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said, in right of himself and the Romans. Upon this news,
the whole army expressing their joy, as was to be expected,
fell to sacrificing to the gods, and feasting as if in the per-
son of Mithridates alone there had died many thousands
of their enemies.



POMPEY. 899

Pompey by this event having brought this war to its
completion, with much more ease than was expected, de-
parted forthwith out of Arabia, and passing rapidly through
the intermediate provinces, he came at length to the city
Amisus. There he received many presents brought from
Pharnaces, with several dead bodies of the royal blood, and
the corpse of Mithridates himself, which was not easy to
be known by the face, for the physicians that embalmed
him had not dried up his brain, but those who were curious
to see him knew him by the scars there. Pompey himself
would not endure to see him, but to deprecate the divine
jealousy, sent it away to the city of Sinope. Pie admired
the richness of his robes no less than the size and splendor
of his armor. His sword-belt, however, which had cost
four hundred talents, was stolen by Publius, and sold to
Ariarathes ; his tiara also, a piece of admirable workman-
ship, Gaius, the foster-brother of Mithridates, gave secretly
to Faustus, the son of Sylla, at his request. All which
Pompey was ignorant of, but afterwards, when Pharnaces
came to understand it, he severely punished those that
embezzled them.

Pompey now having ordered all things, and established
that province, took his journey homewards in greater pomp
and with more festivity. For when he came to Mitylene, he
gave the city their freedom upon the intercession of The-
ophanes, and was present at the contest, there periodically
held, of the poets, who took at that time no other theme or
subject than the actions of Pompey. He was extremely
pleased with the theatre itself, and had a model of it taken,
intending to erect one in Rome on the same design, but
larger and more magnificent. When he came to Rhodes,
he attended the lectures of all the philosophers there, and
gave to every one of them a talent. Posidonius has pub-
lished the disputation which he held before him against
Hermagoras the rhetorician, upon the subject of Invention
in general, At Athens, also, he showed similar munifi-



400 PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

cence to the philosophers, and gave fifty talents towards the
repairing and beautifying the city. So that now by all
these acts he well hoped to return into Italy in the greatest
splendor and glory possible to man, and find his family as
desirous to see him, as he felt himself to come home to them.
But that supernatural agency, whose province and charge
it is always to mix some ingredient of evil with the greatest
and most glorious goods of fortune, had for some time back
oeen busy in his household, preparing him a sad welcome.
For Mucia during his absence had dishonored his bed.
Whilst he was abroad at a distance, he had refused all cre-
dence to the report ; but when he drew nearer to Italy, where
his thoughts were more at leisure to give consideration to
the charge, he sent her a bill of divorce ; but neither then
in writing, nor afterwards by word of mouth, did he ever
give a reason why he discharged her ; the cause of it is
mentioned in Cicero's epistles.

Rumors of every kind were scattered abroad about Pom-
pey, and were carried to Rome before him, so that there
was a great tumult and stir, as if he designed forthwith to
march with his army into the city, and establish himself
securely as sole ruler. Crassus withdrew himself, together
with his children and property, out of the city, either that
he was really afraid, or that he counterfeited rather, as is
most probable, to give credit to the calumny and exasperate
the jealousy of the people. Pompey, therefore, as soon as
he entered Italy, called a general muster of the army ; and
having made a suitable address and exchanged a kind fare-
well with his soldiers, he commanded them to depart every
man to his country and place of habitation, only taking care
that they should not fail to meet again at his triumph.
Thus the army being disbanded, and the news commonly
reported, a wonderful result ensued. For when the cities
saw Pompey the Great passing through the country un-
armed, and with a small train of familiar friends only, as if
he was returning from a journey of pleasure, not from his



POMPEY, 401

Conquests, they came pouring out to display their affection
for him, attending and conducting him to Rome with far
greater forces than he disbanded ; insomuch that if he had
designed any movement or innovation in the State, he
might have done it without his army.

