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good to the private, and like good hounds, where he had
once found, never letting go his hold, till the enemy yielded,



CIMOtf. 85

then, and not until then, he set himself to revenge his own
private quarrels. We may perhaps let ourselves be in-
fluenced, moreover, in our comparison of their characters
by considering their treatment of Athens. Sylla, when he
had made himself master of the city, which then upheld
the dominion and power of Mithridates in opposition to
him, restored her to liberty and the free exercise of her own
laws ; Ly sander, on the contrary, when she had fallen
from a vast height of dignity and rule, showed her no
compassion, but abolishing her democratic government,
imposed on her the most cruel and lawless tyrants. We
are now qualified to consider whether we should go far
from the truth or no, in pronouncing that Sylla performed
the more glorious deeds, but Lysander committed the
fewer faults, as, likewise, by giving to one the pre-eminence
for moderation and self-control, to the other for conduct and
valor.



CIMON.

PEEIPOLTAS the prophet, having brought the king
Opheltas, and those under his command, from Thessaly
into Bceotia, left there a family, which flourished a long
time after ; the greater part of them inhabiting Chseronea
the first city out of which they expelled the barbarians.
The descendants of this race, being men of bold attempts
and warlike habits, exposed themselves to so many dangers
in the invasions of the Mede, and in battles against the
Gauls, that at last they were almost wholly consumed.

There was left one orphan of this house, called Damon,
surnamed Peripoltas, in beauty and greatness of spirit sur-
passing all of his age, but rude and undisciplined in temper
A Roman captain of a company that wintered in Chseronea
become passionately fond of this youth, who was now pretty
nearly grown a man. And finding all his approaches, hi*



86 PLUTAECITS LIVES.

gifts, his entreaties alike repulsed, he showed violent in-
clinations to assault Damon. Our native Chseronea was
then in a distressed condition, too small and too poor to
meet with anything but neglect. Damon, being sensible
of this, and looking upon himself as injured already, re-
solved to inflict punishment. Accordingly, he and sixteen
jof his companions conspired against the captain ; but that
the design might be managed without any danger of being
discovered, they all daubed their faces at night with soot.
Thus disguised and inflamed with wine, they set upon him
by break of day, as he was sacrificing in the market-place,
and having killed him, and several others that were with
him, they fled out of the city, which was extremely,
alarmed and troubled at the murder. The council assembled
immediately, and pronounced sentence of death against
Damon and his accomplices. This they did to justify the
city to the Romans. But that evening, as the magistrates
were at supper together, according to the custom, Damon
and his confederates breaking into the hall, killed them, and
then again fled out of the town. About this time, Lucius
Lucullus chanced to be passing that way with a body of
troops, upon some expedition, and this disaster having but
recently happened, he stayed to examine the matter. Upon
inquiry, he found the city was in no wise faulty, but rather
that they themselves had suffered ; therefore he drew out
the soldiers, and carried them away with him. Yet Damon
^continuing to ravage the country all about, the citizens,
by messages and decrees, in appearance favorable, enticed
him into the city, and upon his return, made him Gym-
nasiarch ; but afterwards as he was anointing himself in
the vapor baths, they set upon him and killed him. For a
long while after apparitions continuing to be seen, and
groans to be heard in that place, so our fathers have told us,
they ordered the gates of the baths to be built up ; and
even to this dny those who live in the neighborhood believe
that they sometimes see spectres and hear alarming sounds



CIMON. 87

The posterity of Damon, of whom some still remain, mostly
in Phocis, near the town of Stiris, are called Asbolomeni,
that is, in the ^Eolian idiom, men daubed with soot : be-
cause Damon was thus besmeared when he committed this
murder.

But there being a quarrel between the people of Chseronea
and the Orchomenians, their neighbors, these latter hired an
informer, a Roman, to accuse the community of Chseronea
as if it had been a single person of the murder of the
Romans, of which only Damon and and his companions were
guilty ; accordingly, the process was commenced, and the
cause pleaded before the Praetor of Macedon, since the
Romans as yet had not sent governors into Greece.

The advocates who defended the inhabitants appealed to
the testimony of Lucullus, who, in answer to a letter the
Praetor wrote to him, returned a true account of the matfeer-
of-fact. By this means the town obtained its acquittal,
and escaped a most serious danger. The citizens, thus
preserved, erected a statue to Lucullus in the market-place,
near that of the god Bacchus.

