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judgment, but every man pressed and urged him according
to his particular fancy, whether it proceeded from doubt,
fear, grief, or any meaner passion ; so that even in the
same day quite contrary counsels were acted upon. Then,
again, it was as impossible to have any good intelligence
of the enemy ; for what each man heard, ny chance upon a
flying rumor, he would report for truth, and exclaim against


Fompey if he did not believe it. Pompey, at length, seeing
such a confusion in Rome, determined with himself to put
an end to their clamors by his departure, and therefore
commanding all the senate to follow him, and declaring,,
that whosoever tarried behind should be judged a con-
federate of Caesar's, about the dusk of the evening he went
out and left the city. The consuls also followed after in
a hurry, without offering the sacrifices to the gods, usual
before a war. But in all this, Pompey himself had the
glory, that in the midst of such calamities, he had so much
of men's love and good- will. For though many found fault
with the conduct of the war, yet no man hated the general ;
and there were more to be found of those that went out of
Rome, because that they could not forsake Pompey, than
of those that fled for love of liberty.

Some few days after Pompey was gone out, Caesar came
into the city, and made himself master of it, treating every
one with a great deal of courtesy, and appeasing their
fears, except only Metellus, one of the tribunes ; on whose
refusing to let him take any money out of the treasury,
Caesar threatened him with death, adding words yet harsher
than the threat, that it was far easier for him to do it than
say it. By this means removing Metellus, and taking what
moneys were of use for his occasions, he set forwards in
pursuit of Pompey, endeavoring with all speed to drive him
out of Italy before his army, that was in Spain, could join

But Pompey arriving at Brundusium, and having plenty
of ships there, bade the two consuls embark immediately,
and with them shipped thirty cohorts of foot, bound before
him for Dyrrhachium. He sent likewise his father-in-law,
Scipio, and Cnseus, his son, into Syria, to provide and fit
out a fleet there ; himself in the mean time having blocked
up the gates, placed his lightest soldiers as guards upon
the walls; and giving express orders that the citizens
should keep within doors, he dug up all the ground inside


the city, cutting trenches, and fixing stakes and palisade*
throughout all the streets of the city, except only two that
led down to the seaside. Thus in three days' space having
with ease put all the rest of his army on shipboard, he
suddenly gave the signal to those that guarded the walls,
who nimbly repairing to the ships, were received on board
and carried off. Caesar meantime perceiving their departure
by seeing the walls unguarded, hastened after, and in the
heat of pursuit was ail but entangled himself among the
stakes and trenches. But the Brundusians discovering the
danger to him, and showing him the way, he wheeled
about, and taking a circuit round the city, made towards
the haven, where he found all the ships on their way
excepting only two vessels that had but a few soldiers

Most are of opinion, that this departure of Pompey's is
to be counted among the best of his military performances,
but Caesar himself couM not but wonder that he, who was
thus engarrisoned in a city well fortified, who was in ex-
pectation of his forces from Spain, and was master of the
sea besides, should leave and abandon Italy. Cicero ac-
cuses him of imitating the conduct of Themis tocles, rather
than of Pericles, when the circumstances were more like
those of Pericles than they were like those of Themistocles.
However, it appeared plainly, and Caesar showed it by his
actions, that he was in great fear of delay, for when he
had taken Numerius, a friend of Pompey's, prisoner, he
sent him as an ambassador to Brundusium, with offers of
peace and reconciliation upon equal terms ; but Numerius
sailed away with Pompey. And now Caesar having become
master of all Italy in sixty days, without a drop of blood-
shed, had a great desire forthwith to follow Pompey ; but
being destitute of shipping, he was forced to divert his
course, and march into Spain, designing to bring over
Pompey's forces there to his own.