Now, because the law permitted no commander to enter
into the city before his triumph, he sent to the senate,
entreating them as a favor to him to prorogue the election
of consuls, that thus he might be able to attend and give
countenance to Piso, one of the candidates. The request
was resisted by Cato, and met with a refusal. However,
Pompey could not but admire the liberty and boldness of
speech which Cato alone had dared to use in the mainte-
nance of law and justice. He therefore had a great desire
to win him over, and purchase his friendship at any rate ;
and to that end, Cato having two nieces, Pompey asked for
one in marriage for himself, the other for his son. But
Cato looked unfavorably on the proposal, regarding it as a
design for undermining his honesty, and in a manner
bribing him by a family alliance ; much to the displeasure
of his wife and sister, who were indignant that he should
reject a connection with Pompey the Great. About that
time Pompey having a design of setting up Afranius for
the consulship, gave a sum of money among the tribes for
their votes, and people came and received it in his own
gardens, a proceeding which, when it came to be generally
known, excited great disapprobation, that he should thus,
for the sake of men who could not obtain the honor by their
own merits, make merchandise of an office which had been
given to himself as the highest reward of his services.
" Now," said Cato, to his wife and sister, " had we con-
tracted an alliance with Pompey, we had been allied to this
dishonor, too ; " and this they could not but acknowledge,
and allow his judgment of what was right and fitting to
have been wiser and better than theirs.

The splendor and magnificence of Pompey's triumph was
26



402 PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

such that though it took up the space of two days, yet ;hey
were extremely straitened in time, so that of what was pre-
pared for that pageantry, there was as much withdrawn as
would have set out and adorned another triumph. In the
first place, there were tables carried, inscribed with the
names and titles of the nations over whom he triumphed,
Fontus, Armenia, Cappadocia, Paphiagonia, Media, Colchis,
the Iberians, the Albanians, Syria, Cilicia, and Mesopotamia,
together with Phoenicia and Palestine, Judaea, Arabia,
and all the power of the pirates subdued by sea and land.
And in these different countries there appeared the capture
of no less than one thousand fortified places, nor much less
than nine hundred cities, together with eight hundred
ships of the pirates, and the foundation of thirty-nine towns.
Besides, there was set forth in these tables an account of
all the tributes throughout the empire, and how that be-
fore these conquests the revenue amounted but to fifty
millions, whereas from his acquisitions they had a revenue
of eighty -five millions; and that in present payment he
was bringing into the common treasury ready money and
gold and silver plate, and ornaments, to the value of twenty
thousand talents, over and above what had been distributed
among the soldiers, of whom he that had least had fifteen
hundred drachmas for his share. The prisoners of war
that were led in triumph, besides the chief pirates, were
the son of Tigranes, king of Armenia, with his wife and
daughter ; as also Zosime, wife of ting Tigranes himself,
and Aristobulus, king of Judaea, the sister of king Mithri-
dates, and her five sons, and some Scythian women. There
were likewise the hostages ot the Albanians and Iberians,
and of the king ct Commagene, besides a vast number ot
trophies, one for every battle in which he was conqueror,,
either himself in person, or by his lieutenants. But that
which seemed to be his greatest glory, being one which no
other Roman ever attained to, was this, that he made his
third triumph over the third division of the world Foi



POMPET. 40b

others among the Romans had the honor of triumphing
thrice, but his first triumph was over Africa, his second
over Europe, and this last over Asia ; so that he seemed
in these three triumphs to have led the whole world
captive.

As for his age, those who affect to make the parallel
exact in all things betwixt him and Alexander the Great,
do not allow him to have been quite thirty-four, whereas
in truth at that time he was near forty. And well had it
been for him had he terminated his life at this date, while
he still enjoyed Alexander's fortune, since all his after-
time served only either to bring him prosperity that made
him odious, or calamities too great to be retrieved. For that
great authority which he had gained in the city by his
merits, he made use of only in patronizing the iniquities
of others, so that by advancing their fortunes he detracted
from his own glory, till at last he was overthrown even by
the force and greatness of his own power. And as the
strongest citadel or fort in a town, when it is taken by an
enemy, does then afford the same strength to the foe as
it had done to friends before, so Caesar, after Pompey's aid
had made him strong enough to defy his country, ruined
and overthrew at last the power which had availed him
against the rest. The course of things was as follows.
Lucullus, when he returned out of Asia, where he had been
treated with insult by Pompey, was received by the senate
with great honor, which was yet increased when Pompey
came home ; to check whose ambition they encouraged him
to assume the administration of the government, whereas
he was now grown cold and disinclined to business, having
given himself over to the pleasures of ease and the enjoy.
ment of a splendid fortune. However, he began for the
time to exert himself against Pompey, attacked him sharply,
and succeeded in having his own acts and decrees, which
were repealed by Pompey, re-established, and, with the
assistance of Cato, gained the superiority in the senate,



