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cular movement, are carried by an irregular course, not in
general into the inhabited part of the earth, but for the
most part into the wide sea ; which is the cause of their
not being observed. Daimachus, in his treatise on Religion,
supports the view of Anaxagoras. He says, that before
this stone fell, for seventy-five days continually, there was
seen in the heavens a vast fiery body, as if it had been a
flaming cloud, not resting, but carried about with several
intricate and broken movements, so that the flaming pieces,
which were broken off by this commotion and running
about, were carried in all directions, shining as falling stars
do. But when it afterwards came down to the ground in
this district, and the people of the place recovering from
their fear and astonishment came together, there was no



LTSANDER. 13

fire to be seen, neither any sign of it ; there was only a
stone lying, big indeed, but which bore no proportion, te
speak of, to that fiery compass. It is mctnifest that
Daimachus needs to have indulgent hearers ; but if what
he says be true, he altogether proves those to be wrong
who say that a rock broken off from the top of some mount-
ain, by winds and tempests, and caught and whirled about
like a top, as soon as this impetus began to slacken &nd
cease, was precipitated and fell to the ground. UnlesSj in-
deed, we choose to say that the phenomenon which was
observed for so many days was really fire, and that the
change in the atmosphere ensuing on its extinction was
attended with violent winds and agitations, which might be
the cause of this stone being carried off. The exacter
treatment of this subject belongs, however, to a different
kind of writing.

Lysander, after the three thousand Athenians whom he
had taken prisoners were condemned by the commissioners
to die, called Philocles the general, and asked him what
punishment he considered himself to deserve, for having
advised the citizens, as he had done, against the Greeks ;
but he, being nothing cast down at his calamity, bade him
not to accuse him of matters of which nobody was a judge^
but to do to him, now he was a conqueror, as he would
have suffered, had he been overcome. Then washing him-
self, and putting on a fine cloak, he led the citizens the
way to the slaughter, as Theophrastus writes in his history,
After this Lysander, sailing about to the various cities 3
bade all the Athenians he met go into Athens, declaring
that he would spare none, but kill every man whom he
found out of the city, intending thus to cause immediate
famine and scarcity there, that they might not make the
siege laborious to him, having provisions sufficient to en-
dure it. And suppressing the popular governments and
all other constitutions, he left one Lacedaemonian chief
officer in every city, with ten rulers to act with him, selected



14 PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

out of the societies which he had previously formed in the
different towns. And doing thus as well in the cities of
his enemies as of his associates, he sailed leisurely on,
establishing, in a manner, for himself supremacy over the
whole of Greece. Neither did he make choice of rulers by
birth or by wealth, but bestowed the offices on his own
friends and partisans, doing everything to please them,
and putting absolute power of reward and punishment intc
their hands. And thus, personally appearing on many
occasions of bloodshed and massacre, and aiding his friends
to expel their opponents, he did not give the Greeks a
favorable specimen of the Lacedaemonian government ; and
the expression of Theopompus, the comic poet, seemed but
poor, when he compared the Lacedaemonians to tavern
women, because when the Greeks had first tasted the
sweet wine of liberty, they then poured vinegar into the
cup ; for from the very first it had a rough and bitter taste,
all government by the people being suppressed by Lysander,
and the boldest and least scrupulous of the oligarchical
party selected to rule the cities.

Having spent some little time about these things, and
sent some before to Lacedsemon to tell them he was arriv-
ing with two hundred ships, he united his forces in Attica
with those of the two kings Agis and Pausanias, hoping to
take the city without delay. But when the Athenians de-
fended themselves, he with his fleet passed again to Asia,
and in like manner destroyed the forms of government in
all the other cities, and placed them under the rule of ten
chief persons, many in every one being killed, and many
driven into exile; and in Samos, he expelled the whole
people, and gave their cities to the exiles whom he brought
back. And the Athenians still possessing Sestos, he took
it from them, and suffered not the Sestians themselves to
dwell in it, but gave the city and country to be divided out
among the pilots and masters of the ships under him;
which was his first act that was disallowed by the Lacedse-



LY SANDER. \%

monians, who brought the Sestians back again into then
country. All Greece, however, rejoiced to see the ^Eg-i-
netans, by Lysander's aid, now again, after a long time,
receiving back their cities, and the Melians and Scionaeans
restored, while the Athenians were driven out, and de-
livered up the cities.

