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that this reception did not extend to all the Athenians, but
only to his own fellow-townsmen, the Laciadse. Besides
this, he always went attended by two or three young com-
panions, very well clad ; and if he met with an elderly citizen
in a poor habit, one of these would change clothes with the
decayed citizen, which was looked upon as very nobly done.
He enjoined them, likewise, to carry a considerable quan-
tity of coin about them, which they were to convey silently
into the hands of the better class of poor men, as they
stood by them in the market-place. This, Cratinus tha
poet speaks of in one of his comedies, the Archilochi :

For I, Metrobius too, the scrivener poor,
Of ease and comfort in my age secure
By Greece's noblest son in life's decline,
Cimon, the generous-hearted, the divine,
Well-fed and feasted hoped till death to be,
Death which, alas 1 has taken him ere me.

*

Gorgias the Leontine gives him this character, that he
got riches that he might use them, and used them that he
might get honor by them. And Critias, one of the thirty
tyrants, makes it, in his elegies, his wish to have

The Scopads' wealth, and Cimon's nobleness,
And king Agesilaus's success.

Lichas, we know, became famous in Greece, only because
on the days of the sports, when the young boys run naked,
he used to entertain the strangers that came to see these

diversions. But Cimon's generosity outdid all the old
7



98 PLUTAECH'S LIVES.

Athenian hospitality and good-nature. For though it is
the city's just boast that their forefathers taught the rest
of Greece to sow corn, and how to use springs of water,
and to kindle fire, yet Cimon, by keeping open house for
his fellow-citizens, and giving travellers liberty to eat the
fruits which the several seasons produced in his land,
seemed to restore to the world that community of goods,
which mythology says existed in the reign of Saturn.
Those who object to him, that he did this to be popular
and gain the applause of the vulgar, are confuted by the
constant tenor of the rest of his actions, which all tended
to uphold the interests of the nobility and the Spartan
policy, of which he gave instances, when together with
Aristides he opposed Themistocles, who was advancing
the authority of the people beyond its just limits, and
resisted Ephialtes, who, to please the multitude, was
for abolishing the jurisdiction of the court of Areopagus.
And when all of his time, except Aristides and Ephialtes,
enriched themselves out of the public money, he still
kept his hands clean and untainted, and to his last
day never acted or spoke for his own private gain or
emolument. They tell us that Rhoesaces, a Persian,
who had traitorously revolted from the king his master,
fled to Athens, and there, being harassed by sycophants,
who were still accusing him to the people, he applied
himself to Cimon for redress, and, to gain his favor, laid
down in his doorway two cups, the one full of gold, and
the other of silver Darics. Cimon smiled and asked him
whether he wished to have Cimon's hired service or his
friendship. He replied, his friendship. " If so," said he,
" take away these pieces, for, being your friend, when I
shall have occasion for them, I will send and ask for
them."

The allies of the Athenians began now to be weary of
war and military service, willing to have repose, and to
look after their husbandry and traffic. For they saw their



CIMO1T. 99

enemies driven out of the country, and did not fear any
new vexations from them. They still paid the tax they
were assessed at, but did not send men and galleys, as they
had done before. This the other Athenian generals wished
to constrain them to, and by judicial proceedings against
defaulters, and penalties which they inflicted on them,
made the government uneasy, and even odious. But Cimon
practised a contrary method ; he forced no man to go that
was not willing, but of those that desired to be excused
from service he took money and vessels unmanned, and let
them yield to the temptation of staying at home, to attend
to their private business. Thus they lost their military
habits and luxury, and their own folly quickly changed
them into un warlike husbandmen and traders ; while
Cirnon, continually embarking large numbers of Athenians
on board his galleys, thoroughly disciplined them in his ex-
peditions, and ere long made them the lords of their own
paymasters. The allies, whose indolence maintained them,
while they thus went sailing about everywhere, and inces-
santly bearing arms and acquiring skill, began to fear and
flatter them, and found themselves after a while allies no
longer, but unwittingly become tributaries and slaves.

