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being commanded by Lucius Lucullus to give place to hu
successor, Sylla, and resign the war to whom it was decreed,
he presently left Boeotia, and retired back to Sentius,
although his success had outgone all hopes, and Greece was
well disposed to a new revolution, upon account of his
gallant behavior. These were the glorious actions of
Bruttius.

Sylla, on his arrival, received by their deputations the
compliments of all the cities of Greece, except Athene



SYLLA. 49

against which, as it was compelled by the tyrant Aristion
to hold for the king, he advanced with all his forces, and
investing the Piraeus, laid formal siege to it, employing
every variety of engines, and trying every manner of
assault; whereas, had he forborne but a little while, he
might without hazard have taken the Upper City by
famine, it being already reduced to the last extremity,
through want of necessaries. But eager to return to
Rome, and fearing innovation there, at great risk, with
continual fighting and vast expense, he pushed on the war.
Besides other equipage, the very work about the engines of
battery was supplied with no less than ten thousand yoke
of mules, employed daily hi that service. And when timber
grew scarce, for many of the works failed, some crushed to
pieces by their own weight, others taking fire by the con-
tinual play of the enemy, he had recourse to the sacred
groves, and cut down the trees of the Academy, the shadi-
est of all the suburbs, and the Lyceum. And a vast sum of
money being wanted to carry on the war, he broke into
the sanctuaries of Greece, that of Epidaurus and that of
Olympia, sending for the most beautiful and precious
offerings deposited there. He wrote, likewise, to the
Amphictyons at Delphi, that it were better to remit the
wealth of the god to him, for that he would keep it more
securely, or in case he made use of it, restore as much. He
sent Caphis, the Phocian, one of his friends, with this
message, commanding him to receive each item by weight.
Caphis came to Delphi, but was loth to touch the holy
things, and with many tears, in the presence of the
Amphictyons, bewailed the necessity. And on some of
them declaring they heard the sound of a harp from the
Inner shrine, he, whether he himself believed it, or was
willing to try the effect of religious fear upon Sylla, sent
back an express. To which Sylla replied in a scoffing way,
that it was surprising to him that Caphis did not know
that music was a sign of joy, not anger; he should, ther**



4) PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

fore, go on boldly, and accept what a gracious and bountl
ful god ottered.

Other things were sent away without much notice on th
part of the Greeks in general, but in the case of the silver
tun, that only relic of the regal donations, which its weight
and bulk made it impossible for any carriage to receive,
the Amphictyons were forced to cut it into pieces, and
called to mind in so doing, how Titus Flamininus, and
Manius Acilius, and again Paulus ^Emilius, one of whom
drove Antiochus out of Greece, and the others subdued the
Macedonian kings, had not only abstained from violating
the Greek temples, but had even given them new gifts and
honors, and increased the general veneration for them.
They, indeed, the lawful commanders ot temperate and
obedient soldiers, and themselves great in soul, and simple
in expenses, lived within the bounds of the ordinary estab-
lished charges, accounting it a greater disgrace to seek
popularity with their men, than to feel fear of their enemy.
Whereas the commanders of these times, attaining to supe-
riority by force, not worth, and having need of arms one
against another, rather than against the public enemy,
were constrained to temporize in authority, and in order to
pay for the gratifications with which they purchased the
labor of their soldiers, were driven, before they knew it, to
sell the commonwealth itself, and, to gain the mastery over
men better than themselves, were content to become slaves
to the vilest of wretches. These practices drove Marius
into exile, and again brought him in against Sylla. These
made China the assassin of Octavius, and Fimbria of
Flaccus. To which courses Sylla contributed not the least ;
for to corrupt and win over those who were under the com-
mand of others, he would be munificent and profuse towards
those who were under his own ; and so, while tempting
the soldiers of other generals to treachery, and his own to
dissolute living, he was naturally in want of a large
nry, and especially during that siege-



8YLLA 51

Sylla had a vehement and an implacable desire to con.
quer Athens, whether out of emulation, righting as it wero
against the shadow of the once famous city, or out of anger,
at the foul words and scurrilous jests with which the
tyrant Aristion, showing himself daily, with unseemly ges-
ticulations, upon the walls, had provoked him and Metella.