But when he now understood they were in a bad case in
the city because of the famine, he sailed to Piraeus, and re-
duced the city, which was compelled to surrender on what
conditions he demanded. One hears it said by Lacedaemo-
nians that Lysander wrote to the Ephors thus : " Athens
is taken ; r and that these magistrates wrote back to Ly-
sander, " Taken in enough." But this saying was invented
for its neatness' sake ; for the true decree of the magistrates
was on this manner : " The government of the Lacedaemo-
nians has made these orders ; pull down the Piraeus and
the long walls ; quit all the towns, and keep to your own
land ; if you do these things, you shall have peace, if you
wish it, restoring also your exiles. As concerning the
number of the ships, whatsoever there be judged necessary
to appoint, that do." This scroll of conditions the Athenians
accepted, Theramenes, son of Hagnon, supporting it. At
which time, too, they say that when Cleomenes, one of the
young orators, asked him how he durst act and speak con-
trary to Themistocles, delivering up the walls to the Lace-
daemonians, which he had built against the will of the Lace-
daemonians, he said, " O young man, I do nothing contrary
to Themistocles ; for he raised these walls for the safety
of the citizens, and we pull them down for their safety ;
and if walls make a city happy, then Sparta must be the
most wretched of all, as it has none."

Lysander, as soon as he had taken all the ships except
twelve, and the walls of the Athenians, on the sixteenth
day of the month Munychion, the same on which they had
overcome the barbarians at Salamis, then proceeded to
take measures for altering the government. But the



1 G PL UTARCH ' S LIVES.

Athenians taking that very unwillingly, and resisting, he
sent to the people and informed them that he found that
the city had broken the terms, for the walls were standing
when the days were past within which they should have
been pulled down. He should, therefore, consider their
case anew, they having broken their first articles. And
some state, in fact, the proposal was made in the congress
of the allies, that the Athenians should all be sold as slaves % ,
on which occasion, Erianthus, the Theban, gave his vote
to pull down the city, and turn the country into sheep-
pasture ; yet afterwards, when there was a meeting of the
captains together, a man of Phocis, singing the first chorus
in Euripides's Electra, which begins,

Electra, Agamemnon's child, I come
Unto thy desert home,

they were all melted with compassion, and it seemed to be
a cruel deed to destroy and pull down a city which had
been so famous, and produced such men.

Accordingly Lysander, the Athenians yielding up every-
thing, sent for a number of flute- women out of the city,
and collected together all that were in the camp, and pulled
down the walls, and burnt the ships to the sound of the
flute, the allies being crowned with garlands, and making
merry together, as counting that day the beginning of their
liberty. He proceeded also at once to alter the government,
placing thirty rulers in the city and ten in the Piraeus ; he
put, also, a garrison into the Acropolis, and made Callibius,
a Spartan, the governor of it ; who afterwards taking up
his staff to strike Autolycus, the athlete, about whom
Xenophon wrote his " Banquet," on his tripping up his
heels and throwing him to the ground, Lysander was not
vexed at it, but chid Callibius, telling him he did not know
how to govern freemen. The thirty rulers, however, to
gain Oallibius's favor, a little after killed Autolycus.

Lysander, after this, sails out to Thrace, and what re-
mained of the public money, and the gifts and crownf



LYSANDER. t?

which ne had himself received, numbers of people, as might
be expected, being anxious to make presents to a man of
such great power, who was, in a manner, the lord of Greece,
he sends to Lacedgemon by Gylippus, who had commanded
formerly in Sicily. But he, it is reported, unsewed the
sacks at the bottom, took a considerable amount of silver
out of every one of them, and sewed them up again, not
knowing there was a writing in every one stating how
much there was. And coming into Sparta, what he had
thus stolen away he hid under the tiles of his house, and
delivered up the sacks to the magistrates, and showed the
seals were upon them. But afterwards, on their opening
the sacks and counting it, the quantity of the silver dif-
fered from what the writing expressed; and the matter
causing some perplexity to the magistrates, Gylippus's
servant tells them in a riddle, that under the tiles lay
many owls ; for, as it seems, the greatest part of the money
then current bore the Athenian stamp of the owl. Gylip-
pus having committed so foul and base a deed, after such
great and distinguished exploits before, removed himself
from Lacedsemon.

