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that he had thought that Marius came into Italy of his own
accord, and therefore had deliberated as to what might be
most expedient, but that Cinna ought not so much as to
have questioned whether he should accept him whom he
had already invited, but should have honorably received
and employed him, for his word once passed left no room
for debate. Thus Marius being sent for by Cinna, and
their forces being divided into three parts, under Cinna,
Marius, and Sertorius, the war was brought to a successful
conclusion ; but those about Cinna and Marius committing
all manner of insolence and cruelty, made the Romans
think the evils of war a golden time in comparison. On
the contrary, it is reported of Sertorius, that he never
Blew any man in his anger, to satisfy his own private
revenge, nor ever insulted over any one whom he had
overcome, but was much offended with Marius, and often
privately entreated Cinna to use his power more moderately.
And in the end, when the slaves whom Marius had freed at
his landing to increase his army, being made not only his



BEBTOEIUS. 255

*

fellow-soldier? !n the war, but also now his guard In his
usurpation, enriched and powerful by his favor, either by
the command or permission of Marius, or by their own law*
less violence, committed all sorts of crimes, killed their
masters, ravished their masters' wives and abused their
children, their conduct appeared so intolerable to Sertorius
that he slew the whole body of them, four thousand in
number, commanding his soldiers to shoot them down with
their javelins, as they lay encamped together.

Afterwards when Marius died, and Cinna shortly after
was slain, when the younger Marius made himself consul
against Sertorius's wishes and contrary to law, when Carbo,
Norbanns, and Scipio fought unsuccessfully against Sylla,
now advancing to Rome, when much was lost by the coward-
ice and remissness of the commanders, but more by the
treachery of their party, when with the want of prudence
in the chief leaders, all went so ill that his presence could
do no good, in the end when Sylla had placed his camp near
to Scipio, and by pretending friendship, and putting him in
hopes of a peace, corrupted his army, and Scipio could not
be made sensible of this, although often forewarned of it by
Sertorius, at last he utterly despaired of Rome, and hasted
into Spain, that by taking possession there beforehand, he
might secure a refuge to his friends, from their misfortunes
at home. Having bad weather in his journey, and travel-
ling through mountainous countries, and the inhabitants
stopping the way, and demanding a toll and money foi
passage, those who were with him were out of all patience
at the indignity and shame it would be for a proconsul of
Rome to pay tribute to a crew of wretched barbarians.
But he little regarded their censure, and slighting that
which had only the appearance of an indecency, told them
he must buy time, the most precious of all things to thosa
who go upon great enterprises ; and pacifying the barbarous
people with money, he hastened his journey, and took
session of Spain, a country nourishing and populous,



256 PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

Ing with young men fit to bear arms ; but on account otf
the insolence and covetousness of the governors from time
to time sent thither from Rome, they had generally an
aversion to Roman supremacy. He, however, soon gained
the affection of their nobles by intercourse with them, and
the good opinion of the people by remitting their taxes.
But that which won him most popularity was his exempting
them from finding lodgings for the soldiers, when he com-
manded his army to take up their winter quarters outside
the cities, and to pitch their camp hi the suburbs ; and
when he himself, first of all, caused his own tent to be
raised without the walls. Yet not being willing to rely
totally upon the good inclination of the inhabitants he armed
all the Romans who lived in those countries that were of
military age, and undertook the building of ships and the
making of all sorts of warlike engines, by which means he
kept the cities in due obedience, showing himself gentle in
all peaceful business, and at the same time formidable to
his enemies by his great preparations for war.

As soon as he was informed that Sylla had made himselt
master of Rome, and that the party which sided with
Marius and Carbo was going to destruction, he expected
that some commander with a considerable army would
speedily come against him, and therefore sent away Julius
Salinator immediately, with six thousand men fully armed,
to f ortif y and defend the passes of the Pyrenees. And Cams
Annius not long after being sent out by Sylla, finding Julius
unassailable, sat down short at the foot of the mountains in
perplexity. But a certain Calpurnius, surnamed Lanarius,
having treacherously slain Julius, and his soldiers then
forsaking the heights of the Pyrenees, Caius Annius ad-
vanced with large numbers and drove before him all who
endeavored to hinder his march. Sertorius, also, not being
strong enough to give him battle, retreated with three
thousand men into New Carthage, where he took shipping,
and crossed the seas into Africa. And coming near ther