We also have the same impressions of gratitude ; and
though removed from the events by the distance of several
generations, we yet feel the obligation to extend to our.
selves ; and as we think an image of the character antf
habits to be a greater honor than one merely representing
the face and the person, we will put Lucullus's life amongst
our parallels of illustrious men, and without swerving from
the truth, will record his actions. The commemoration
will be itself a sufficient proof of our grateful feeling, and
he himself would not thank us, if in recompense for a
service which consisted in speaking the truth, we should
abuse his memory with a false and counterfeit narration.
For as we would wish that a painter who is to draw a
beautiful face, in which there is yet some imperfection,
should neither wholly leave out, nor yet too pointedly ex-
press what is defective, because this would deform it, and



PL UTARCH ' S LIVES.

that spoil the resemblance ; so since it is hard, or indeed
perhaps impossible, to show the life of a man wholly free
from blemish, in all that is excellent we must follow truth
exactly, and give it fully ; any lapses or faults that occur,
through human passions or political necessities, we may
regard rather as the shortcomings of some particular virtue,
than as the natural effects of vice ; and may be content
without introducing them, curiously and officiously, into
our narrative, if it be but out of tenderness to the weakness
of nature, which has never succeeded in producing any
human character so perfect in virtue, as to be pure from
all admixture, and open to no criticism. On considering
with myself to whom I should compare Lucullus I find
none so exactly his parallel as Cimon.

They were both . valiant in war, and successful against
the barbarians ; both gentle in political life, and more than
any others gave their countrymen a respite from civil
troubles at home, while abroad each of them raised trophies
and gained famous victories. No Greek before Cimon, nor
Roman before Lucullus, ever carried the scene of war so
far from their own country ; putting out of the question
the acts of Bacchus and Hercules, and any exploit of
Perseus against the Ethiopians, Medes, and Armenians, or
again of J"ason, of which any record that deserves credit
can be said to have come down to our days. Moreover in
this they were alike, that they did not finish the enterprises
they undertook. They brought their enemies near their
ruin, but never entirely conquered them. There was yet
a great conformity in the free good- will and lavish abun-
dance of their entertainments and general hospitalities, and
in the youthful laxity of their habits. Other points of re-
semblance, which we have failed to notice, may be easily
collected from our narrative itself.

Cimon was the son of Miltiades and Hegesipyle, who was
by birth a Thracian, and daughter to the king Olorus, as
appears from the poem of Melanthius and Archelaus, writ-



V1MON. 89

ten in praise of Cimon. By this means the historian Thucy-
dides was his kinsman by the mother's side ; for his father's
name also, in remembrance of this common ancestor, was
Olorus, and he was the owner of the gold mines in Thrace,
and met his death, it is said, by violence, in Scapte Hyle, a
district of Thrace ; and his remains having afterwards been
brought into Attica, a monument is shown as his among
those of the family of Cimon, near the tomb of Elpinice,
Cimon's sister. But Thucydides was of the township of
Halimus, and Miltiades and his family were Laciadse. Milti-
ades, being condemned in a fine of fifty talents of the State,
and unable to pay it, was cast into prison, and there died.
Thus Cimon was left an orphan very young, with his sister
Elpinice, who was also young and unmarried. And at first
he had but an indifferent reputation, being looked upon as
disorderly in his habits, fond of drinking, and resembling
his grandfather, also called Cimon, in character, whose sim-
plicity got him the surname of Coalemus. Stesimbrotus of
Thasos, who lived near about the same time with Cimon,
reports of him that he had little acquaintance either with
music, or any of the other liberal studies and accomplish-
ments, then common among the Greeks ; that he had noth-
ing whatever of the quickness and the ready speech of his
countrymen in Attica; that he had great nobleness and
candor in his disposition, and in his character in general,
resembled rather a native of Peloponnesus than of Athens ;
as Euripides describes Hercules,



-Kude



And unrefined, for great things well endued :

for this may fairly be added to the character which Stesim-
brotus has given of him.

