra\aiov Tovvopa ecr^ev, etceiva) 8e
(ITTO rov rj\iov yevecrdai <^aai' Kvpov jap
TOV TJ\IOV. 6 be 'ApTO%epr]<; '



OTI



d\\a TOV fcrrjaiav, el Kal raXXa
cnriBdvwv Kal Trapafyopwv e/A/Se/B^rjfcev et? rd
/3i/3\ia TravTO&aTTrjv TrvXaiav, OUK el/co? ecmv
dyvoeiv Tovvo^a rou /9acriXea)? irap co

avrbv KOI yvvai/ea Kal /x^repa



II. 'O /Av ovv KOyoo? evrovov TI Kal cr(f)o^poi>
evQvs K 7T/9COT7;? 7/Xi/ao,? iX V > aT6 Ps & Trpao-
re/309 eSoKei 7Tpl irdvTa Kal rals 6pfj,ai$ <j>v(Ti
/zaXarcoT6/3o? elvai. yvvaiKa & KaXrjv Kal dya-
6r>v e



1 Artaxerxesl. 405-425 B.C. The parallel form Artaxerxes
has become fixed in English.

128



ARTAXERXES

I. THE first Artaxerxes, 1 preeminent among the
kings of Persia for gentleness and magnanimity, was
surnamed Lohgimanus, because his right hand was
longer than his left, and was the son of Xerxes ;
the second Artaxerxes, 2 the subject of this Life, was
surnamed Memor, or Mindful, and was the grandson
of the first by his daughter Parysatis. For Dareius 3
and Parysatis had four sons an eldest, Artaxerxes,
and next to him Cyrus, and after these Ostanes and
Oxathres. Cyrus took his name from Cyrus of old, 4
who, as they say, was named from the sun ; for
" Cyrus " is the Persian word for sun. Artaxerxes
was at first called Arsicas ; although Deinon gives
the name as Oarses. But it is unlikely that Ctesias,
even if he has put into his work a perfect farrago
of extravagant and incredible tales, should be
ignorant of the name of the king at whose court
he lived as physician to the king's wife and mother
and children.

II. Now Cyrus, from his very earliest years, was
high-strung and impetuous, but Artaxerxes seemed
gentler in everything and naturally milder in his
impulses. His wife, a beautiful and excellent woman,
lie married in compliance with his parents' bidding,

- Artaxerxes II. 404-362 B c.

Dareius II. 424-404 L; c.

4 ('yrus the Elder, 509-529 R.c,



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

Be Kd)\v6vT(i)V TOV yap dBe\<>ov avTi) 1 ? a

2 6 (3acri\ev<; eftovXevero fcaxeLvrjv dve\elv, o Be
'Apcrifcas TT}? /jLrjrpos IKCTTJ^ yero/jievos real TroXXa
Kara/cXavcras yu,oXt? eVetcre fjLijre aTroKTeivai
auTOV BtaaTija-ai TTJV avOpwTrov. 77 &
V7ri)p)6 TOV Kvpov /jLaX\ov(j)i\ov(Ta KOI

ftaa i\veiv eicelvov. Sib KCU TOV Trar/jo? vocrovv-
TO? ijBrj yLteTaTre/iTTTo? a?ro 0a\d(icrrj<;
dvefiaivev V6\7ri
SidSo%ov avTov d

3 />%?}?. teal yap el^ev V7rpe.7rrj \6yov 7} Tlapv-

u> KOI He/?^? 6 7raXa<o? e^ptjcraro,
iSd^avros, &>? ' Apaifcav /j,V IBiwrrj,
Be /SatfiXevovTi Aape/w TKiv. 1 ov