8ERTORIU8* 251

coast of Mauritania, his men went on shore to water, and
straggling about negligently, the natives fell upon them
and slew a great number. This new misfortune forced him
to sail back again into Spain, whence he was also repulsed,
and, some Cilician private ships joining with him, they made
for the island of Pityussa, where they landed and over-
powered the garrison placed there by Annius, who, however,
came not long after with a great fleet of ships and five
thousand soldiers. And Sertorius made ready to fight him
by sea, although his ships were not built for strength, but
for lightness and swift sailing ; but a violent west wind
raised such a sea that many of them were run aground and
shipwrecked, and he himself, with a few vessels, being kept
from putting further out to sea by the fury of the weather,
and from landing by the power of his enemies, were tossed
about painfully for ten days together, amidst the boisterous
and adverse waves.

He escaped with difficulty, and after the wind ceased, ran
for certain desert islands scattered in those seas, affording
no water, and after passing a night there, making out to
sea again, he went through the straits of Cadiz, and sailing
outward, keeping the Spanish shore on his right hand, he
landed a little above the mouth of the river Bsetis, where it
falls into the Atlantic Sea, and gives the name to that part
of Spain. Here he met with seamen recently arrived from
the Atlantic islands, two in number, divided from one an-
other only by a narrow channel, and distant from the coast
of Africa ten thousand furlongs. These are called the Is-
lands of the Blest; rain falls there seldom, and in moderate
showers, but for the most part they have gentle breezes,
bringing along with them soft dews, which render the soil
not only rich for ploughing and planting, but so abun-
dantly fruitful that it produces spontaneously an abundance
of delicate fruits, sufficient to feed the inhabitants, who
may here enjoy all things without trouble or labor. The
seasons of the year are temperate, and the transitions from
\7



258 PLUTARCB'S LIVES.

one to another so moderate, that the air is almost alwayt
serene and pleasant. The rough northerly and easterly
winds which blow from the coasts of Europe and Africa,
dissipated in the vast open space, utterly lose their force
before they reach the islands. The soft western and
southerly winds which breathe upon them sometimes
produce gentle sprinkling showers, which they convey
along with them from the sea, but more usually bring days
of moist, bright weather, cooling and gently fertilizing the
soil, so that the firm belief prevails, even among the bar-
barians, that this is the seat of the blessed, and that these
are the Elysian Fields celebrated by Homer.

When Sertorius heard this account, he was seized with a
wonderful passion for these islands, and had an extreme
desire to go and live there in peace and quietness, and safe
from oppression and unending wars ; but his inclinations
being perceived by the Cilician pirates, who desired not
peace nor quiet, but riches and spoils, they immediately
forsook him and sailed away into Africa to assist Ascalis,
the son of Iphtha, and to help to restore him to his king-
dom of Mauritania. Their sudden departure noways dis-
couraged Sertorius ; he presently resolved to assist the
enemies of Ascalis, and by this new adventure trusted to
keep his soldiers together, who from this might conceive
new hopes, and a prospect of a new scene of action. His
arrival in Mauritania being very acceptable to the Moors,
he lost no time, but immediately giving battle to Ascalis,
beat him out of the field and besieged him ; and Pa- cia ir.3
being sent by Sylla, with a powerful supply, to raise the
siege, Sertorius slew him in the field, gained over all his
forces, and took the city of Tingis, into which Ascalis and
his brothers were fled for refuge. The Africans tell that
Antaeus was buried in this city, and Sertorius had the
grave opened, doubting the story because of the prodigfons
size, and finding there his body, in effect, it Is said, tat
sixty eubits long, he was infinitely astonished, offered



8ERTORIU8. 259

sacrifice, and heaped up the tomb again, gave his con-
firmation to the story, and added new honors to the
memory of Antseus. The Africans tell that after the death
of Antaeus, his wife Tinga lived with Hercules, and had a
son by him called Sophax, who was king of these countries,
and gave his mother's name to this city, whose son, also,
was Diodorus, a great conqueror, who brought the greatest
part of the Libyan tribes under his subjection, with an
army of Greeks, raised out of the colonies of the Olbiana
and Myceneans placed here by Hercules. Thus much I
may mention for the sake of king Juba, of all rnonarchs
the greatest student of history, whose ancestors are said to
have sprung from Diodorus and Sophax.