In the mean time Pompey raised a mighty army both by


sea and land. As for his navy, it was irresistible. For there
were five hundred men of war, besides an infinite company
of light vessels, Liburnians, and others ; and for his land
forces, the cavalry made up a body of seven thousand horse,
the very flower of Rome and Italy, men of family, wealth,
and high spirit ; but the infantry was a mixture of inex-
perienced soldiers drawn from different quarters, and these
he exercised and trained near Beroea, where he quartered
his army ; himself noways slothful, but performing all his
exercises as if he had been in the flower of his youth, con-
duct which raised the spirits of his soldiers extremely.
For it was no small encouragement for them to see Pompey
the Great, sixty years of age wanting two, at one time
handling his arms among the foot, then again mounted
among the horses, drawing out his sword with ease in full
career, and sheathing it up as easily ; and in darting the
javelin, showing not only skill and dexterity in hitting the
mark, but also strength and activity in throwing it so far
that few of the young men went beyond him.

Several kings and princes of nations came thither to him,
and there was a concourse of Roman citizens who had held
the magistracies, so numerous that they made up a com-
plete senate. Labienus forsook his old friend Caesar, whom
he had served throughout all his wars in Gaul, and came
ever to Pompey ; and Brutus, son to that Brutus that was
put to death in Gaul, a man of a high spirit, and one that
to that day had never so much as saluted or spoke to Pom-
pey, looking upon him as the murderer of his father, came
then and submitted himself to him as defender of their
liberty. Cicero likewise, though he had written and ad^
vised otherwise, yet was ashamed not to be accounted in
the number of those that would hazard their lives and
fortunes for the safeguard of their country. There came
to him also into Macedonia, Tidius Sextius, a man extremely
old, and lame of one leg ; so that others indeed mocked and
laughed at the spectacle, but Pompey, as soon as he saw


him, rose and ran to meet him, esteeming it no small testi
mony in his favor, when men of such age and infirmities
should rather choose to be with him in danger, than in
safety at home. Afterwards in a meeting of their senate
they passed a decree, on the motion of Cato, that no Roman
citizen should be put to death but in battle, and that they
should not sack or plunder any city that was subject to
the Roman empire, a resolution which gained Pompey's
party still greater reputation, insomuch that those who
were noways at all concerned in the war, either because
they dwelt afar off, or were thought incapable of giving
help, were yet, in their good wishes, upon his side, and in
all their words, so far as that went, supported the good or
just cause, as they called it ; esteeming those as enemies
to the gods and men that wished not victory to Pornpey.

Neither was Pompey's clemency such, but that Caesar
likewise showed himself as merciful a conqueror ; for when
he had taken and overthrown all Pompey's forces in Spain,
he gave them easy terms, leaving the commanders at their
liberty, and taking the common soldiers into his own pay.
Then repassing the Alps, and making a running march
through Italy, he came to Brundusium about the winter
solstice, and crossing the sea there, landed at the port of
Oricum. And having Jubius, an intimate friend of Porn,
pey's with him as his prisoner, he despatched him to
Pompey with an invitation, that they, meeting together in
a conference, should disband both their armies within three
days, and renewing their former friendship with solemn
oaths, should return together into Italy. Pompey looked
upon this again as some new stratagem, and therefore
marching down in all haste to the sea-coast, possessed him-
self of all forts and places of strength suitable to encamp
in, and to secure his land-forces, as likewise of all ports and
harbors commodious to receive any that came by sea, so
that what wind soever blew, it must needs, in some way
or other, be favorable to him, bringing in either provision!


men, or money; while Csesar, on the contrary, was so
hemmed in both by sea and land, that he was forced to
desire battle, daily provoking the enemy, and assailing them
in their very forts ; and in these light skirmishes for the
most part had the better. Once only he was dangerously
overthrown, and was within a little of losing his whole
army, Pompey having fought nobly, routing the whole force
and killing two thousand on the spot. But either he
was not able, or was afraid, to go on and force his way
into their camp with them ; so that Csesar made the re-
mark, that " To-day the victory had been the enemy's had
there been any one among them to gain it." Pompey's
soldiers were so encouraged by this victory that they were
eager now to have all put to the decision of a battle ; but
Pompey himself, though he wrote to distant kings, generals,
and States in confederacy with him, as a conqueror yet was
afraid to hazard the success of a battle, choosing rather by
delays, and distress of provisions, to tire out a body of men
who had never yet been conquered by force of arms, and had
long been used to fight and conquer together ; while their
time of life, now an advanced one, which made them quickly
weary of those other hardships of war, such as were long
marches and frequent decampings, making trenches, and
building fortifications, made them eager to come to close
combat and venture a battle with all speed.