' o TrpecrftvTepo? aiffSei-j^d^ ftaa-iXevs, 'Apro-

aOtis, KO/30? Be A
i TWV 7rl 6a\d(Tcrr)<; arrparrjyo^.
III. 'OXt^ft) 8' varepov rj reXeuTJJcrat

crV et? TlacrapydBas o (3aai\evs, OTTO)? reXe-
rrjv ftacri\tKr]v Te\errjv VTTO TWV ev Tlepcrais
iepzwv. ecrri Be ^a? TroXeyUt/cr)? iepov, r)v

2 av Tf? ei/cda-eiev. et? TOVTO Bel TOV
TTape\6ovTa Trjv fj,ev iBiav dTroOeaOai (TTO\rjv, dva-
Kafteiv Be fjv KO/oo? 6 TraXafo? efyopei jrplv rj /3a-

yeveaOai, Kal avtcwv Tra\d6r)<$ e/j.<pay6vTa
/caTaTpayeiv Kal TTOTi'jpiov eKTTielv ov-
yd\a/CTO<;. el Be 7r/3o? rourof? eVep' arra Bpwcriv,

3 dBrj\oi> ecrTi rot? aXXot9. ravra Bpdv 'ApToepi;ov

1 T6KfIV Bekker has re/cot, after Coraes.
130



ARTAXERXES u. i-m. 3

and kept her in defiance of them ; for after the king
had put her brother to death, he wished to kill her
also. But Arsicas, throwing himself at his mother's
feet and supplicating her with many tears, at last
obtained her promise that his wife should neither
be killed nor separated from him. But the mother
had more love for Cyrus, and wished that he should
succeed to the throne. Therefore, when his father
was now lying sick, Cyrus was summoned home from
tiie sea-coast, and went up in full hope that by
his mother's efforts he had been designated as suc-
cessor to the kingdom. For Parysatis had a specious
argument (the same that Xerxes the Elder employed
on the advice of Demaratus x ), to the effect that she
had borne Arsicas to Dareius when he was in private
station, but Cyrus when he was a king. However,
she could not prevail, but the elder son was declared
king, under the new name of Artaxerxes, while
Cyrus remained satrap of Lydia and commander of
the forces in the maritime provinces.' 2

III. A little while after the death of Dareius, the
new king made an expedition to Pasargadae, that
he might receive the royal initiation at the hands
of the Persian priests. Here there is a sanctuary of
a warlike goddess whom one might conjecture to be
Athena. Into this sanctuary the candidate for initia-
tion must pass, and after laying aside his own proper
robe, must put on that which Cj r rus the Elder used
to wear before he became king ; then he must eat
of a cake of figs, chew some turpentine-wood, and
drink a cup of sour milk. Whatever else is done
besides this is unknown to outsiders. As Artaxerxes

1 See Herodotus, vii. 3.

? Of. Xenophon, Anab. i. 1, 1 ft'.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



[j,e\\ovTO$ dtpiKCTO Tt cr a (> epvr) 9 TT^o? dVTOv aywv
eva TWV lepewv, 09 eV 7rai.crl Kvpovrfjs voat^o^evrj^
dycoyrjs 7r/(7TttT?79 yevo/jiet'os real 5taa<? payevetv
avTov ov&ei'os IJTTOV e&oKei \\epTwv aviaaQai
dTToSeixQcvTos eKeivov /SacrtXea)?- 8to /cat
4 e'crj^e Karrjyopwv Kvpou. fcaTiyyopei Se a)?
TO? evebpevew ev TO) ip>, fcal 67Tt$av efc&



/a<7feu?, eTriTiecrai KOI
avrov. ol /JLCV K ravTij^ TT}?