They accused him, in his younger years, of -cohabiting
with his own sister Elpinice, who, indeed, otherwise had
no very clear reputation, but was reported to have been
over-intimate with Polygnotus the painter ; and hence,



PLUTAECB'S LIVES.

when he painted the Trojan women in the porch, then
called the Plesianactium, and now the Poecile, he made
Laodice a portrait of her. Polygnotus was not an ordinary
mechanic, nor was he paid for this work, but out of a desire
to please the Athenians, painted the portico for nothing.
Bo it is stated by the historians, and in the following verses
by the poet Melanthius:

Wrought by his hand the deeds of heroes grace
At his own charge our temples and our place.

Some affirm that Elpinice lived with her brother, not se-
cretly, but as his married wife, her poverty excluding her
from any suitable match. But afterwards, when Callias,
one of the richest men of Athens, fell in love with her, and
proffered to pay the fine the father was condemned in, if
he could obtain the daughter in marriage, with Elpinice's
own consent, Cimon betrothed her to Callias. There is no
doubt but that Cimon was, in general, of an amorous temper.
For Melanthius, in his elegies, rallies him on his attach-
ment for Asteria of Salamis, and again for a certain Mnestra.
And there can be no doubt of his unusually passionate affec-
tion for his lawful wife Isodice, the daughter of Eurypto-
lemus, the son of Megacles ; nor of his regret, even to im-
patience, at her death, if any conclusion may be drawn from
those elegies of condolence, addressed to him upon his loss of
her. The philosopher Pansetius is of opinion, that Arche-
laus, the writer on physics, was the author of them, and
indeed the time seems to favor that conjecture. All the
other points of Cimon's character were noble and good.
He was as daring as Miltiades, and not inferior to Thernis-
tocles in judgment, and was incomparably more just and
honest than either of them. Fully their equal in all mili-
tary virtues, in the ordinary duties of a citizen at home
he was immeasurably their superior. And this, too, when
he was very young, his years not yet strengthened by
any experience. For when Themistocles, upon the Median



V1MON. 95

Invasion, advised the Athenians to forsake their city and
their country, and to carry all their arms on shipboard,
and fight the enemy by sea, in the straits of Salarnis ; when
all the people stood amazed at the confidence and rashness
of this advice, Cimon was seen, the first of all men, passing
with a cheerful countenance through the Ceramicus, on hia
way with his companions to the citadel, carrying a bridle in
his hand to offer to the goddess, intimating that there was no
more need of horsemen now, but of mariners. There, after
he had paid his devotions to the goddess, and offered up the
bridle, he took down one of the bucklers that hung upon
the walls of the temple, and went down to the port;
by this example giving confidence to many of the citizens.
He was also of a fairly handsome person, according to the
poet Ion, tall and large, and let his thick and curly hair
grow long. After he had acquitted himself gallantly in
this battle of Salamis, he obtained great repute among
the Athenians, and was regarded with affection, as well as
admiration. He had many who followed after him, and
bade him aspire to actions not less famous than his father's
battle of Marathon. And when he came forward in politi-
cal life, the people welcomed him gladly, being now weary
of Themistocles ; in opposition to whom, and because of the
frankness and easiness of his temper, which was agreeable
to every one, they advanced Cimon to the highest employ-
ments in the government. The man that contributed most
to his promotion was Aristides, who early discerned in his
character his natural capacity, and purposely raised him,
that he might be a counterpoise to the craft and boldness
of Themistocles.

After the Medes had been driven out of Greece, Cimon
was sent out as an admiral, when the Athenians had not
yet attained their dominion by sea, but still followed Pau-
sanias and the Lacedemonians ; and his fellow-citizens
Under his command were highly distinguished, both for the
excellence of their discipline, and for their extraordinary zeaj



PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

and readiness. And further, perceiving that Pausanias was
carrying on secret communications with the barbarians,
and writing letters to the king of Persia to betray Greece,
and puffed up with authority and success, was treating the
allies haughtily, and committing many wanton injustices,
Cimon, taking this advantage, by acts of kindness to
those who were suffering wrong, and by his general hu-
mane bearing, robbed him of the command of the Greeks,
before he was aware, not by arms, but by his mere language
and character. The greatest part of the allies, no longer
able to endure the harshness and pride of Pausanias, revolted
from him to Cimon and Aristides, who accepted the duty, and
wrote to the Ephors of Sparta, desiring them to recall a man
who was causing dishonor to Sparta and trouble to Greece.
They tell of Pausanias, that when he was in Byzantium,
he solicited a young lady of a noble family in the city, whose
name was Cleonice, to debauch her. Her parents, dread-
ing his cruelty, were forced to consent, and so abandoned
their daughter to his wishes. The daughter asked the serv-
ants outside the chamber to put out all the lights ; so that
approaching silently and in the dark towards his bed, she
stumbled upon the lamp which she overturned. Pausanias,
who was fallen asleep, awakened and, startled with the
noise, thought an assassin had taken that dead time of night
to murder him, so that hastily snatching up his poniard that
lay by him, he struck the girl, who fell with the blow, and
died. After this, he never had rest, but was continually
haunted by her, and saw an apparition visiting him in his
sleep, and addressing him with these angry words :

Go on thy way, unto the evil end,
That doth on lust and violence attend.

This was one of the chief occasions of indignation against
him among the confederates, who now, joining their resent-
ments and forces with Cimon's, besieged him in Byzan-
tium. He escaped out of their hands, and, continuing, as



CIMOIT. 98

it is said, to be disturbed by the apparition, fled to the
oracle of the dead at Heraclea, raised the ghost of Cleonice,
and entreated her to be reconciled. Accordingly she ap-
peared to him, and answered that as soon as he came to
Sparta, he should speedily be freed from all evils ; ob-
scurely foretelling, it would seem, his imminent death.
This story is related by many aathors.

Cimon, strengthened with the accession of the allies,
went as general into Thrace. For he was told that some
great men among the Persians, of the king's kindred, being
in possession of Eion, a city situated upon the river Stry-
mon, infested the neighboring Greeks. First he defeated
these Persians in battle, and shut them up within the walls
of their town. Then he fell upon the Thracians of the
country beyond the Strymon, because they supplied Eion
with victuals, and driving them entirely out of the country,
took possession of it as conqueror, by which means he
reduced the besieged to such straits, that Butes, who com-
manded there for the king, in desperation set fire to the
town, and burned himself, his goods, and all his relations,
in one common flame. By this means, Cimon got the town,
but no great booty ; as the barbarians had not only con-
sumed themselves in the fire, but the richest of their
effects. However, he put the country about into the hands
of the Athenians, a most advantageous and desirable situa-
tion for a settlement. For this action, the people permitted
him to erect the stone Mercuries, upon the first of which
was this inscription :

Of bold and patient spirit, too, were those,
Who, where the Strymon under Eion flows,
With famine and the sword, to utmost need
Keduced at last the children of the Mede.

Upon the second stood this :

The Athenians to their leaders this reward
For great and useful service did accord ; v
Others hereafter shall, from their applause,
Learn to be valiant in their country's cause*



91 PLUTARCH'' 8 LIVES.

And upon the third the following:

With Atreus' sons, this city sent of yore

Divine Menestheus to the Trojan shore ;

Of all the Greeks, so Homer's verses say,

The ablest man an army to array :

So old the title of her sons the name

Of chiefs and champions in the field to claim.

Though the name of Cimon is not mentioned in these in-
scriptions, yet his contemporaries considered them to be
the very highest honors to him ; as neither Miltiades nor
Themistocles ever received the like. When Miltiades
claimed a garland, Sochares of Decelea stood up in the
midst of the assembly and opposed it, using words which,
though ungracious, were received with applause by the
people: "When you have gained a victory by yourself,
Miltiades, then you may ask to triumph so too." What
then induced them so particularly to honor Cimon ? Was
it that under other commanders they stood upon the defen-
sive ? but by his conduct, they not only attacked their
enemies, but invaded them in their own country, and
acquired new territory, becoming masters of Eion and
Amphipolis, where they planted colonies, as also they
did in the isle of Scyros, which Cimon had taken on
the following occasion. The Dolopians were the inhabit-
ants of this isle, a people who neglected all husbandry,
and had, for many generations, been devoted to pi-
racy ; this they practised to that degree, that at last
they began to plunder foreigners that brought mer-
chandise into their ports. Some merchants of Thes-
saly, who had come to shore near to Cfesium, were not
only spoiled of their goods, but themselves put into con-
finement. These men afterwards escaping from their
prison, went and obtained sentence against the Scyrians in
a court of Amphictyons, and when the Scyrian people de-
clined to make public restitution, and called upon the im,
dividuals who had got the plunder to give it up, these
persons, in alarm, wrote to Cimon to succor them,