The tyrant Aristion had his very being compounded of
wantonness and cruelty, having gathered into himself all
the worst of Mithridates's diseased and vicious qualities,
like some fatal malady which the city, after its deliverance
from innumerable wars, many tyrannies and seditions, \\ias
in its last days destined to endure. At the time when a
medimnus of wheat was sold in the city for one thousand
drachmas, and men were forced to live on the feverfew
growing round the citadel, and to boil down shoes and oil-
bags for their food, he, carousing and feasting in -the open
face of day, then dancing in armor, and making jokes
at the enemy, suffered the holy lamp of the goddess to
expire for want of oil, and to the chief priestess, who de-
manded of him the twelth part of a medimnus of wheat, he
sent the like quantity of pepper. The senators and priests
who came as suppliants to beg of him to take compassion
on the city, and treat for peace with Sylla, he drove away
and dispersed with a flight of arrows. At last with much
ado, he sent forth two or three of his revelling companions
to parley, to whom Sylla, perceiving that they made no
serious overtures towards an accommodation, but went
on haranguing in praise of Theseus, Eumolpus, and the
Median trophies, replied, " My good friends, you may put
up your speeches and be gone. 1 was sent by the Romans
to Athens, not to take lessons, but to reduce rebels to
obedience."

In the mean time news came to Sylla that some old men,
talking in the Ceramicus, had been overheard to blame the
tyrant for not securing the passages and approaches near
the Heptachalcum, the one point where the enemy might



52 PLUTARCH'S LIVES,

easily get over. Sylla neglected not the report, but going
in the night, and discovering the place to be assailable, set
instantly to work. Sylla himself makes mention in his
Memoirs, that Marcus Teius, the first man who scaled the
wall, meeting with an adversary, and striking him on the
headpiece a home-stroke, broke his own sword, but, not-
withstanding, did not give ground, but stood and held him
fast. The city was certainly taken from that quarter, ac-
cording to the tradition of the oldest of the Athenians.

When they had thrown down the wall, and made all
level betwixt the Piraic and Sacred Gate, about midnight
Sylla entered the breach, with all the terrors of trumpets
and cornets sounding, with the triumphant shout and cry
of an army let loose to spoil and slaughter, and scouring
through the streets with swords drawn. There was no
numbering the slain ; the amount is to this day conjectured
only from the space of ground overflowed with blood. For
without mentioning the execution done in other quarters
of the city, the blood that was shed about the market-place
spread over the whole Ceramicus within the Double-gate,
and, according to most writers, passed through the gate
and overflowed the suburb. Nor did the multitudes which
fell thus exceed the number of those who, out of pity and
love for their country which they believed was now
finally to perish, slew themselves ; the best of them, through
despair of their country's surviving, dreading themselves
to survive, expecting neither humanity nor moderation in
Sylla. At length, partly at the instance of Midias and
Calliphon, two exiled men, beseeching and casting them-
selves at his feet, partly by the intercession of those senators
who followed the camp, having had his fill of revenge, and
making some honorable mention of the ancient Athenians,
" I forgive," said he, " the many for the sake of the few,
the living for the dead." He took Athens, according to his
own Memoirs, on the calends of March, coinciding pretty
nearly with the new moon of Anthesterion, on whicb day



SYLLA. 53

It is the Athenian usage to perform various acts in com.
melioration of the ruins and devastations occasioned by
the deluge, that being supposed to be the time of its oc-
currence.

At the taking of the town, the tyrant fled into the citadel,
and was there besieged by Curio, who had that charge
given him. lie held out a considerable time, but at last
yielded himself up for want of water, and divine power
immediately intimated its agency in the matter. For on
the same day and hour that Curio conducted him down,
the clouds gathered in a clear sky, and there came down a
great quantity of rain and rilled the citadel with water.

Not long after, Sylla won the Pirseus, and burnt most of
it ; amongst the rest, Philo's arsenal, a work very greatly
admired.