When Sertorius had made himself absolute master of the
whole country, he acted with great fairness to those who
had confided in him, and who yielded to his mercy ; he
restored to them their property, cities, and government,
accepting only of such acknowledgments as they themselves
freely offered. And whilst he considered which way next
to turn his arms, the Lusitanians sent ambassadors to desire
him to be their general ; for being terrified with the Roman
power, and finding the necessity of having a commander of
great authority and experience in war, being also sufficiently
assured of his worth and valor by those who had formerly
known him, they were desirous to commit themselves es-
pecially to his care. And in fact Sertorius is said to have
been of a temper unassailable either by fear or pleasure, in
adversity and dangers undaunted, and -noways puffed up
with prosperity. In straightforward fighting, no com-
mander in his time was more bold and daring, and in what-
ever was to be performed in war by stratagem, secrecy, or
surprise, if any strong place was to be secured, any pass to
be gained speedily, for deceiving and overreaching an
enemy, there was no man equal to him in subtilty and
skill. In bestowing rewards and conferring honors upon
those who had performed good service in the wars* he waa



260 PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

bountiful and magnificent, and was no less sparing anoi
moderate in inflicting punishment. It is true that that
piece of harshness and cruelty which he executed in the
latter part of his days upon the Spanish hostages seems to
argue that his clemency was not natural to him, but only
worn as a dress, and employed upon calculation, as his oc-
casion or necessity required. As to my own opinion, I am
persuaded that pure virtue, established by reason and
judgment, can never be totally perverted or changed into
its opposite, by any misfortune whatever. Yet I think it
at the same time possible, that virtuous inclinations and
natural good qualities may, when unworthily oppressed by
calamities, show, with change of fortune, some change and
alteration of their temper ; and thus I conceive it happened
to Sertorius, who, when prosperity failed him, became exas-
perated by his disasters against those who had done him
wrong.

The Lusitanians having sent for Sertorius, he left Africa,
and being made general with absolute authority, he put all
in order amongst them, and brought the neighboring parts
of Spain under subjection. Most of the tribes voluntarily
submitted themselves, won by the fame of his clemency
and of his courage, and, to some extent, also, he availed
himself of cunning artifices of his own devising to impose
upon them and gain influence over them. Amongst which,
certainly, that of the hind was not the least. Spanus, a
countryman who lived in those parts, meeting by chance a
hind that had recently calved, flying from the hunters, let-
the dam go, and pursuing the fawn, took it, being wonder-
fully pleased with the rarity of the color, which was all
milk-white. And as at that time Sertorius was living in the
neighborhood, and accepted gladly any presents of fruit,
fowl, or venison that the country afforded, and rewarded
liberally those who presented them, the countryman brought
him his young hind, which he took and was well pleased
with at the first sight, but when in time he had made it st?



8ERTORIU3. 261

tame and gentle that it would come when he called, and
follow him wheresoever he went, and could endure the
noise and tumult of the camp, knowing well that uncivil-
ized people are naturally prone to superstition, by little
and little he raised it into something preternatural, saying
that it was given him by the goddess Diana, and that it
revealed to him many secrets. He added, also, further
contrivances. If he had received at any time private intelli-
gence that the enemies had made an incursion into any
part of the districts under his command, or had solicited
any city to revolt, he pretended that the hind had informed
him of it in his sleep, and charged him to keep his forces
in readiness. Or if again he had noticed that any of the
commanders under him had got a victory, he would hide
the messengers and bring forth the hind crowned with
flowers, for joy of the good news that was to come, and
would encourage them to rejoice and sacrifice to the gods
for the good account they should soon receive of their pros-
perous success.