, ol Be



Oelv TOV Kvpov et? TO lepov real TrapaSoB r\vai
5 KpVTTTOfjievov UTTO rov tepeo)^. jj,\\ovra oe avTOV
r)$ij aTToOv^aKeiv r) fiqrrjp vre/Kcr^oOcra, rat? ay red-
Xat? Kal rot? ftofTTpvxois Trepie\i%acra Kal av\-
\afBova-a TOV eiceivov Tpd^r]\ov TT/JO? TOV aur?}?,
o&vpOfAevy TroXXa Kal TroTVicofievr) rrapyTrjcraTo
Kal KaTCTre/jL^ev av0is eVl 6(i\aTTav, OVK dya-
Trjv dp-^rjv eKeivyv, ouSe /jLe/mv^fjiei'ov T/}?
, dXXa T?)? crfXX?^e&)?, Aral 8t' opyrjv
/na\\ov rj TrpoTepov eVl Trjv /3acrt\tiav.
IV. "Ei/toi 5e <$>a<Jiv OVK dpKOVfJ.evov
ftavev et9 TO Ka$' fifiepav SelTrvov
/5ao"tXeo)9, evi]6i^ \eyovTes. el yap a\\o
d\\a rj fjitjTrjp VTrrip^e, ^prja-Oat Kal \afjij3dveiv
oaa j3ov\OLTO Tan' avTrfi 7rape%ovcra Kal Si&ovcra.
l Be TO> TrXouTM Kal TO ^ia-Oo<popiKov

Bid TMI> </uXft>y Kal %ei>u>v avrcjy irapa- 101



yap ov (TWiyayer, ert



1 A nab. \. 1, 6-11.






ARTAXERXES in. 3 -iv. i

was about to perform these rites, Tissaphernes
brought to him a certain priest who had conducted
Cyrus through the customary discipline for boys, had
taught him the wisdom of the Magi, and was thought
to be more distressed than anyone in Persia because
his pupil had not been declared king. For this
reason, too, his accusation against Cyrus won cre-
dence. And he accused him of planning to lie in
wait for the king in the sanctuary until he should
put off his garment, and then to fall upon him and
kill him. Some say that Cyrus was arrested in con-
sequence of this false charge, others that he actually
made his way into the sanctuary and hid himself
there, and was delivered into custody by the priest.
But now, as he was about to be put to death, his
mother clasped him in her arms, twined her tresses
about him, pressed his neck against her own, and
by much lamentation and entreaty prevailed upon
the king to spare him, and sent him back to the
sea-coast. Here he was not satisfied with the office
assigned to him, nor mindful of his release, but onlv
of his arrest ; and his anger made him more eager
than before to secure the kingdom.

IV. Some say that he revolted from the king
because his allowance did not suffice for his daily
meals, which is absurd. For had no other resource
been his, still, his mother was resource enough, who
gave freely from her own wealth all that he wished
to take and use. And that he had wealth is proved
by the mercenary troops that were maintained for
him in many places by his friends and connections,
as Xenophon tells us. 1 For he did not bring these
together into one body, since he was still trying to
conceal his preparations, but in one place and another,

133



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



, d\\ay^oOi Be aXXot"? etrl TroXXat? 7rpO(f) da-eat,

2 %evo\oyovvra<s et%e. /3a0-tXea>? Be rj re ^jrijp
irapovcra ra? vrro^rta^ dcfrfjpei, real Ki)/3o? auro? aet
OeparrevriKws eypafye, rd fjilv alrovpevos
avrov, ra Be Tiuafyepvovs dvTLKaTtiyop&v, &>?
7T/90? eKelvov avra) tyXov KOI dy&vos 6Wo?.

3 *Hv Be Tt9 teal /LteXX^crt^ eV T^ (frvarei rov ftacri-

, TTieiKia (fjaivofAevr) rot? TroXXot?. eV ^i/0%7;
^\ovv eBo^e rrjv 'A-pro^epgov rov
Trpaorrjra, 77810) re eavrov

i,, teal rrepl TO rifiav KOI
TO Kar d^iav virepftd\\wv, /coXa/rta)9 Be

u TO e<pv{3pioi> teal rjBo/jLevov, ev Be rco

iTa<; ov% rjrrov Tot? BiBov<riv 77
\ajJilBdvovcrLV ev ru> BiBovat, fyaivofji

4 Kdi <f)i\,dvdp(inros. ovBev yap r]v ovrws fjntcpov ri
rwv BiBofjiV(i)v o pr) TrpotreBe^aro rrpoOv/jiti)^, aXXa



teal poai> [Jiiav v'r
^filcrov rivos aura*, u NT) TOI^ WiOpav" elirev,
" ovro$ 6 dvrjp teal TTO\LV civ ete /jLitepas
woirjcreie fj,eyd\tiv TriarevOefa."