Nor did any man ever do more than Cimon did to humble
the pride of the Persian king. He was not content with
getting rid of him out of Greece ; but following close at
his heels, before the barbarians could take breath and re-
cover themselves, he was already at work, and what with
his devastations, and his forcible reduction of some places,
and the revolts and voluntary accession of others in the
end from Ionia to Pamphylia, all Asia was clear of Persian
soldiers. Word being brought him that the royal com-
manders were lying in wait upon the coast of Pamphylia
with a numerous land army, and a large fleet, he deter-
mined to make the whole sea on his side the Chelidonian
islands so formidable to them that they should never dare
to show themselves in it; and setting off from Anidos ancl



100 PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

the Triopian headland with two hundred galleys, which had
been originally built with particular care by Themistocles,
for speed and rapid evolutions, and to which he now gave
greater width and roomier decks along the sides to move
to and fro upon, so as to allow a great number of full-armed
soldiers to take part in the engagements and fight from
them, he shaped his course first of all against the town of
Phaselis, which though inhabited by Greeks, yet would
not quit the interests of Persia, but denied his galleys
entrance into their port. Upon this he wasted the coun-
try, and drew up his army to their very walls ; but the
soldiers of Chios, who were then serving under him,
being ancient friends to the Phaselites, endeavoring to
propitiate the general in their behalf, at the same time
shot arrows into the town, to which were fastened letters
conveying intelligence. At length he concluded peace
with them, upon the conditions that they should pay
down ten talents, and follow him against the barbarians.
Ephorus says the admiral of the Persian fleet was Tith-
raustes, and the general of the land army Pherendates;
but Callisthenes is positive that Ariomarides, the son of
Gobryas, had the supreme command of all the forces.
He lay waiting with the whole fleet at the mouth of the
river Eurymedon, with no design to fight, but expecting a
reinforcement of eighty Phoenician ships on their way from
Cyprus. Cimon, aware of this, put out to sea, resolved, if
they would not fight a battle willingly, to force them to it.
The barbarians, seeing this, retired within the mouth of
the river to avoid being attacked ; but when they saw the
Athenians come upon them, notwitstanding their retreat,
they met them with six hundred ships, as Phanodemus
relates, but, according to Ephorus, only with three hundred
and fifty. However, they did nothing worthy such mighty
forces, but immediately turned the prows of their galleys
toward the shore, where those that came first threw
themselves upon the land, and fled to their army drawn



CIMON. 101

up thereabout, while the rest perished with their vessel, or
were taken. By this, one may guess at their number, for
though a great many escaped out of the fight, and a great
many others were sunk, yet two hundred galleys were
taken by the Athenians.

When their land army drew toward the seaside, Cimon
was in suspense whether he should venture to try and
force his way on shore; as he should thus expose his
Greeks, wearied with slaughter in the first engagement, to
the swords of the barbarians, who were all fresh men, and
many times their number. But seeing his men resolute,
and flushed with victory, he bade them land, though they
were not yet cool from their first battle. As soon as they
touched ground, they set up a shout and ran upon the
enemy, who stood firm and sustained the first shock with
great courage, so that the fight was a hard one, and some
principal men of the Athenians in rank and courage were
slain. At length, though with much ado, they routed the
barbarians, and killing some, took others prisoners, and
plundered all their tents and pavilions, which were full of
rich spoil. Cirnon, like a skilled athlete at the games, hav-
ing in one day carried off two victories wherein he sur-
passed that of Salamis by sea and that of Platsea by land,
was encouraged to try for yet another success. News
being brought that the Phoenician succors, in number eighty
sail, had come in sight at Hydrum, he set off with all speed
to find them, while they as yet had not received any certain
account of the larger fleet, and were in doubt what to think ;
so that, thus surprised, they lost all their vessels and most
of their men with them. This success of Cimon so daunted
the king of Persia that he presently made that celebrated
peace, by which he engaged that his armies should come
no nearer the Grecian sea than the length of a horse's
course, and that none of his galleys or vessels of war
should appear between the Cyanean and Chelidonian isles.
Callisthenes, however, says that he did not agree to anj



KYI PLUTAECU'S LIVES.

such articles, but that, upon the fear this victory gave him^
he did in reality thus act, and kept off so far from Greece,
that when Pericles with fifty and Ephialtes with thirty
galleys cruised beyond the Chelidonian isles, they did not
discover one Persian vessel. But in the collection which
Craterus made of the public acts of the people, there is a
draft of this treaty given. And it is told, also, that at
Athens they erected the altar of Peace upon this occasion,
and decreed particular honors to Callias, who was employed
as ambassador to procure the treaty.