404 PL UTARCti'S LIVES.

Pompey having fallen from his hopes in such an unworthj
repulse, was forced to fly to the tribunes of the people foi
refuge, and to attach himself to the young men, among
whom was Clodius, the vilest and most impudent wretch
alive, who took him about, and exposed him as a tool to the
people, carrying him up and down among the throngs in
the market-place, to countenance those laws and speeches
which he made to cajole the people and ingratiate himself.
And at last for his reward, he demanded of Pompey, as if
he had not disgraced, but done him a great kindness, that
he should forsake (as in the end he did forsake) Cicero, his
friend, who on many public occasions had done him the
greatest service. And so when Cicero was in danger, and
implored his aid, he would not admit him into his presence,
but shutting up his gates against those that came to medi-
ate for him, slipt out at a back door, whereupon Cicero,
fearing the result of his trial, departed privately from Rome.
About that time Caesar, returning from military service,
started a course of policy which brought him great present
favor, and much increased his power for the future, and
proved extremely destructive both to Pompey and the
commonwealth. For now he stood candidate for his first
consulship, and well observing the enmity betwixt Pompey
and Crassus, and finding that by joining with one he should
make the other his enemy, he endeavored by all means
to reconcile them, an object in itself honorable and tending-
to the public good, but, as he undertook it, a mischievous
and subtle intrigue. For he well knew that opposite par-
ties or factions in a commonwealth, like passengers in a
boat, serve to trim and balance the unsteady motions of
power there ; whereas if they combine and come all over
to one side, they cause a shock which will be sure to over-
set the vessel and carry down everything. And therefore
Cato wisely told those who charged all the calamities of
Rome upon the disagreement betwixt Pompey and Caesar,
that they were in error in charging all the crime upon the-



POMPEY. 405

last cause; for it was not their discord and enmity, but
their unanimity and friendship, that gave the first and
greatest blow to the commonwealth.

Caesar being thus elected consul, began at once to make
an interest with the poor and meaner sort, by preferring and
establishing laws for planting colonies and dividing lands,
lowering the dignity of his office, and turning his consulship
into a sort of tribuneship rather. And when Bibulus, his
colleague, opposed him, and Cato was prepared to second
Bibulus, and assist him vigorously, Caesar brought Pompey
upon the hustings, and addressing him in the sight of the
people, demanded his opinion upon the laws that were pro-
posed. Pompey gave his approbation. " Then," said Caesar,
" in case any man should offer violence to these laws, will
you be ready to give assistance to the people ? r " Yes,"
replied Pompey, " I shall be ready, and against those that
threaten the sword, I will appear with sword and buckler."
Nothing ever was said or done by Pompey up to that day, that
seemed more insolent or overbearing ; so that his friends
endeavored to apologize for it as a word spoken inadver-
tently ; but by his actions afterwards it appeared plainly that
he was totally devoted to Caesar's service. For on a sudden,
contrary to all expectation, he married Julia, the daughter of
Caesar, who had been affianced before and was to be married
within a few days to Caepio. And to appease Caepio's wrath,
he gave him his own daughter in marriage, who had been
espoused before to Faustus, the son of Sylla. Caesar him-
self married Calpurnia, the daughter of Piso.