V. 'Evret Be a\\(i)v a'XXa rrpovtyepovrwv
oBov avrovpyos avOpwrro^ ovBev eirl feaipov
evpeiv ry rrorafjiS) TrpocreBpafie teal ralv
V7ro\a/3a)v rov vBaros Trpoffijvcyteev, i]a6els o
p^rjff (f>id\ijv errefji'fyev avrw xpvarjv teal
Bapeiteovs. }Zvre\eiBa Be rip Adtecavi, TTO\-
Xa Trapprjaia^o/Aevq) TT^O? avrov avOaBo)?, e/ee-
\ev<rev elrrelv rov / ^i\lap^oi> on

1 34



ARTAXERXES iv. i-v. i

and on many pretexts, he kept recruiting-agents.
And as for the king's suspicions, his mother, who
was at court, tried to remove them, and Cyrus him-
self would always write in a submissive vein, some-
times asking favours from him, and sometimes making-
countercharges against Tissaphemes, as if his eager
contention were against him.

There was, too, a certain dilatoriness in the nature
of the king, which most people took for clemency.
Moreover, in the beginning he appeared to be
altogether emulous of the gentleness of the Arta-
xerxes whose name he bore, showing himself very
agreeable in intercourse, and bestowing greater
honours and favours than were really deserved, while
from all his punishments he took away the element
of insult or vindictive pleasure, and in his acceptance
and bestowal of favours appeared no less gracious
and kindly to the givers than to the recipients.
For there was no gift so small that he did not
accept it with alacrity ; indeed, when a certain
Omisus brought him a single pomegranate of sur-
passing size, he said : " By Mithra, this man would
speedily make a city great instead of small were he
entrusted witli it."

V. Once when he was on a journey and various
people were presenting him with various things, a
labouring man, who could find nothing else at the
moment, ran to the river, and, taking some of the
water in his hands, offered it to him ; at which
Artaxerxes was so pleased that he sent him a goblet
of gold and a thousand darics. To Eucleidas the
Lacedaemonian, who would often say bold and im-
pudent things to him, he sent this word by his
officer of the guard : " It is in thy power to say

135



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

elirelv a ftovXet, e/j.ol Be KOI \eyeiv /cal

2 ev Be 6t'ipa nvl 'Fijptftd&v Beigavros aura) TOV
/cavBvv ecr'^KTfJLevov, )}p(i)Ti]<Ti> 6 Ti Bel Ttoie.lv.
eiceivov Be etVoi/ro?, ""AX\oi> avrbs evBvcrai, TOV-
TOV Be e/jiol ^09," OI/TW? Troii]crev, eiTrwv, " l^i^w^i
/lev, a) Tr)pi(3ae, croi rovrov, fyopelv Be uTrayo-
/DfUft)." TOV Be Tiipiftd^ou fjLTj typovricrav'TOs (r)i>
yap ov Trovrjpos, VTTOKOV^O^ Be /cal Trapdcfropos),
aXXa TOV re tcdvBvv evQvs e/ectvov ev&vvros KCU
Bepaia ypf era teal yvvairceia TWV j3aai\ifcwv rrepi-
Oefjievov, Trdvres ^ev rjyavdfCTOVV (ov yap e^ijv\ 6
fievTQi /SacrtXeu? KareyeXacre teal etTre'

aoi /cal TO, ^pvaia fyopelv a><? yvvaifci KOI

3 aTO\rji> to? p.aivofjievw" Tpa7rerj<; Be T

77 /j,rjTpbs ftacri\eM$ rj



ya/jLTi<; yvvaifcos, Kaeo/jLevwv TT? /u,e^ LTT avrov,
TTJ? 8e ^r/909 ^Trep avTov, 'ApTo^ep^rjs /cal TOI;?
dBe\<f)ov$ eVt r^y avTTjv /cd\ei Tpdire^av, Oo~Ta-

eV 3e rot?