The people of Athens raised so much money from the
spoils of this war, which were publicly sold, that besides
other expenses, and raising the south wall of the citadel,
they laid the foundation of the long walls, not, indeed, fin >
ished till at a later time, which were called the Legs. And
the place where they built them being soft and marshy
ground, they were forced to sink great weights of stone and
rubble to secure the foundation, and did all this out of the
money Cimon supplied them with. It was he, likewise,
who first embellished the upper city with those fine and
ornamental places of exercise and resort, which they after-
wards so much frequented and delighted in. He set the
market-place with plane-trees ; and the Academy, which
was before a bare, dry, and dirty spot, he converted into a
well- watered grove, with shady alleys to walk in, and open
courses for races.

When the Persians who had made themselves masters of
the Chersonese, so far from quitting it, called in the people
of the interior of Thrace to help them against Cimon, whom
they despised for the smallness of his forces, he set upon
them with only four galleys, and took thirteen of theirs ;
and having driven out the Persians, and subdued the Thra-
cians, he made the whole Chersonese the property of Athens.
Kext he attacked the people of Thasos, who had revolted
from the Athenians ; and, having defeated them in a fight
at sea, where he took thirty-three of their vessels, he toofc



CIMON. 101

'their town by siege, and acquired for the Athenians all the
mines of gold on the opposite coast, and the territory
dependent on Thasos. This opened him a fair passage into
Macedon, so that he might, it was thought, have acquired
a good portion of that country ; and because he neglected
the opportunity, he was suspected of corruption, and of hav-
ing been bribed off by king Alexander. So, by the com-
bination of his adversaries, he was accused of being false to
his country. In his defence he told the judges, that he had
always shown himself in his public life the friend, not, like
other men, of rich lonians and Thessalians, to be courted,
and to receive presents, but of the Lacedaemonians ; for as
he admired, so he wished to imitate the plainness of their
habits, their temperance, and simplicity of living, which he
preferred to any sort of riches : but that he always had
been, and still was, proud to enrich his country with the
spoils of her enemies. Stesimbrotus, making mention of
this trial, states that Elpinice, in behalf of her brother,
addressed herself to Pericles, the most vehement of his ac-
cusers, to whom Pericles answered, with a smile, " You are
old, Elpinice, to meddle with affairs of this nature." How-
ever, he proved the mildest of his prosecutors, and rose up
but once all the while, almost as a matter of form, to plead
against him. Cimon was acquitted.

In his public life after this he continued, whilst at home,
to control and restrain the common people, who would have
trampled upon the nobility, and drawn all the power and
sovereignty to themselves. But when he afterwards was sent
out to war, the multitude broke loose, as it were, and over-
threw all the ancient laws and customs they had hitherto
observed, and, chiefly at the instigation of Ephialtes, with-
drew the cognizance of almost all causes from the Areopagus ;
so that all jurisdiction now being transferred to them, the
government was reduced to a perfect democracy, and this
by the help of Pericles, who was already powerful, and had
pronounced in favor of the common people. Cimon, whea



104 PL VTARCH ' 8 LIVES.

he returned, seeing the authority of this great council 36
upset, was exceedingly troubled, and endeavored to remedy
these disorders by bringing the courts of law to their former
state, and restoring the old aristocracy of the time of Clis-
thenes. This the others declaimed against with all the
vehemence possible, and began to revive those stories con-
cerning him and his sister, and cried out against him as the
partisan of the Lacedaemonians. To these calumnies the
famous verses of Eupolis the poet upon Cimon refer :

He was as good as others that one sees,
But he was fond of drinking and of ease ;
And would at nights to Sparta often roam,
Leaving his sister desolate at home.

But if, though slothful and a drunkard, he could capture
so many towns and gain so many victories, certainly if he
had been sober and minded his business, there had been no
Grecian commander, either before or after him, that could
have surpassed him for exploits of war.