Pompey had all along hitherto by his persuasions pretty
well quieted his soldiers ; but after this last engagement,
when Csesar, for want of provisions, was forced to raise his
camp, and passed through Athamania into Thessaly, it was
impossible to curb or allay the heat of their spirits any
longer. For all crying out with a general voice, that
Csesar was fled, some were for pursuing and pressing upon
him, others for returning into Italy ; some there were
that sent their friends and servants beforehand to Rome,
to hire houses near the forum, that they might be in readi-
ness to sue for offices ; several of their own motion sailed


off at once to Lesbos to carry to Cornelia (whom Pom*
pey had conveyed thither to be in safety) the joyful
news that the war was ended. And a senate being called
and the matter being under debate, Afranius was of opin-
ion, that Italy should first be regained, for that it was the
grand prize and crown of all the war ; and they who were
masters of that would quickly have at their devotion all
the provinces of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Spain, and Gaul ;
but what was of greatest weight and moment to Pompey,
it was his own native country that lay near, reaching out
her hand for his help; and certainly it could not be con-
sistent with his honor to leave her thus exposed to all
'.ndignities, and in bondage under slaves and the flatterers
of a tyrant. But Pompey himself, on the contrary, thought
it neither honorable to fly a second time before Caesar, and
be pursued, when fortune had given him the advantage of
a pursuit; nor indeed lawful before the gods to forsake
Scipio and divers other men of consular dignity dispersed
throughout Greece and Thessaly, who must necessarily
fall into Caesar's hands, together with large sums of money
and numerous forces ; and as to his care for the city of
Rome, that would most eminently appear, by removing the
scene of war to a greater distance, and leaving her, with-
out feeling the distress or even hearing the sound of these
evils, to await in peace the return of whichever should be
the victor.

With this determination, Pompey marched forwards in
pursuit of Csesar, firmly resolved with himself not to give
him battle, but rather to besiege and distress him, by keep-
ing close at his heels, and cutting him short. There were
other reasons that made him continue this resolution, but
especially because a saying that was current among the
Romans serving in the cavalry came to his ear, to the effect,
that they ought to beat Caesar as soon as possible, and then
humble Pompey too. And some report, it was for this
reason that Pompey never employed Cato hi any matter


of consequence during the whole war, but now, when lie
pursued Caesar, left him to guard his baggage by sea, fear-
ing lest, if Csesar should be taken off, he himself also by
Cato's means not long after should be forced to give up his

'Whilst he was thus slowly attending the motions of the
enemy, he was exposed on all sides to outcries and impu-
tations of using his generalship to defeat, not Caesar, but
his country and the senate, that he might always continue
in authority, and never cease to keep those for his guards
and servants, who themselves claimed to govern the world.
Domitius ^Enobarbus, continually calling him Agamemnon,
and king of kings, excited jealousy against him ; andFavo-
nius, by his unseasonable raillery, did him no less injury
than those who openly attacked him, as when he cried out,
" Good friends, you must not expect to gather any figs in
Tusculum this year." But Lucius Afranius, who had lain
under an imputation of treachery for the loss of the army
in Spain, when he saw Pompey purposely declining an
engagement, declared openly, that he could not but ad-
mire, why those who were so ready to accuse him did
not go themselves and fight this buyer and seller of their