By such practices, he brought them to be more tractable
and obedient in all things ; for now they thought them-
selves no longer to be led by a stranger, but rather con-
ducted by a god, and the more so, as the facts themselves
seemed to bear witness to it, his power, contrary to all ex-
pectation or probability, continually increasing. For with
two thousand six hundred men, whom for honor's sake he
called Romans, combined with seven hundred Africans,
who landed with him when he first entered Lusitania, to-
gether with four thousand targeteers and seven hundred
horse of the Lusitanians themselves he made war against
four Roman generals, who commanded a hundred and
twenty thousand foot, six thousand horse, two thousand
archers and slingers, and had cities innumerable in theii
power ; whereas at the first he had not above twenty cities.
in all. And from this weak and slender beginning, he
raised himself to the command of large nations of men, and



262 PL UTAECH ' 8 LIVES.

the possession of numerous cities ; and of the Roman com.
manders who were sent against him, he overthrew Cotta
in a sea-fight, in the channel near the town of Mellaria ; he
routed Fufidius, the governor of Baetica, with the loss of
two thousand Romans, near the banks of the river Baetis ;
Lucius Domitius, proconsul of the other province of Spain,
was overthrown by one of his lieutenants ; Thoranius, an-
other commander sent against him by Metellus with a
great force, was slain, and Metellus, one of the greatest and
most approved Roman generals then living, by a series of
defeats, was reduced to such extremities, that Lucius Man-
lius came to his assistance out of Gallia Narbonensis, and
Pompey the Great was sent from Rome itself in all haste,
with considerable forces. Nor did Metellus know which
way to turn himself, in a war with such a bold and ready
commander, who was continually molesting him, and yet
could not be brought to a set battle, but by the swiftness
and dexterity of his Spanish soldiery was enabled to shift
and adapt himself to any change of circumstances. Metel-
lus had had experience in battles fought by regular legions
of soldiers, fully armed and drawn up in due order into a
heavy standing phalanx, admirably trained for encounter-
ing and overpowering an enemy who came to close combat,
hand to hand, but entirely unfit for climbing among the
hills, and competing incessantly with the swift attacks and
retreats of a set of fleet mountaineers, or to endure hunger
and thirst, and live exposed like them to the wind and
weather, without fire or covering.

Besides, being now in years, and having been formerly
engaged in many fights and dangerous conflicts, he had
grown inclined to a more remiss, easy, and luxurious life,
and was the less able to contend with Sertorius, who was
in the prime of his strength and vigor, and had a body
wonderfully fitted for war, being strong, active, and tem-
perate, continually accustomed to endure hard labor, to
take long, tedious journeys, to pass many nights together



SERTORIUS 263

without sleep, to eat little, and to be satisfied with very
coarse fare, and who was never stained with the least ex-
cess in wine, even when he was most at leisure. What
leisure time he allowed himself, he spent in hunting and
riding about, and so made himself thoroughly acquainted
with every passage for escape when he would fly, and for
overtaking and intercepting in pursuit, and gained a per-
fect knowledge of where he could and where he could not
go. Insomuch that Metellus suffered all the inconven-
iences of defeat, although he earnesly desired to fight, and
Sertorius, though he refused the field, reaped all the ad-
vantages of a conqueror. For he hindered them from for-
aging, and cut them off from water ; if they advanced, he
was nowhere to be found ; if they stayed in any place and
encamped, he continually molested and alarmed them ; if
they besieged any town, he presently appeared and be-
sieged them again, and put them to extremities for want of
necessaries. And thus he so wearied out the Roman army
that when Sertorious challenged Metellus to fight singly
with him, they commended it, and cried out, it was a fair
offer, a Roman to fight against a Roman, and a general
against a general; and when Metellus refused the chal-
lenge, they reproached him. Metellus derided and
contemned this, and rightly so; for, as Theophrastus
observes, a general should die like a general, and not like
a skirmisher. But perceiving that the town of the Lan-
gobritse, who gave great assistance to Sertorius, might
easily be taken for want of water, as there was but one
well within the walls, and the besieger would be master
of the springs and fountains in the suburbs, he advanced
against the place, expecting to carry it in two days'
time, there being no more water, and gave command to
his soldiers to take five days' provision only. Sertorius,
however, resolving to send speedy relief, ordered two thou-
sand skins to be filled with water, naming a considerable
sum of money for the carriage of every skin j and many