But the wisest of the Spartans, very much on account of
this occurrence, dreading the influence of money, as being
what had corrupted the greatest citizens, exclaimed against
Ly sander's conduct, and declared to the Ephors, that all
the silver and gold should be sent away, as mere " alien
mischiefs." These consulted about it; and Theopompus
says it was Sciraphidas, but Ephorus that it was Phlo-
gidas, who declared they ought not to receive any gold or
silver into the city ; but to use their own country coin,
which was iron, and was first of all dipped in vinegar when
it was red-hot, that it might not be worked up anew, but
because of the dipping might be hard and unpliable. It
was also, of course, very heavy and troublesome to carry,
and a great deal of it in quantity and weight was but a

tittle in value. And perhaps all the old money was
2



Ib PLUTARCH 1 S LIVES.

coin consisting of iron, or, in some countries, copper skew-
ers, whence it comes that we stiii find a great number of
small pieces of money retain the name of obolus^ and the
drachma is six of these, because so much may be grasped
in one's hand. But Lysander's friends being against it,
and endeavoring to Keep the money in the city, it was
resolved to bring in this sort of money to be used publicly,
enacting, at the same time, that if any one was found in
possession of any privately, he should be put to death, as if
Lycurgus had feared the coin, and not the covetousness
resulting from it, which they did not repress by letting
no private man keep any, so much as they encouraged it,
Dy allowing the state to possess it ; attaching thereby a
sort of dignity to it, over and above its ordinary utility.
Neither was it possible, that what they saw was so much
esteemed publicly they should privately despise as unprofit-
able ; and that every one should think that thing could be
nothing worth for his own personal use, which was so
extremely valued and desired for the use of the state. And
moral habits, induced by public practices, are far quicker
in making their way into men's private lives, than the fail-
ings and faults of individuals are in infecting the city at
large. For it is probable that the parts will be rather cor-
rupted by the whole if that grows bad ; while the vices which
flow from a part into the whole, find many correctives
and remedies from that which remains sound. Terror and
the law were now to keep guard over the citizens' houses,
to prevent any money entering into them : but their minds
could no longer be expected to remain superior to the
desire of it when wealth in general was thus set up to be
striven after, as a high and noble object. On this point,
however, we have given our censure of the Lacedaemonians
in one of our other writings.

Lysander erected out of the spoils brazen statues at Del*
phi of himself, and of every one of the masters of the ship*,
as also figures of the golden stars of Castor and Pollux,



LY8ANDEH. 19

vanished before the battle at Leuctra. In the
treasury of Brasidas and the Acanthians, there was a
trireme made of gold and ivory, of two cubits, which Cyrus
sent Lysander in honor of his victory. But Alexandrides
of Delphi writes, in his history, that there was also a de-
posit of Lysander's, a talent of silver, and fifty-two minas,
besides eleven staters ; a statement not consistent with the
generally received account of his poverty. And at that
time, Lysander, being in fact of greater power than any
Greek before, was yet thought to show a pride, and to affect
a superiority greater even than his power warranted.
He was the first, as Duris says in his history, among th
Greeks, to whom the cities reared altars as to a god, and
sacrificed ; to him were songs of triumph first sung, th
beginning of one of which still remains recorded :

Great Greece's general from spacious Sparta we
Will celebrate with songs of victory.

And the Samians decreed that their solemnities of Juno
should be called the Lysandria ; and out of the poets he had
Choerilus always with him, to extol his achievements in
verse ; and to Antilochus, who had made some verses in
his commendation, being pleased with them, he gave a hat
full of silver ; and when Antimachus of Colophon, and one
Niceratus of Heraclea, competed with eacn other in a poem
on the deeds of Lysander, he gave the garland to Niceratus ;
at which Antimachus, in vexation, suppressed his poem ;
but Plato, being then a young man, and admiring Anti-
machus for his poetry, consoled him for his defeat by telling
him that it is the ignorant who are the sufferers by igno-
rance, as truly as the blind by want of sight. Afterwards,
when Aristonus, the musician, who had been a conqueror
six times at the Pythian games, told him as a piece of flat-
tery, that if he were successful again, he would proclaim
himself in the name of Lysander, " that is," He answered,
"as ms slave?"