Upon this Pompey, filling the city with soldiers, carried
all things by force as he pleased. As Bibulus, the consul,
was going to the forum, accompanied by Lucullus and Cato,
they fell upon him on a sudden and broke his rods ; and
somebody threw a vessel of ordure upon the head of
Bibulus himself ; and two tribunes of the people, who es-
corted him, were desperately wounded in the fray. And
thus having cleared the forum of all their adversaries,



406 PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

got their bill for the division of lands established and passed
into an act ; and not only so, but the whole populace being
taken with this bait, became totally at their devotion, in-
quiring into nothing and without a word giving their suf-
frages to whatever they propounded. Thus they confirmed
all those acts and decrees of Pompey, which were questioned
and contested by Lucullus ; and to Caesar they granted the
provinces of Gaul, both within and without the Alps,
together with Illyricum, for five years, and likewise an
army of four entire legions ; then they created consuls for
the year ensuing, Piso, the father-in-law of Csesar, and
Gabinius, the most extravagant of Pompey's flatterers.

During all these transactions, Bibulus kept close within
doors, nor did he appear publicly in person for the space of
eight months together, notwithstanding he was consul, but
sent out proclamations full of bitter invectives and accusa-
tions against them both. Cato turned prophet, and as if
he had been possessed with a spirit of divination, did noth-
ing else in the senate but foretell what evils should befall
the commonwealth and Pompey. Lucullus pleaded old
age, and retired to take his ease, as superannuated for
affairs of State; which gave occasion to the saying of
Pompey, that the fatigues of luxury were not more season-
able for an old man than those of government. Which in
truth proved a reflection upon himself; for he not long
after let his fondness for his young wife seduce him also
into effeminate habits. He gave all his time to her, and
passed his days in her company in country-houses and
gardens, paying no heed to what was going on in the forum.
Insomuch that Clodius, who was then tribune of the peo-
ple, began to despise him, and engage in the most auda-
cious attempts. For when he had banished Cicero, and sent
away Cato into Cyprus under pretence of military duty,
and when Csesar was gone upon his expedition to Gaul,
finding the populace now looking to him as the leader who
did everything according to their pleasure, he attempted



POMPEY. 407

forthwith to repeal some of Pompey's decrees ; he took
Tigranes, the captive, out of prison, and kept him about
him as his companion; and commenced actions against
several of Pompey's friends, thus designing to try the
extent of his power. At last, upon a time when Pompey
was present at the hearing of a certain cause, Clodius,
accompanied with a crowd of profligate and impudent
ruffians, standing up in a place above the rest, put questions
to the populace as follows : " Who is the dissolute general ?
who is the man that seeks another man? who scratches
his head with one finger ? " and the rabble, upon the signal
of his shaking his gown, with a great shout to every ques-
tion, like singers making responses in a chorus, made
answer, "Pompey."

This indeed was no small annoyance to Pompey, who
was quite unaccustomed to hear anything ill of himself,
and unexperienced altogether in such encounters ; and he
was yet more vexed, when he saw that the senate rejoiced
at this foul usage, and regarded it as a just punishment
upon him for his treachery to Cicero. But when it came
even to blows and wounds in the forum, and that one ot
Clodius's bond-slaves was apprehended, creeping through
the crowd towards Pompey with a sword in his hand,
Pompey laid hold of this pretence, though perhaps other-
wise apprehensive of Clodius's insolence and bad language,
and never appeared again in the forum during all the time
he was tribune, but kept close at home, and passed his
time in consulting with his friends, by what means he
might best allay the displeasure of the senate and nobles
against him. Among other expedients, Culleo advised
the divorce of Julia, and to abandon Caesar's friendship to
gain that of the senate ; this he would not hearken to.
Others again advised him to call home Cicero from ban-
ishment, a man who was always the great adversary
of Ciodius, and as great a favorite of the senate ; to this he
was easily persuaded. And therefore he brought Cicero's