264 PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

Spaniards and Moors undertaking the work, be chose out
those who were the strongest and swiftest of foot, and sent
them through the mountains, with order that when they
had delivered the water, they should convey away privately
all those who would be least serviceable in the siege, that
there might be water sufficient for the defendants. As
soon as Metellus understood this, he was disturbed, as he
nad already consumed most part of the necessary provis-
ions for his army, but he sent out Aquinus with six thou-
sand soldiers to fetch in fresh supplies. But Sertorius hav-
ing notice of it, laid an ambush for him, and having sent
out beforehand three thousand men to take post in a thickly
wooded water-course, with these he attacked the rear of
Aquinus in his return, while he himself, charging him in
the front, destroyed part of his army, and took the rest
prisoners, Aquinus only escaping, after the loss of both his
horse and his armor. And Metellus, being forced shame-
fully to raise the siege, withdrew amidst the laughter and
contempt of the Spaniards; while Sertorius became yet
more the object of their esteem and admiration.

He was also highly honored for his introducing discipline
and good order amongst them, for he altered their furious
savage manner of fighting, and brought them to make use
of the Roman armor, taught them to keep their ranks, and
observe signals and watchwords ; and out of a confused
number of thieves and robbers, he constituted a regular,
well-disciplined army. He bestowed silver and gold upon
them liberally to gild and adorn their helmets, he had'
their shields worked with various figures and designs, he '
brought them into the mode of wearing flowered and em-
broidered cloaks and coats, and by supplying money for
these purposes, and joining with them in all improvements,
he won the hearts of all. That, however, which delighted
them most was the care that he took of their children.
He sent for all the boys of noblest parentage out of all
their tribes, and placed them in the great city of Osca,



SERTOEIUS. 265

where he appointed masters to instruct them in the Gre-
cian and Roman learning, that when they came to be men,
they might, as he professed, be fitted to share with him in
authority, and in conducting the government, although
under this pretext he really made them hostages. How*
ever, their fathers were wonderfully pleased to see their
children going daily to the schools in good order, hand-
somely dressed in gowns edged with purple, and that
Sertorius paid for their lessons, examined them often,
distributed rewards to the most deserving, and gave them
the golden bosses to hang about their necks, which the
Romans called bull^e.

There being a custom in Spain, that when a commander
Was slain in battle, those who attended his person fought
it out till they all died with him, which the inhabitants of
those countries called an offering, or libation, there were
few commanders that had any considerable guard or
number of attendants ; but Sertorius was followed by many
thousands who offered themselves, and vowed to spend
their blood with his. And it is told that when his army
was defeated near a city in Spain, and the enemy pressed
hard upon them, the Spaniards, with no care for themselves,
but being totally solicitous to save Sertorius, took him upon
their shoulders and passed him from one to another, till
they carried him into the city, and only when they had
thus placed their general in safety, provided afterwards
each man for his own security.

Nor were the Spaniards alone ambitious to serve him,
but the Roman soldiers, also, that came out of Italy, were
impatient to be under his command ; and when Perpenna
Vento, who was of the same faction with Sertorius, came
into Spain with a quantity of money and a large number
of troops, and designed to make war against Metellus on
his own account, his own soldiers opposed it, and talked
continually of Sertorius, much to the mortification of Per-
penna, wfyo was purled up with the grandeur of his family



266 PLUTAECII'S LIVES.

and his riches. And when they afterwards received tidings
that Pompey was passing the Pyrenees, they took up their
arms, laid hold on their ensigns, called upon Perpenna to
lead them to Sertorius, and threatened him that if he refused
they would go without him, and place themselves under a
commander who was able to defend himself and those that
served him. And so Perpenna was obliged to yield to their
desires, and joining Sertorius, added to his army three-and-
fifty cohorts.

And when now all the cities on this side of the river Ebro
also united their forces together under his command, his
army grew great, for they flocked together and flowed in
upon him from all quarters. But when they continual^
cried out to attack the enemy, and were impatient of delay,
their inexperienced, disorderly rashness caused Sertorius



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