In the mean time Taxiles, Mithridates's general, coming
down from Thrace and Macedon, with an army of one hun-
dred thousand foot, ten thousand horse, and ninety chariots,
armed with scythes at the wheels, would have joined Arche-
laus, who lay with a navy on the coast near Munychia, reluc-
tant to quit the sea, and yet unwilling to engage the Romans
in battle, but desiring to protract the war and cut off the ene-
my's supplies. Which Sylla perceiving much better than him-
self, passed with his forces into Boeotia, quitting a barren dis~
trict which was inadequate to maintain an army even in time
of peace. He was thought by some to have taken false
measures in thus leaving Attica, a rugged country, and ill
suited for cavalry to move in, and entering the plain and
open fields of Bceotia, knowing as he did the barbarian
strength to consist most in horses and chariots. But as was
said before, to avoid famine and scarcity, he was forced to
run the risk of a battle. Moreover he was in anxiety for
Hortensius, a bold and active officer, whom on his way to
Sylla with forces from Thessaly, the barbarians awaited in
the straits. For these reasons Sylla drew off into Bceotia,
Hortensius, meantime, was conducted by Caphis, our coun



PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

tryman, anotner way unknown to the barbarians, by Parnat*
sus, just under Tithora, which was then not so large a town
as it is now, but a mere fort, surrounded by steep precipices
whither the Phocians also, in old times, when flying from
the invasion of Xerxes, carried themselves and their goods
and were saved. Hortensius, encamping here, kept off the
enemy by day, and at night descending by difficult passage!
to Patronis, joined the forces of Sylla, who came to meet
him. Thus united they posted themselves on a fertile hill
in the middle of the plain of Ehitea, shaded with trees and
watered at the foot It is called Phiiobceotus., and its situa-
tion and natural advantages are spoken of with gr^at ad-
miration by Sylla.

As they lay thus encamped, they seemed to the enemy
a contemptible number, for there were not above fifteen
hundred horse, and less than fifteen thousand foot. There-
fore the rest of the commanders, over-persuading Archelaus
and drawing up the army, covered the plain with horses,
chariots, bucklers, targets. The clamor and cries of so
many nations forming for battle rent the air, nor was the
pomp and ostentation of their costly array altogether idle
and unserviceable for terror ; for the brightness of their
armor, embellished magnificently with gold and silver, and
the rich colors of their Median and Scythian coats, inter-
mixed with brass and shining steel, presented a flaming
and terrible sight as they swayed about and moved in their
ranks, so much so that the Romans shrunk within their
trenches, and Sylla, unable by any arguments to remove
their fear, and unwilling to force them to fight against
their wills, was fain to sit down in quiet, ill-brooking to
become the subject of barbarian insolence and laughter.
This, however, above all advantaged him, for the enemy,
from contemning of him, fell into disorder amongst them-
selves, being already less thoroughly under command, on
account of the number of their leaders. Some few of them
remained within the encampment, but others, the majoi



SYLLA r,5

part, lured out with hopes of prey and rapine, strayed about
the country many days' journey from the camp, and are
related to have destroyed the city of Panope, to have plun-
dered Lebadea, and robbed the oracle without any orders
from their commanders.

Sylla, all this while, chafing and fretting to see the cities
all around destroyed, suffered not the soldiery to remain
idle, but leading them out, compelled them to divert the
Cephisus from its ancient channel by casting up ditches,
and giving respite to none, showed himself rigorous in pun-
ishing the remiss, that growing weary of labor, they might
be induced by hardship to embrace danger. Which fell
out accordingly, for on the third day, being hard at work
as Sylla passed by, they begged and clamored to be led
against the enemy. Sylla replied, that this demand r e TV a*:
proceeded rather from a backwardness to labor than any for-
wardness to fight, but if they were in good earnest mar-
tially inclined, he bade them take their arms and get up
thither, pointing to the ancient citadel of the Parapota-
mians, of which at present, the city being laid waste, there
remained only the rocky hill itself, steep and craggy on all
sides, and severed from Mount Hedylium by the breadth
of the river Assus, which, running between, and at the
bottom of the same hill falling into the Cephisus with an
impetuous confluence, makes this eminence a strong posi-
tion for soldiers to occupy. Observing that the enemy's
division, called the Brazen Shields, were making their way
up thither, Sylla was willing to take first possession, and
oy the vigorous efforts of the soldiers, succeeded. Arche-
laus, driven from hence, bent his forces upon Chseronea,
The Chseroneans who bore arms in the Roman camp be-
seeching Sylla not to abandon the city, he despatched
Gabinius, a tribune, with one legion, and sent out also the
Chseroneans, who endeavored, but were not able to get in
before Gabinius; so active was he, and more zealous to
relief than those who had entreated it. Juba writes



66 PL UTAH CH ' S LIVES

that Ericius was the man sent, not Gabinlus. Thus nar-
rowly did our native city escape.