20 ?L UTABCH ' 8 LFTES.

This ambitions temper was indeed only burdensome tc
the highest personages and to his equals, but through having
so many people devoted to serve him, an extreme haughti-
ness and contemptuousness grew up, together with ambi-
tion, in his character. He observed no sort of moderation,
such as befitted a private man, either in rewarding or in
punishing ; the recompense of his friends and guests was
absolute power over cities, and irresponsible authority, and
the only satisfaction of his wrath was the destruction of
his enemy; banishment would not suffice. As for example,
at a later period, fearing lest the popular leaders of the
Milesians should fly, and desiring also to discover those who
lay hid, he swore he would do them no harm, and on their
believing him and coming forth, he delivered them up to
the oligarchical leaders to be slain, being in all no less than
eight hundred. And, indeed, the slaughter in general of
those of the popular party in the towns exceeded all com-
putation ; as he did not kill only for offences against him'
self, bat granted these favors without sparing, and joined
in the execution of them, to gratify the many hatreds,
and the much cupidity of his friends everywhere round
about him. From whence the saying of Eteocles, the
Lacedaemonian, came to be famous, that " Greece could
not have borne two Lysanders." Theophrastus says,
that Archestratus said the same thing concerning Alcibi-
ades. But in his case what had given most offence was a
certain licentious and wanton self-will ; Lysander's power
was feared and hated because of his unmerciful disposi-
tion. The Lacedaemonians did not at all concern them-
selves for any other accusers; but afterwards, when
Pharnabazus, having been injured by him, he having
pillaged and wasted his country, sent some to Sparta to
inform against him, the Ephors taking it very ill, put one
of his friends and fellow-captains, Thorax, to death, tak-
ing him with some silver privately in his possession ; and
they sent him a scroll, commanding him to return hornet



LT SANDER.

This scroll is made up thus : When the Ephors send an
admiral or general on his way, they take two round pieces
of wood, both exactly of a length and thickness, and cut
even to one another ; they keep one themselves, and the
other they give to the person they send forth ; and these
pieces of wood they call Scytales. When, therefore, they
have occasion to communicate any secret or important
matter, making a scroll of parchment long and narrow
like a leathern thong, they roll it about their own staff of
wood leaving no space void between, but covering the sur-
face of the staff with the scroll all over. When they have
done this, they write what they please on the scroll, as it
is wrapped about the staff ; and when they have written,
they take off the scroll, and send it to the general without
the wood. He, when he has received it, can read nothing
of the writing, because the words and letters are not con-
nected, but all broken up; but taking his own staff, he
winds the slip of the scroll about it, so that this folding,
restoring all the parts into the same order that they were
in before, and putting what comes first into connection
with what follows, brings the whole consecutive contents
to view round the outside. And this scroll is called a staff,
after the name of the wood, as a thing measured is by the
name of the measure.

But Lysander, when the staff came to him to the Hel-
lespont, was troubled, and fearing Pharnabazus's accusa-
tions most, made haste to confer with him, hoping to end
the difference by a meeting together. When they met, he
desired him to write another letter to the magistrates, stat-
ing that he had not been wronged, and had no complaint
to prefer. But he was ignorant that Pharnabazus, as it is
in the proverb, played Cretan against Cretan ; for pretend-
ing to do all that was desired, openly he wrote such a
letter as Lysander wanted, but kept by him another, writ-
ten privately ; and when they came to put on the seals,
changed the tablets, which differed not at all to look upon.