/j.d\iaTa /ce^apia/jLev^p 6-^riv irapel^e rot?
<rai? 77 TT^? yvvaixbs Sraretyoa? ap/ui/zaa
TWV TrapaTreracr/uaTa)^ aet irpo^epofjievr] /cal BiBov-
aa raZ? BII/JLOTLCTIV aairdcraaOaL avTr]i> /cal irpocr-
e\0iv, 06 ev rfyaTrdro rot? TroXXot? /; /3a<rt,\eia,
VI. Toz^ jjLevToi Kvpov ol vecDTeptcrTal /cal TTO\V-
a)? \afJLTrpov dvBpa TTJ ^rv^fj KO\



/cal (>i\Taioi> WOVTO ra



7ro6eiv, /cal TO /u.eye0o$ TT)? ^
Beladai (frpovijfjia /cal <$>i\OTip,iav e

2 TO?. 01>X, VfTTOV OVV TOt? dl>W 7ri(TTVfi)V KO/50?

r) rot? Trepi avTQv eTre^eipet TO> TroXe/xco'
136



ARTAXERXES v. i-vi. 2

what thou pleasest, but it is in mine both to say
and to do." Again, when he was hunting once
and Teribazus pointed out that the king's coat
was rent, he asked him what was to be done. And
when Teribazus replied, " Put on another for thyself,
but give this one to me/' the king did so, saying,
" I give this to thee, Teribazus, but I forbid thee to
wear it." Teribazus gave no heed to this command
(being not a bad man, but rather light-headed and
witless), and at once put on the king's coat, and
decked himself with golden necklaces and women's
ornaments of royal splendour. Everybody was in-
dignant at this (for Jt was a forbidden thing) ;
but the king merely laughed, and said : " I permit
thee to wear the trinkets as a woman, and the
robe as a madman." Again, no one shared the
table of a Persian king except his mother or his
wedded wife, the wife sitting below him, the mother
above him ; but Artaxerxes invited to the same table
with him his brothers Ostanes and Oxathres, although
they were his juniors. But what gratified the Persians
most of all was the sight of his wife Stateira's carriage,
which always appeared with its curtains up. and thus
permitted the women of the people to approach and
greet the queen. This made her beloved of the
common folk.

VI. Nevertheless, restless and factious men thought
that affairs demanded Cyrus, a man who had a
brilliant spirit, surpassing skill in war, and great love
for his friends ; and that the magnitude of the empire
required a king of lofty purpose and ambition. Ac-
cordingly, Cyrus relied quite as much upon the
people of the interior as upon those of his own
province and command, when he began the war.

137



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



ejpafye TrapaKaXwv /SorjQeiv /cal

<rVV6K7rf.l7TlV aP'BpUS, olf (77 B(i)CTtV, dv fJ,V

7rebl Trapwaiv, 'ITTTTOVS, dv Be 'nnrels, a-uvcopiBas"
lav 8' dypovs e%a)(Ti, K(t)/jLas' lav Be Arco/u-a?, TroXets*
fiiffOov Be TO?? crTpaTevofj-evois OVK apiO^iov, a\\a

3 /jierpov e<T(T0ai. neya^rjyopwv Be Trepl avrov
iroX\a Kal KapBiav e<f)i) TOV dBe\<f>ov (fropeiv ftapv- 1014
repavtcal fyL\ocro<$>eiv /j,a\\ov /cal jj-ayeveiv /SeXrtot',
olvov Be 7r\eioi>a Triveiv Kal (pepeiv e/celvov Be