From Lebadea and the cave of Trophonius there cam
favorable rumors and prophecies of victory to the Romans,
of which the inhabitants of those places gave a fuller ac-
count, but as Sylla himself affirms in the tenth book of his
\Iemoirs, Quintus Titius, a man of some repute among
the Romans who were engaged in mercantile business in
Greece, came to him after the battle won at Chseronea, and
declared that Trophonius had foretold another fight and
victory on the place, within a short time. After him a
soldier, by name Salvenius, brought an account from the
god of the future issue of affairs in Italy. As to the vision,
they both agreed in this, that they had seen one who in
statute and in majesty was similar to Jupiter Olympius.

Sylla, when he had passed over the Assus, marching
under the Mount Hedylium, encamped close to Archelaus,
who had intrenched himself strongly between the mount-
ains Acontium and Hedylium, close to what are called the
Assia. The place of his intrenchment is to this day named
from him, Archelaus. Sylla, after one day's respite, having
left Murena behind him with one legion and two cohorts to
amuse the enemy with continual alarms, himself went and
sacrificed on the banks of Cephisus, and the holy rites
ended, held on towards Chseronea to receive the forces
there and view Mount Thurium, where a party of the enemy
had posted themselves. This is a craggy height running
up in a conical form to a point called by us Orthopagus ;
at the foot of it is the river Morius and the temple of Apollo
Thurius. The god had his surname from Thuro, mother ol
Chaeron, whom ancient record makes founder of Chseronea.
Others assert that the cow, which Apollo gave to Cadmus
for a guide, appeared there, and that the place took its
name from the beast, Thor being the Phoanician word for
cow.
, At Sylla's approach to Chseronea, the tribune who had



SYLLAr 57

been appointed to guard the city led out his men in arras,
and met him with a garland of laurel in his hand ; which
Sylla accepting, and at the same time saluting the soldiers
and animating them to the encounter, two men of Chseronea,
Homoloichus and Anaxidamus, presented themselves before
him, and offered, with a small party, to dislodge those who
were posted on Thurium. For there lay a path out of sight
of the barbarians, from what is called Petrochus along b|
the Museum, leading right down from above upon Thurium
By this way it was easy to fall upon them and either stone
them from above or force them down into the plain. Sylla,
assured of their faith and courage by Gabinius, bade them
proceed with the enterprise, and meantime drew up the
army, and disposing the cavalry on both wings, himself
took command of the right ; the left being committed to the
direction of Murena. In the rear of all, Galba and Horteri-
sius, his lieutenants, planted themselves on the upper
grounds with the cohorts of reserve, to watch the motions
of the enemy, who with numbers of horse and swift-footed,
light-armed infantry, were noticed to have so formed their
wing as to allow it readily to change about and alter its
position, and thus gave reason for suspecting that they in-
tended to carry it far out and so to inclose the Romans.

In the meanwhile, the Chseroneans, who had Ericius for
commander by appointment of Sylla, covertly making their
way around Thurium, and then discovering themselves, oc-
casioned a great confusion and rout among the barbarians,
and slaughter, for the most part, by their own hands. For
they kept not their place, but making down the steep de-
scent, ran themselves on their own spears, and violently
sent each other over the cliffs, the enemy from above press-
ing on and wounding them where they exposed their
bodies ; insomuch that there fell three thousand about
Thurium. Some of those who escaped, being met by
Murena as he stood in array, were cut off and destroyed.
Others breaking through to their friends and falling pell-