He was, indeed, a favorer of the Lacedaemonians, even
from his youth, and he gave the names of Lacedasmonius
and Eleus to two sons, twins, whom he had, as Stesimbro-
tus says, by a woman of Clitorium, whence Pericles often
upbraided them with their mother's blood. But Diodorus
the geographer asserts that both these, and another son of
Cimon's, whose name was Thessalus, were born of Isodice,
the daughter of Euryptolemus, the son of Megacles.

However, this is certain, that Cimon was countenanced
by the Lacedaemonians in opposition to Themistocles, whom
they disliked ; and while he was yet very young, they en-
deavored to raise and increase his credit in Athens. This
the Athenians perceived at first with pleasure, and the
favor the Lacedaemonians showed him was in various
ways advantageous to them and their affairs ; as at that
time they were just rising to power, and were occupied in
winning the allies to their side. So they seemed not at all
offended with the honor and kindness shown to Cimon,



> VIMON. 105

Who then had the chief management of all the affairs of
Greece, and was acceptable to the Lacedaemonians, and
courteous to the allies. But afterwards the Athenians,
grown more powerful, when they saw Cimon so entirely
devoted to the Lacedaemonians, began to be angry, for he
would always in his speeches prefer them to the Athenians,
and upon every occasion, when he would reprimand them
for a fault, or incite them to emulation, he would ex-
claim, "The Lacedaemonians would not do thus." This
raised the discontent, and got him in some degree the
hatred of the citizens ; but that which ministered chiefly
to the accusation against him fell out upon the following
occasion.

In the fourth year of the reign of Archidamus, the son of
Zeuxidamus, king of Sparta, there happened in the country
of Lacedsemon the greatest earthquake that was known in
the memory of man ; the earth opened into chasms, and the
mountain Taygetus was so shaken, that some of the rocky
points of it fell down, and except five houses, all the town
of Sparta was shattered to pieces. They say that a little
before any motion was perceived, as the young men and the
boys just grown up were exercising themselves together in
the middle of the portico, a hare, of a sudden, started out
just by them, which the young men, though all naked and
daubed with oil, ran after for sport. No sooner were they
gone from the place, than the gymnasium fell down upon
the boys who had stayed behind, and killed them all. Their
tomb is to this day called Sismatias. Archidamus, by the
present danger made apprehensive of what might follow,
and seeing the citizens intent upon removing the most
valuable of their goods out of their houses, commanded an
alarm to be sounded, as if an enemy were coming upon
them, in order that they should collect about him in a body,
with arms. It was this alone that saved Sparta at that
time, for the Helots were got together from the country
about, with design to surprise the Spartans, and overpowef



106 PLUTARCH'8 LIVES.

those whom the earthquake had spared. But finding then
armed and well prepared, they retired into the towns and
openly made war with them, gaining over a number of the
Laconians of the country districts ; while at the same time
the Messenians, also, made an attack upon the Spartans,
who therefore despatched Periclidas to Athens to solicit
succors, of whom Aristophanes says in mockery that he
came and

In a red jacket, at the altars seated,

With a white face, for men and arms entreated.

This Ephialtes opposed, protesting that they ought not
to raise up or assist a city that was a rival to Athens ; but
that being down, it were best to keep her so, and let the
pride and arrogance of Sparta be trodden under. But
Cimon, as Critias says, preferring the safety of Lacedaemon
to the aggrandizement of his own country, so persuaded
the people, that he soon marched out with a large army to
their relief. Ion records, also, the most successful expres-
sion which he used to move the Athenians. " They ought
not to suffer Greece to be lamed, nor their own city to be
deprived of her yoke-fellow."

In his return from aiding the Lacedaemonians, he passed
with his army through the territory of Corinth ; where-
upon Lachartus reproached him for bringing his army into
the country without first asking leave of the people. For
he that knocks at another man's door ought not to enter
the house till the master gives him leave. " But you Co-
rinthians, O Lachartus," said Cimon, " did not knock at the
gates of the Cleonseans and Megarians, but broke theni
down, and entered by force, thinking that all places should
be open to the stronger." And having thus rallied the Co-
rinthian, he passed on with his army. Some time after this,
the Lacedaemonians sent a second time to desire succors of
the Athenians against the Messenians and Helots, who had
seized upon Ithome. But when they came, fearing theii
boldness and gallantry, of all that came to their assistance



CIMON. 107

they sent them only back, alleging they were designing in.
novations. The Athenians returned home, enraged at this
usage, and vented their anger upon all those who were
favorers of the Lacedaemonians, and seizing some slight
occasion, they banished Cimon for ten years, which is the
time prescribed to those that are banished by the ostracism.
In the mean time, the Lacedaemonians, on their return after
freeing Delphi from the Phocians, encamped their army at
Tanagra, whither the Athenians presently marched with
design to fight them.