VTTO BeiXias /cal /zaXa/aa? ev fj,ev rot? Kvv)yyecrioi<;
fj,rjoe ecf) ITTTTOV, ev Be rot? /civBvvois fjirjBe eVl TOV
Opovov KaOff(T0ai. Aa/ceBaifiovioi /JLCV ovv a/cvrd-
\rjv Trpo? KXeapftov d.7recrTi\av vTr^peretv Kvpp

4 Trdvra /ceXevovres. o Be KU/DO? dveftaivev eVl

ap/3api/cr)i> re 7ro\\rjv e%a)v Bvva/jiiv
opovs "EXX^i^a? 0X170) T pLcr^iXLwv Kal
aTToBeovras, aXXa? eV aXXat? iroiov/jievos
TT}? arpareia^. ov prjv e\aOe ye et'<?
TTO\VV %povov, aXX' f)/ce ySacrtXet Ti(ra<f)epvii<i
' /cal TroXu? Oopvfios el^e ra /3a<rtXeta,
re Hapva-driBos TTJV 7r\ei(7Trjv airlav TOV
vrjS, /cal TWV (f>i\a)i> avTrjs ev

5 uTTo-v/aat? OVTWV Kal Btafto\ai<;. /taXtcrra Be rjvla
TTJV HapvcraTiv r] ^TUTetpa TU> TroXe^ft) TreptTra-
Oovaa Kal ySowcra, " Hov vvv ai TriVref? e/ceivai ;
Tfov Be at Berfcreis, at? e^eXo^ievrj TOV

cravTa TW dBe\<fxa TroXe/uou Kal KUKWV e/

?7/xa5 ; " e/c Br) TOVTO)V fjaaovaa TTJV

TlapvcraTis, /cal (frvaei ftapvdvfjios ovcra Kal ftdp-



*- Cf. Xenophon, Anab. i. 1, 9 ; 2, 21 ; 4, 3.
138



ARTAXERXES vi. 2-5

He also wrote to the Lacedaemonians, inviting them
to aid him and send him men, and promising that
he would give to those who came, if they were foot-
men, horses ; if they were horsemen, chariots and
pairs ; if they had farms, he would give them villages ;
if they had villages, cities ; and the pay of the
soldiers should not be counted, but measured out.
Moreover, along with much high-sounding talk about
himself, he said he carried a sturdier heart than his
brother, was more of a philosopher, better versed in
the wisdom of the Magi, and could drink and carry
more wine than he. His brother, he said, was too
effeminate and cowardly either to sit his horse in a
hunt, or his throne in a time of peril. The Lacedae-
monians, accordingly, sent a dispatch-roll to Clearchus
ordering him to give Cyrus every assistance. 1 So
Cyrus marched up against the king with a large
force of Barbarians and nearly thirteen thousand
Greek mercenaries, 2 alleging one pretext after
another for his expedition. But the real object of
it was not long concealed, for Tissaphernes went in
person to the king and informed him of it. Then
there was a great commotion at the court, Parysatis
being most blamed for the war, and her friends
undergoing suspicion and accusation. And above
all was she vexed by Stateira, who was greatly dis-
tressed at the war, and kept crying : " Where now
are those pledges of thine ? And where are the
entreaties by which thou didst rescue the man who
had plotted against the life of his brother, only to
involve us in war and calamity?" Therefore Pary-
satis hated Stateira, and being naturally of a harsh