408 PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

brother into the forum, attended with a strong party, tfl
petition for his return ; where, after a warm dispute, in
which several were wounded and some slain, he got the
victory over Clodius. No sooner was Cicero returned home
upon this decree, but immediately he used his efforts to
reconcile the senate to Pompey ; and by speaking in favor
of the law upon the importations of corn, did again, in effect,
make Pompey sovereign lord of all the Roman possessions
by sea and land. For by that law, there were placed under
his control all ports, markets, and storehouses, and, in short,
all the concerns both of the merchants and the husband-
men ; which gave occasion to the charge brought against
it by Clodius, that the law was not made because of the
scarcity of corn, but the scarcity of corn was made, that
they might pass a law, whereby that power of his, which
was now grown feeble and consumptive, might be revived
again, and Pompey reinstated in a new empire. Others
look upon it as a politic device of Spinther, the consul,
whose design it was to secure Pompey in a greater author-
ity, that he himself might be sent in assistance to king
Ptolemy. However, it is certain that Canidius, the trib-
une, preferred a law to despatch Pompey in the character
of an ambassador, without an army, attended only with
two lictors, as a mediator betwixt the king and his subjects
of Alexandria. Neither did this proposal seem unaccept-
able to Pompey, though the senate cast it out upon the
specious pretence, that they were unwilling to hazard his
person. However, there were found several writings scat-
tered about the forum and near the senate-house, intimat-
ing how grateful it would be to Ptolemy to have Pompey
appointed for his general instead of Spinther. And Ti-
magenes even asserts that Ptolemy went away and left
Egypt, not out of necessity, but purely upon the persuasion
of Theophanes, who was anxious to give Pompey the oppor-
tunity for holding a new command, and gaining further
wealth. But Theophanes's want of honesty does not go so



POMPEY. 409

far to make this story credible as does Pompey's own
nature, which was averse, with all its ambition, to such
base and disingenuous acts, to render it improbable.

Thus Pompey, being appointed chief purveyor, and hav-
ing within his administration and management all the corn
trade, sent abroad his factors and agents into all quarters,
and he himself sailing into Sicily, Sardinia, and Africa,
collected vast stores of corn. He was just ready to set saii
upon his voyage home, w T hen a great storm arose upon the
sea, and the ships' commanders doubted whether it were
safe. Upon which Pompey himself went first aboard, and
bid the mariners weigh anchor, declaring with a loud voice,
that there was a necessity to sail, but no necessity to live.
So that with this spirit and courage, and having met with
favorable fortune, he made a prosperous return, and filled
the markets with corn, and the sea with ships. So much
so that this great plenty and abundance of provisions
yielded a sufficient supply, not only to the city of Rome,
but even to other places too, dispersing itself, like waters
from a spring, into all quarters.

Meantime Csesar grew great and famous with his wars
in Gaul, and while in appearance he seemed far distant
from Rome, entangled in the affairs of the Belgians, Sue-
vians, and Britons, in truth he was working craftily by
secret practices in the midst of the people, and counter-
mining Pompey in all political matters of most importance.
He himself, with his army close about him, as if it had
been his own body, not with mere views of conquest over
the barbarians, but as though his contests with them were
but mere sports and exercises of the chase, did his utmost
with this training and discipline to make it invincible and
alarming. And in the mean time his gold and silver and
other spoils and treasure which he took from the enemy in
his conquests, he sent to Rome in presents, tempting people
with his gifts, and aiding eediles, praetors, and consuls, as
Ai&o their wives, in their expenses, and thus purchasing



410 PLUTAECWS LIVES.

himself numerous friends. Insomuch, that when he passed
back again over the Alps, and took up his winter quarters
in the city of Luca, there nocked to him an infinite number
of men and women, striving who should get first to him,
two hundred senators included, among whom were Pompey
and Crassus ; so that there were to be seen at once before
Caesar's door no less than sixscore rods of proconsuls and
praetors. The rest of his addressers he sent all away full
fraught with hopes and money ; but with Crassus and
Pompey, he entered into special articles of agreement,
that they should stand candidates for the consulship next
year ; that Ceesar on his part should send a number of his
soldiers to give their votes at the election ; that as soon as
they were elected, they should use their interest to have
the command of some provinces and legions assigned to
themselves, and that Ceesar should have his present charge
confirmed to him for five years more. When these arrange-
ments came to be generally known, great indignation was
excited among the chief men in Rome ; and Marcellinus, in
an open assembly of the people, demanded of them both,
whether they designed to sue for the consulship or no.
And being urged by the people for their answer, Pompey
spoke first, and told them, perhaps he would sue for it, per-
haps he would not. Crassus was more temperate, and said,
that he would do what should be judged most agreeable
with the interest of the commonwealth ; and when Mar-
cellinus persisted in his attack on Pompey, and spoke, as
it was thought, with some vehemence, Pompey remarked



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