With these and many such speeches they wrought upon
Pompey, who never could bear reproach, or resist the ex-
pectations of his friends ; and thus they forced him to
break his measures, so that he forsook his own prudent
resolution to follow their vain hopes and desires : weakness
that would have been blamable in the pilot of a ship, how
much more in the sovereign commander of such an army,
and so many nations. But he, though he had often com-
mended those physicians who did not comply with the
capricious appetites of their patients, yet himself could not
but yield to the malady and disease of his companions and
advisers in the war, rather than use some severity in their
cure. Truly who could have said that health was not


ordered and a cure not required in the case of men who
went up and down the camp, suing already for the consul-
ship and office of praetor, while Spinther, Domitius, and
Scipio made friends, raised factions, and quarrelled among
themselves, who should succeed Caesar in the dignity of his
high-priesthood, esteeming all as lightly, as if they were to
engage only with Tigranes, king of Armenia, or some petty
Nabathaean king, not with that Caesar and his army that
had stormed a thousand towns, and subdued more than
three hundred several nations ; that had fought innumer-
able battles with the Germans and Gauls, and always car-
ried the victory ; that had taken a million of men prisoners,
and slain as many upon the spot in pitched battles ?

But they went on soliciting and clamoring, and on reach-
ing the plain of Pharsalia, they forced Pompey by their
pressure and importunities to call a council of war, where
Labienus, general of the horse, stood up first and swore
that he would not return out of the battle if he did not rout
the enemies ; and all the rest took the same oath. That
night Pompey dreamed that as he went into the theatre,
the people received him with great applause, and that he
himself adorned the temple of Venus the Victorious with
many spoils. This vision partly encouraged, but partly
also disheartened him, fearing lest that splendor and orna-
ment to Venus should be made with spoils furnished by
himself to Caesar, who derived his family from that goddess.
Besides there were some panic fears and alarms that ran
through the camp, with such a noise that it awaked him
out of his sleep. And about the time of renewing the
watch towards morning, there appeared a great light over
Caesar's camp, whilst they were all at rest, and from
thence a ball of flaming fire was carried into Pompey's
camp, which Caesar himself says he saw, as he was walking
bis rounds.

Now Caesar having designed to raise his camp with the
morning and move to Scotussa, whilst the soldiers were busy


in pulling clown their tents, and sending on their cattle and
servants before them with their baggage, there came in
scouts who brought word that they saw arms carried to and
fro in the enemy's camp, and heard a noise and running up
and down, as of men preparing for battle ; not long after
there came in other scouts with further intelligence, that the
first ranks were already set in battle array. Thereupon
Caesar, when he had told them that the wished-for day was
come at last, when they should fight with men, not with
hunger and famine, instantly gave orders for the red colors
to be set up before his tent, that being the ordinary signal
of battle among the Romans. As soon as the soldiers saw
that, they left their tents, and with great shouts of joy ran
to their arms ; the officers, likewise, on their parts drawing
up their companies in order of battle, every man fell into
his proper rank without any trouble or noise, as quietly
and orderly as if they had been in a dance.

Pompey himself led the right wing of his army against
Antony, and placed his father-in-law, Scipio, in the middle
against Lucius Calvinus. The left wing was commanded
by Lucius Domitius, and supported by the great mass of the
horse. For almost the whole cavalry was posted there in
the hope of crushing Caesar, and cutting off the tenth legion,
which was spoken of as the stoutest in all the army, and in
which Caesar himself usually fought in person. Caesar
observing the left wing of the enemy to be lined and fortified
with such a mighty guard of horse, and alarmed at the
gallantry of their appearance, sent for a detachment of six
cohorts out of the reserves, and placed them in the rear of
the tenth legion, commanding them not to stir, lest they
should be discovered by the enemy ; but when the enemy's
horse should begin to charge, and press upon them, that
they should make up with all speed to the front through
the foremost ranks, and not throw their javelins at a dis-
tance, as is usual with brave soldiers, that they may come
to a close fight with their swords the sooner, but that they


should striKe them upwards into the eyes and faces of the
enemy ; telling them that those fine young dancers would
never endure the steel shining in their eyes, but would fly
to save their handsome faces. This was Caesar's employ-
ment at that time. But while he was thus instructing his
soldiers, Pompey on horseback was viewing the order of
both armies, and when he saw how well the enemy kept
their ranks, expecting quietly the signal of battle, and, on
the contrary, how impatient and unsteady his own men
were, waving up and down in disorder for want of experi-
ence, he was very much afraid that their ranks would be
broken upon the first onset; and therefore he gave out
orders that the van should make a stand, and keeping close
in their ranks should receive the enemy's charge. Caesar
much condemns this command ; which, he says, not only
took off from the strength of the blows, which would other-
wise have been made with a spring, but also lost the men
the impetus, which, more than anything, in the moment of
their coming upon the enemy, fills soldiers with impulse
and inspiration, the very shouts and rapid pace adding to
their fury ; of which Pompey deprived his men, arresting
them in their course and cooling down their heat.