22 PLUTARCWS LIVES.

and gave him the letter which had been written privately.
Lysander, accordingly, coming to Lacedsemon, and going,
as the custom is, to the magistrates' office, gave Pharna-
bazus's letter to the Ephors, being persuaded that the
greatest accusation against him was now withdrawn ; for
Pharnabazus was beloved by the Lacedaemonians, having
been the most zealous on their side in the war of all the
king's captains. But after the magistrates had read the
letter they showed it him, and he understanding now that

Others beside Ulysses deep can be,
Not the one wise man of the world is he,

in extreme confusion, left them at the time. But a few
days after, meeting the Ephors, he said he must go to the
temple of Ammon, an,d offer the god the sacrifices which he
had vowed in war. For some state it as a truth, that when
he was besieging the city of Aphytse in Thrace, Ammon
stood by him in his sleep ; whereupon raising the siege,
supposing the god had commanded it, he bade the Aphy-
tseans sacrifice to Ammon, and resolved to make a journey
into Libya to propitiate the god. But most were of opin-
ion that the god was but the pretence, and that in reality
he was afraid of the Ephors, and that impatience of the
yoke at home, and dislike of living under authority, made
him long for some travel and wandering, like a horse just
brought in from open feeding and pasture to the stable,
and put again to his ordinary work. For that which
Ephorus states to have been the cause of this travelling
about, I shall relate by and by.

And having hardly and with difficulty obtained leave of
the magistrates to depart, he set sail. But the kings, while
he was on his voyage, considering that keeping, as he did,
the cities in possession by his own friends and partisans,
he was in fact their sovereign and the lord of Greece, took
measures for restoring the power to the people, and for
throwing his friends out. Disturbances commencing again



LYS ANDES.

about these things, and, first of all, the Athenians from
Phyle setting upon their thirty rulers and overpowering
them, Lysander, coming home in haste, persuaded the
Lacedaemonians to support the oligarchies and to put down
the popular governments, and to the thirty in Athens, first
of all, they sent a hundred talents for the war, and Lysander
himself, as general, to assist them. But the kings envying
him, and fearing lest he should take Athens again, resolved
that one of themselves should take the command. Accord-
ingly Pausanias went, and in words, indeed, professed as if
he had been for the tyrant against the people, but in reality
exerted himself for peace, that Lysander might not by the
means of his friends become lord of Athens again. This he
brought easily to pass ; for, reconciling the Athenians, and
quieting the tumults, he defeated the ambitious hope of
Lysander, though shortly after, on the Athenians rebelling
again, he was censured for having thus taken, as it were,
the bit out of the mouth of the people, which, being freed
from the oligarchy, would now break out again into aifroiits
and insolence; and Lysander regained the reputation of
a person who employed his command not in gratification
of others, not for applause, but strictly for the good of
Sparta.

His speech, also, was bold and daunting to such as
opposed him. The Argives, for example, contended about
the bounds of their land, and thought they brought juster
pleas than the Lacedaemonians ; holding out his sword,
" He," said Lysander, " that is master of this, brings the
best argument about the bounds of territory." A man
of Megara, at some conference, taking freedom with him,
" This language, my friend," said he, "should come from a
city." To the Boeotians, who were acting a doubtful part,
he put the question, whether he should pass through their
country with spears upright, or levelled. After the revolt
of the Corinthians, when, on coming to their walls, he per-
ceived the Lacedaemonians hesitating to make the assault,



24 PL UTARCI1 ' 8 LIVES.

and a hare was seen to leap through the ditch : " Are yon
not ashamed," he said, " to fear an enemy, for whose lazi-
ness, the very hares sleep upon their walls ? "

When king Agis died, leaving a brother Agesilaus, and
Leonty chides, who was supposed his son, Lysander, being
attached to Agesilaus, persuaded him to lay claim to the
kingdom, as being a true descendant of Hercules ; Leon-
tychides lying under the suspicion of being the son of
Alcibiades, who lived privately in familiarity with Tirnsea,
the wife of Agis, at the time he was a fugitive in Sparta.
Agis, they say, computing the time, satisfied himself that
she could not have conceived by him, and had hitherto
always neglected and manifestly disowned Leontychides ;
but now when he was carried sick to Hersea, being ready
to die, what by importunities of the young man himself, and
of his friends, in the presence of many he declared Leonty.
chides to be his ; and desiring those who were present to
bear witness of this to the Lacedaemonians, died. They
accordingly did so testify in favor of Leontychides. And
Agesilaus, being otherwise highly reputed of, and strong in
the support of Lysander, was, on the other hand, prejudiced
by Diopithes, a man famous for his knowledge of racles,
who adduced this prophecy in reference to Agesilaus's
lameness :

Beware, great Sparta, lest there come of thee,
Though sound thyself, an halting sovereignty ;



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