Cimon, also, came thither armed, and ranged himself
among those of his own tribe which was the GEneis, desir-
ous of fighting with the rest against the Spartans ; but
the council of five hundred being informed of this, and
frighted at it, his adversaries crying out he would dis-
order the army, and bring the Lacedaemonians to Athens,
commanded the officers not to receive him. Wherefore
Cimon left the army, conjuring Euthippus, the Anaphlys-
tian, and the rest of his companions, who were most sus-
pected as favoring the Lacedaemonians, to behave them-
selves bravely against their enemies, and by their actions
make their innocence evident to their countrymen. These,
being in all a hundred, took the arms of Cimon, and
followed his advice; and making a body by themselves,
fought so desperately with the enemy, that they were all
cut off, leaving the Athenians deep regret for the loss of
such brave men, and repentance for having so unjustly
suspected them. Accordingly, they did not long retain
their severity toward Cimon, partly upon remembrance of
his former services, and partly, perhaps, induced by the
juncture of the times. For being defeated at Tanagra in a
great battle, and fearing the Peloponnesians would come
upon them at the opening of the spring, they recalled
Cimon by a decree, of which Pericles himself was author.
So reasonable were men's resentments in those times, and
to moderate their anger, that it always gave way to the



108 PLUTARCH'S LIVES.

public good. Even ambition, the least governable of all
human passions, could then yield to the necessities of the
State.

Cimon, as soon as he returned, put an end to the war,
and reconciled the two cities. Peace thus established, see-
ing the Athenians impatient of being idle, and eager after
the honor and aggrandizement of war, lest they should set
upon the Greeks themselves, or with so many ships cruis-
ing about the isles and Peloponnesus, they should give
occasions to intestine wars, or complaints of their allies
against them, he equipped two hundred galleys, with
design to make an attempt upon Egypt and Cyprus ; pur-
posing, by this means, to accustom the Athenians to fight
against the barbarians, and enrich themselves honestly by
spoiling those who were the natural enemies to Greece.
But when all things were prepared, and the army ready to
embark, Cimon had this dream. It seemed to him that
there was a furious bitch barking at him, and mixed with
the barking a kind of human voice uttered these words :



Come on, for thou shalt shortly be,
A pleasure to my whelps and me.

This dream was hard to interpret, yet Astyphilus of Posi-
donia, a man skilled in divinations, and intimate with
Cimon, told him that his death was presaged by this vision,
which he thus explained. A dog is enemy to him he barks
at ; and one is always most a pleasure to one's enemies,
when one is dead ; the mixture of human voice with bark-
ing signifies the Medes, for the army of the Medes is mixed
up of Greeks and barbarians. After this dream, as he was
sacrificing to Bacchus, and the priest cutting up the victim,
a number of ants, taking up the congealed particles of the
blood, laid them about Cimon's great toe. This was not ob-
served for a good while, but at the very time when Cimon
spied it, the priest came and showed him the liver of the sac-
rifice imperfect, wanting that part of it called the head,



CIMON. 109

But he could not then recede from the enterprise, so he set
sail. Sixty of his ships he sent towards Egypt ; with the
rest he went and fought the king of Persia's fleet, composed
of Phoenician and Cilician galleys, recovered all the cities
thereabout, and threatened Egypt ; designing no less than
the entire ruin of the Persian empire. And the rather,
for that he was informed Themistocles was in great repute
among the barbarians, having promised the king to lead
his army, whenever he should make war upon Greece.
But Themistocles, it is said, abandoning all hopes of com-
passing his designs, very much out of the despair of over-
coming the valor and good fortune of Cirnon, died a volun-
tary death. Cimon, intent on great designs, which he was
now to enter upon, keeping his navy about the isle of
Cyprus, sent messengers to consult the oracle of Jupiter



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