CIMON. 95

his fleet, and declared themselves ready to deliver the town
into his hands. Cimon, by these means, got the town, ex-
pelled the Dolopian pirates, and so opened the traffic of the
JEgean sea. And, understanding that the ancient Theseus,
the son of JEgeus, when he fled from Athens and took
refuge in this isle, was here treacherously slain by king
Lycomedes, who feared him, Cimon endeavored to find out
where he was buried. For an oracle had commanded the
Athenians to bring home his ashes, and pay him all due
honors as a hero ; but hitherto they had not been able to
learn where he was interred, as the people of Scyros dis-
sembled the knowledge of it, and were not willing to allow
a search. But now, great inquiry being made, with some
difficulty he found out the tomb and carried the relics into
his own galley, and with great pomp and show brought
them to Athens, four hundred years, or thereabouts, after
his expulsion. This act got Cimon great favor with the
people, one mark of which was the judgment, afterwards
so famous, upon the tragic poets. Sophocles, still a young
man, had just brought forward his first plays ; opinions
were much divided, and the spectators had taken sides
with some heat. So, to determine the case, Apsephion, who
was at that time archon, would not cast lots who should be
judges ; but when Cimon and his brother commanders with
him came into the theatre, after they had performed the
usual rites to the god of the festival, he would not allow
them to retire, but came forward and made them swear
(being ten in all, one from each tribe) the usual oath ; and
so being sworn judges, he made them sit down to give sen-
tence. The eagerness for victory grew all the warmer,
from the ambition to get the suffrages of such honorable
judges. And the victory was at last adjudged to Sophocles,
which ^Eschylus is said to have taken so ill, that he left
Athens shortly after, and went in anger to Sicily, where
he died, and was buried near the city of Gela.
Ion relates that when he was a young man, and recently



96 PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

come from Chios to Athens, he chanced to sup with Cimon
at Laomedon's house. After supper, when they had, ac-
cording to custom, poured out wine to the honor of the
gods, Cimon was desired by the company to give them a
song, which he did with sufficient success, and received
the commendations of the company, who remarked on his
superiority to Themistocles, who, on a like occasion, had
declared he had never learnt to sing, nor to play, and only
knew how to make a city rich and powerful. After talking
of things incident to such entertainments, they entered
upon the particulars of the several actions for which Cimon
had been famous. And when they were mentioning the
most signal, he told them they had omitted one, upon which
he valued himself most for address and good contrivance.
He gave this account of it. When the allies had taken a
great number of the barbarians prisoners in Sestos and
Byzantium, they gave him the preference to divide the
booty ; he accordmgly put the prisoners in one lot, and the
spoils of their rich attire and jewels in the other. This the
allies complained of as an unequal division ; but he gave
them their choice to take which lot they would, for that
the Athenians should be content with that which they re-
fused. Herophytus of Samos advised them to take the
ornaments for their share, and leave the slaves to the Athe-
nians ; and Cimon went away, and was much laughed at for
his ridiculous division. For the allies carried away the
golden bracelets, and armlets, and collars, and purple robes,
and the Athenians had only the naked bodies of the cap-
tives, which they could make no advantage of, being un-
used to labor. But a little while after, the friends and
kinsmen of the prisoners coming from Lydia and Phrygia^
redeemed every one his relations at a high ransom ; so that
by this means Cimon got so much treasure that he main-
tamed his whole fleet of galleys with the money for four
months ; and yet there was some left to lay up in the treas-
nry at Athens.



CIMON. 97

Cimon now grew rich, and what he gained from the bar-
barians with honor, he spent yet more honorably upon the
citizens. For he pulled down all the enclosures of his gar-
dens and grounds, that strangers, and the needy of his
fellow-citizens, might gather of his fruits freely. At home
he kept a table, plain, but sufficient for a considerable
number; to which any poor townsman had free access,
and so might support himself without labor, with his whole
time left free for public duties. Aristotle states, however,



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