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PliUTARCHS LIVES,



FROM THE



ORIGINAL GREEK,



WITH NOTES,



CRl ilCAL, HISTORICAL, AND CHRONOLOGICAL.



AND A



NEW L.IFE OF FILUTAHCH.



TRANSLATED BY



JOHN LANGHORNE, D. D. AND WILLIAM LANGHORNE, M.A.



Explanatory Tables of C/nvnulugy, Ilhtorj, and comparathe
Geography.



COMPLETL IN 1 IL'IKE VOLUMES.



VOL. IIL



LOyi)OX:

Printed by W. M'Bowjil, Peincicrion Row, Gou^h Sciuare, ricct nroet«

>0U J. DAVIS, MII-ITAUY CllROMCLE Of KICK, KSSKX STREET, STUAN D J AN»
TU BE HAD OK THK BOOKSt L LKR3.

1813.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES.



JULIUS CESAR.



WHEN Sylla had made himself master of Rome*, he endeavoured
to bring Csesar to repudiate Cornelia, daughter to Cinna, one of the
late tyrants, and finding he could not eflect it either by liopes or
fearsf, he confiscated her dowry. Indeed, Caesar, as a relation to
Marius, was naturally an enemy to Sylla. Old Marius had married
Julia, Caesar's aunt, and therefore young Marius, tiie son he had l)y
her, was Caesar's cousin-german. At first Sylla, amidst the vast
number of proscriptions that engaged his attention, overlooked this
enemy; but Caesar, not content with escaping so, presented himself
to the people as a candidate for the priesthood|, though he was nut
yet come to years of maturity. Sylla exerted his iniluence against
him, and he miscarried. The dictator afterwards thought of having
him taken off, and when some said, there was no need to put such a
boy to death, he answered, " Their sagacity was small, if they did
not, in tliat boy, see many Mariuses."

This saying being reported to Caesar, he concealed himself a long
time, wandering up and down in the country of the S;ibines. Amidst
his movements from house to house he fell sick, and on that account
was forced to be carried in a litter. The soldiers employed by Sylla
to search those parts, and drag the proscribed persons from their re-
treats, one night fell in witli him; but Cornelius, wiio commanded
them, was prevailed on by a bribe of two talents to let him go.

* Some imagine that the beginning of ihis life is lost; but, if the^' look back to the
introduction to the Life of Alexaiuler, ih;it notion will vanisli.

t Csesar would not make such a sacritice to tlic dictator as Piio had done, who, at his
«ommand, divorced his wife Annia. Poiupey, too, for the sake of bvHa's alliance, repu-
diated Antisiia.

X Caesar had the priesthood before Sylla was dictator. In the seventeenth year of hi»
age, he broke his engagement to Cos^utia, though she was of a consular and opulent fa-
mily, and married Cornelia, the daughter of Cinna, by whose interest, ;tnd that of JNIa-
rius, he was created Flamcn Dialis, or priest of Jupiter. Sylla, wht-n absolute master of
Rome, insisted ujoii liis divorcing Cornelia, and, on his refusal, deprived him of that
oSice. — Sueten. in Julio.



/



V,^^



PLUTARCH S LIVES.



He then hastened to sea, and sailed to Bithynia, where he sought
protection of Nicomedcs t+ic king. His stay, liowevcr, with liim, was
not long. He rc-onibarkcil, and was taken, near the isle of Pharma-
cusa, hy pirates, who were masters of that sea, and blocked up all
the passages with a number of galleys and other vessels. They
asked him only twenty talents for his ransom. He laughed at their
demand, as ilie consefpienee of their not knowing him, and promised
them fifty talents. To raise the money, he despatched his people to
different cities, and in the mean time remained with only one friend
and two attendants among these Cilicians, who considered murder as
a trifle. CfPsar, however, held tltcm In great contempt, and used to
send, whenever he went to sleep, and order them to keep silence.
Thus he lived among them thirty-eight days, as if they had been his
guards, rather than his keepers. Perfectly fearless and secure, he
joined in their diversions, and took his exercises among them. He
wrote poems and orations, and rehearsed them to these pirates, and,
wlien they expressed no admiration, he called them dunces and bar-
barians; nay, he often threatened to crucify them. They were de-
liglited with these freedoms, which they imputed to his frank and fa-
cetious vein. But as soon as the money was brought from Miletus,
and he had recovered his liberty, he manned some vessels in the port
of Miletus*, in order to attack these corsairs. He found them still
lying at anchor i^y the island, took most of them, togetlier with the
money, and imprisoned them at Pergamus. After which he applied
to Junius, who then commanded in Asia, because to him, as praetor,
it belonged to punish them. Junius having an eye upon the money,
which was a considerable sum, demurred about tlie matter; and Ca3-
sar, perceiving his intentio!i, returned to Pergamus, and crucified all
the prisoners, as he had often threatened to do at Pharmacusa, when
they took him to be in jest.

\\'hen the power of Sylla came to be upon the decline, Caesar's
friends pressed him to return to Rome. But first he went to Rhodes
to study under ApoUonius, the son of Molo, who taught rhetoric
there with great reputation, and was a man of irreproachable man-
ners. Cicero also was one of his scholars. Ccesar is said to have
had happy talents from nature for a public speaker, and he did not
"want an aml)ition to cultivate them,; so that undoubtedly he was the
second orator in Rome; and he might have been the first, had he not
rather chosen the pre-eminence in arms. Thus he never rose to that
pitch of eloquence to which his powers would have brought him, be-

* DacicT reads ilelos, wliicb was one of the Cyclades, but does not mention liis a».-
thoritj.



C7ESAR. 5

ing engaged in those wars and political intrigues which at hist gained
him the empire. Hence It was, that afterwards, in his Anticato,
which he wrote in answer to a hook of Cicero's, he desired his read-
ers " not to expect in the performance of a military man the style of a
complete orator, who had bestowed all his time upon such studies."

L'pon his return to Rome, he impeuclied Dolabella for misdemea-
nors in his government, and many cities of Greece supported the
charge by their evidence. Dolabella was acquitted. Ciesar, how-
ever, in acknowledgment of the readiness Greece had shewn to serve
him, assisted her in the prosecution of Publius Antonius for corrup-
tion. Tiie cause was brought before Marcus LucuUus, pr



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