2 Cf. Xenophon, Anab. i. 7, 10, where the force of Bar-
barians is said to have numbered one hundred thousand.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

ev op7at9 real /u.i'r/crtA:a/aa9, erreftovXevev
6 avrrfv dve\elv. errel &e kelvwv {lev ev ru> TroXe/Ltw
avvre\ea9^vai rrjv eTTiftovXrjv eiprjxe, Y^rrfcria^ oe
varepov, ov ovre dyvoelv rov ^povov etVo? ecni
Trapovra rat? Trpd^eaiv, ovre eKwv alriav el^ev K
rov xpovov fj.Ta(TTr)crai TO epyov, a>? 7r/3a^^;
Bir)<yoi>iievo<;, ola Tracr^et 7roXAa/a9 o ^070? avrov
7T/3O? TO /Af^wSe? /cat SpafjiaTitcbv et

rovro



VII. Kupw 8e irpoaiovTi (pfj/jLai teal \6yot, Trpoa-
, to? o) fJid^ecrO 'at ySacrtXea)? evOvs e



OL8e avv&aelv ct? ela^ avrut



Ile



^crat? virofjLeveiv f^pi av at
Trama-^odev avveXduxji. fcal yap
evpos opyviwv Setca fcal /3a#o? IVa)^ eVt
5ta TOU TTe&iov TeTpaKoaious eVe/5aXe ! /cat
re irepielSe rov Kvpov evros rrape\6ovra /cal Ba-

2 /3uXwi>09 aurrfs ov (JLatcpav yevo^evov. Trjpiftd^ov
Be, w? <f>a<n, Trpatrov ToXft^cra^TO? elirelv a>? ou

iv ovSe Al?/^ta9 e/ccrrdvra teal Ba-
a/xa J y^at ]oi;cri/ evBveadai rfj
no\\arf\aaLav /j,v e^ovra ^vva^iv rtov
/jLVpiovs Se aarpaTras teal arparrjyovs Kvpov teal
typovelv teal /ua^fo-flai /3eXTtojva9, cbp/J,r)ae
vlaaaOai rrjv ra^iarrji'.

3 Kat TO ^te^ rrpwrov e^alfyvrj? /caTa0az^et9 e
Kovra fjLvpidai arparov BiaKKO(TfAri/.iei>ais



Bekker and Ziegler, after Corais : a\Aa.



140



ARTAXERXES vi. 5 -vn. 3

temper and savage in her wrath and resentment, she
plotted to kill her. Deinon says that her plot was
carried out during the war. Ctesias, however, says
that it was accomplished afterwards, and neither is
it likely that he was ignorant of the time since he
was at the scene of action, nor had he any occasion,
in his narrative of the deed, to change the time of
it on purpose, however often his story turns aside
from the truth into fable and romance. I shall
therefore give the event the place which he has
assigned to it. 1

VII. As Cyrus proceeded on his march, rumours
and reports kept coming to his ears that the king
had decided not to give battle at once, and was not
desirous of coming to close quarters with him, but
rather of waiting in Persia until his forces should
assemble there from all parts. For he had run a
trench, ten fathoms in width and as many in depth,
four hundred furlongs through the plain ; and yet
he allowed Cyrus to cross this and to come within
a short distance of Babylon itself. 2 And it was
Teribazus, as we are told, who first plucked up
courage to tell the king that he ought not to shun
a battle, nor to retire from Media and Babylon, as
well as Susa, and hide himself in Persia, when he
had a force many times as numerous as that of the
enemy, and countless satraps and generals who sur-
passed Cyrus in wisdom and military skill. The king
therefore determined to fight the issue out as soon
as possible.