PLUTARCH' 8 LIVES

mell into the ranks, tilled most part of the army wi^h fear
and tumult, and caused a hesitation and delay among the
generals, which was no small disadvantage. For immedi-
ately upon the discomposure, Sylla coming full speed to
the charge, and quickly crossing the interval between the
armies, lost them the service of their armed chariots, which
require a considerable space of ground to gather strength
and impetuosity in their career, a short course being weak
and ineffectual, like that of missiles without a full swing
Thus it fared with the barbarians at present, whose first
chariots came feebly on and made but a faint impression ;
the Romans, repulsing them with shouts and laughter,
called out, as they do at the races in the circus, for more to
come. By this time the mass of both armies met ; the bar-
barians on one side fixed their long pikes, and with their
shields locked close together, strove so far as in them lay
to preserve their line of battle entire. The Romans, on the
other side, having discharged their javelins, rushed on
with their drawn swords, and struggled to put by the
pikes to get at them the sooner, in the fury that possessed
them at seeing in the front of the enemy fifteen thousand
slaves, whom the royal commanders had set free by
proclamation, and ranged amongst the men of arms. And
a Roman centurion is reported to have said at this sight,
that he never knew servants allowed to play the masters,
unless at the Saturnalia. These men, by their deep and
solid array, as well as by their daring courage, yielded but
slowly to the legions, till at last by slinging engines, and
darts, which the Romans poured in upon them behind,
they were forced to give way and scatter.

As Archelaus was extending the right wing to encom-
pass the enemy, Hortensius with his cohorts came down in
force, with intention to charge him in the flank. But
Archelaus wheeling about suddenly with two thousand
horse, Hortensius, outnumbered and hard pressed, fell
hack towards the higher grounds, and found himself gra: 1 -



SYLLA. 5ft

aally getting separated from the main body and likely
to be surrounded by the enemy. When Sylla heard
this, he came rapidly up to his succor from the right
wing, which as yet had not engaged. But Archelaus,
guessing the matter by the dust of his troops, turned
to the right wing, from whence Sylla came, in hopes to
surprise it without a commander. At the same instant,
likewise, Taxiles, with his Brazen Shields, assailed Murena,
so that a cry coming from both places, and the hills repeat-
ing it around, Sylla stood in suspense which way to move.
Deciding to resume his own station, he sent in aid to
Murena four cohorts under Hortensius, and commanding
the fifth to follow him, returned hastily to the right wing,
which of itself held its ground on equal terms against
Archelaus ; and, at his appearance, with one bold effort
forced them back, and, obtaining the mastery, followed
them, flying in disorder to the river and Mount Acontium.
Sylla, however, did not forget the danger Murena was in ,
but hasting thither and finding him victorious also, then
joined in the pursuit. Many barbarians were slain in the
field, many more were cut in pieces as they were making
uito the camp. Of all the vast multitude, ten thousand only
got safe into Chalcis. Sylla writes that there were but four-
teen of his soldiers missing, and that two of these returned
towards evening ; he, therefore, inscribed 011 the trophies
the names of Mars, Victory, and Venus, as having won the
day no less by good fortune than by management and
force of arms. This trophy of the battle in the plain
stands on the place where Archelaus first gave way, near
the stream of the Molus ; another is erected high on the
top of Thurium, where the barb/irians were environed, with
an inscription in Greek, recording that the glory of the day
belonged to Homoloichus and Anaxidamus. Sylla cele-
brated his victory at Thebes with spectacles, for which he
erected a stage, near OEdipus's well. The judges of the
performances were Greeks chosen out of other cities ; his



60 PLUTARCH 1 S LIVES.

hostility to the Thebans being implacable, half of whose
territory he took away and consecrated to Apollo and Jupi-
ter, ordering that out of the revenue compensation should
be made to the gods for the riches himself had taken from
them.

After this, hearing that Flaccus, a man of the contrary
faction, had been chosen consul, and was crossing the
Ionian Sea with an army, professedly to act against
MitLridates, but in reality against himself, he hastened
towards Thessaly, designing to meet him, but in his march,
when near Melitea, received advices from all parts that the
countries behind him were overrun and ravaged by no less
a royal army than the former. For Dorylaus, arriving at
Chalcis with a large fleet, on board of which he brought
over with him eighty thousand of the best appointed and
best disciplined soldiers of Mithridates's army, at once in-
vaded Boeotia, and occupied the country in hopes to .bring
Sylla to a battle, making no account of the dissuasions of
Archelaus, but giving it out as to the last fight, that with-
out treachery so many thousand men could never have
perished. Sylla, however, facing about expeditiously,
made it clear to him that Archelaus was a wise man, and
had good skill in the Roman valor ; insomuch that he him-
self, after some small skirmishes with Sylla near Tilphos-
Biurn, was the first of those who thought it not advisable
to put things to the decision of the sword, but rather to
wear out the war by expense of time and treasure. The
ground, however, near Orchomenus, where they then lay
encamped, gave some encouragement to Archelaus, being



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