Caesar's army consisted of twenty-two thousand, and
Pompey's of somewhat above twice as many. When the
signal of battle was given on both sides, and the trumpets
began to sound a charge, most men of course were fully
occupied with their own matters; only some few of the
noblest Romans, together with certain Greeks there
present, standing as spectators without the battle, seeing
the armies now ready to join, could not but consider in
themselves to what a pass private ambition and emulation
had brought the empire. Common arms, and kindred
ranks drawn up under the selfsame standards, the whole
flower and strength of the same single city here meeting in
collision with itself, offered plain proof how blind and how
mad a thing human nature is, when once possessed with


any passion ; for if they had been desirous only to rule,
and enjoy in peace what they had conquered in war, the
greatest and best part of the world was subject to them
both by sea and land. But if there was yet a thirst in
their ambition, that must still be fed with new trophies and
triumphs, the Parthian and German wars would yield mat-
ter enough to satisfy the most covetous of honor. Scythia,
moreover, was yet unconquered, and the Indians too,
where their ambition might be colored over with the spe-
cious pretext of civilizing barbarous nations. And what
Scythian horse, Parthian arrows, or Indian riches could be
able to resist seventy thousand Roman soldiers, well ap-
pointed in arms, under the command of two such generals as
Pompey and Caesar, whose names they had heard of before
that of the Romans, and whose prowess, by their conquests
of such wild, remote, savage, and brutish nations, was
spread further than the fame of the Romans themselves ?
To-day they met in conflict, and could no longer be induced
to spare their -country, even out of regard for their own
glory or the fear of losing the name which till this day
both had held, of having never yet been defeated. As for
their former private ties, and the charms of Julia, and the
marriage that had made them near connections, these could
now only be looked upon as tricks of State, the mere se-
curities of a treaty made to serve the needs of an occasion,
not the pledges of any real friendship.

Now, therefore, as soon as the plains of Pharsalia were
covered with men, horse, and armor, and that the signal of
battle was raised on either side, Caius Crassianus, a cen-
turion, who commanded a company of one hundred and
twenty men, was the first that advanced out of Caesar's
army, to give the charge, and acquit himself of a solemn
engagement that he had made to Caesar. He had been the
first man that Caesar had seen going out of the camp in the
morning, and Caesar, after saluting him, had asked him
what he thought of the coming battle. To which he.


stretching out his right hand, replied aloud, " Thine is tna
victory, O Caesar, thou shalt conquer gloriously, and I my-
self this day will be the subject of thy praise either alive
or dead." In pursuance of this promise he hastened for-
ward, and being followed by many more, charged into the
midst of the enemy. There they came at once to a close
fight with their swords, and made a great slaughter; but
as he was still pressing forward, and breaking the ranks of
the vanguard, one of Pompey's soldiers ran him in at the
mouth, so that the point of the sword came out behind at
his neck ; and Crassianus being thus slain, the fight became
doubtful, and continued equal on that part of the battle.
Pompey had not yet brought on the right wing, but
stayed and looked about, waiting to see what execution his
cavalry would do. on the left. They had already drawn
out their squadrons in form, designing to turn Caesar's flank,
and force those few horse, which he had placed in the
front, to give back upon the battalion of foot. But Caesar,
on the other side, having given the signal, his horse re-
treated back a little, and gave way to those six subsidiary
cohorts, which had been posted in the rear, as a reserve to
cover the flank, and which now came out three thousand
men in number, and met the enemy ; and when they came
up, standing by the horses, struck their javelins upwards,
according to their instructions, and hit the horsemen full
in their faces. They, unskilful in any manner of fight,
and least of all expecting or understanding such a kind as
this, had not courage enough to endure the blows upon

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