So, to begin with, by his sudden appearance with
an annv of nine hundred thousand men in brilliant

r

1 See chap. xix.

' Cf. Xeuophon, A nub. i. 7, 14-17,

141



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



, T0l"

Bid rb Oappelv teal Karafypovelv oBonropovvras
Kal crvverdpa&v, wcrre avv Oopvftw Kal
fj,6\i<> et? rdiv KaOicrracrdat rov
Kvpov eireira (Tiyf} Kal (T%eSr)v 7rdya)V OavfjLa
AA,77<j rr}? eura^t'a? Trapel")(e, fcpavyas drd-
Kal (TKtpTrjfjLara Kal TTO\VV rdpa^ov avrwv
$ia<T7ra<7/j,ov ev vrX^et TO<TOUT&) TT/JOfrSe^o/xe-
. cv 8e Kal Kara Tovs f 'R\\iji>a<; dvrera^e TWV
irav^^opwv ra pwfMaXecoraTa Trpo TT}? eavrov
(f)d\a<yyo<;, &>? irplv ev %e/3crl <yevea'6ai SiaKo-^r
ra? ra^et? (Slq TT}? etcreXao-ea)?.

VIII. Trjv Be /jLd%r)v eKelvrjv TTO\\WV /J,ev a

, Eej>o</>wi>To? Be JJLOVOVOV^I
Kal rot? Trpdy^acriv, &>? ou

d\\d yivo/jievois, e<j)L(rrdvro<i del rov aKpoarr/v
efjLjradtj Kal crvyKivBvi'evovra Bia Trjv evdpyeiav,
OVK <TTI vovv e^oi/TO? eTre^jyeicr^ai, 7r\rjv ocra
2 TCOV d%ia)v \6yov Traprf^Oev eiTreiv eKeivov. o [lev
ovv TOTTO?, ev w Traperd^avro, Kovva^a KaXelrai 1015
Kal Ba/Ji^Xaii/o? dire^eL crraStof? Trevraxocriov^.
Be TTpb TT}? fjid^ri^ KXeap^ou irapaKa-



elvai



KtvBvveveiv avrov elirelv cfracri, " TL \eyei$,
K\eap%6 ; av Ke\evis fj-e rov /3acriXei'a? opeyo-
3 fievov dvd^Lov elvai f3a<Ti\eias ; " d^aprovTO^ Be
Kvpov /jieya TW Bvvat, TTyooTrerco? et? fiecra ra
Beivd Kal fjirj <$>v\d%acr6ai rov KivBvvov, ov% rjrrov
, el /nrj Kal jj,d\\ov,



1 A nab. \. 8.
143



ARTAXRRXES vn. 3 -vni. 3

array, he so terrified and confounded the enemy, who
were marching along in loose order and without arms
because of their boldness and contempt for the king,
that Cyrus could with difficulty bring them into
battle array amid much tumult and shouting ; and
again, by leading his forces up slowly and in silence,
he filled the Greeks with amazement at his good
discipline, since they had expected in so vast a host
random shouting, and leaping, with great confusion
and dissipation of their lines. Besides this, he did
well to draw up in front of his own line, and over
against the Greeks, the mightiest of his scythe-
bearing chariots, in order that by the force of their
charge they might cut to pieces the ranks of the
Greeks before they had come to close quarters.

VIII. Now, since many writers have reported to
us this battle, and since Xenophon 1 brings it all but
before our eyes, and by the vigour of his description
makes his reader always a participant in the emotions
and perils of the struggle, as though it belonged, not
to the past, but to the present, it would be folly to
describe it again, except so far as he has passed over
things worthy of mention. The place, then, where
the armies were drawn up, is called Cunaxa, and it
is five hundred furlongs distant from Babvlon. And

o j

we are told that Cyrus, before the battle, when
Clearchus besought him to remain behind the com-
batants and not risk his life, replied : "What sayest
thou, Clearchus ? Dost thou bid me, who am reaching
out for a kingdom, to be unworthv of a kingdom?"

^j * ^j

It was a great mistake for Cyrus to plunge headlong
into the midst of the fray, instead of trying to avoid
its dangers ; but it was no less a mistake, nay, even
a greater one, for Clearchus to refuse to array his

M3



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

Kara TOV {Baai\ea pr) 0eXr)<ra<s TOVS "
a\\a Trpoa-fii^a^ ru) TTOTaaw TO &%iov, to?



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